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Notes on current labor statistics.

This section of the Review presents the principal statistical series collected and calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics: series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer, producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury and illness statistics. In the notes that follow, the data in each group of tables are briefly described; key definitions are given; notes on the data are set forth; and sources of additional information are cited.

General notes

The following notes apply to several tables in this section:

Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production schedules, opening and closing of schools, holiday buying periods, and vacation practices, which might prevent short-term evaluation of the statistical series. Tables containing data that have been adjusted are identified as "seasonally adjusted." (All other data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are estimated on the basis of current and past experiences. When new seasonal factors are computed each year, revisions may affect seasonally adjusted data for several preceding years.

Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables 1-14, 17-21, 48, and 52. Seasonally adjusted labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 were revised in the February 2005 issue of the Review. Seasonally adjusted establishment survey data shown in tables 1, 12-14, and 17 were revised in the March 2005 Review. A brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment methodology appears in "Notes on the data."

Revisions in the productivity data in table 54 are usually introduced in the September issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and percent changes from month-to-month and quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes are not published for the U.S. average All-Items CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent changes are available for this series.

Adjustments for price changes. Some data--such as the "real" earnings shown in table 14--are adjusted to eliminate the effect of changes in price. These adjustments are made by dividing current-dollar values by the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate component of the index, then multiplying by 100. For example, given a current hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price index number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2 ($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other resulting values) are described as "real," "constant," or "1982" dollars.

Sources of information

Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety of sources. Definitions of each series and notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of data. For detailed descriptions of each data series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin 2490. Users also may wish to consult Major Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report 919. News releases provide the latest statistical information published by the Bureau; the major recurring releases are published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.

More information about labor force, employment, and unemployment data and the household and establishment surveys underlying the data are available in the Bureau's monthly publication, Employment and Earnings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the household survey are available on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/cps/

Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment survey also are available on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/ces/

Additional information on labor force data for areas below the national level are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment.

For a comprehensive discussion of the Employment Cost Index, see Employment Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975-95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins: Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments; and Employee Benefits in State and Local Governments.

More detailed data on consumer and producer prices are published in the monthly periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of the 1998 revision of the CPI, see the December 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices appear in monthly news releases.

Listings of industries for which productivity indexes are available may be found on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/lpc/

For additional information on international comparisons data, see International Comparisons of Unemployment, Bulletin 1979.

Detailed data on the occupational injury and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.

Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries analytical articles on annual and longer term developments in labor force, employment, and unemployment; employee compensation and collective bargaining; prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury and illness data.

Symbols

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.

p = preliminary. To increase the timeliness of some series, preliminary figures are issued based on representative but incomplete returns.

r = revised. Generally, this revision reflects the availability of later data, but also may reflect other adjustments.

Comparative Indicators

(Tables 1-3)

Comparative indicators tables provide an overview and comparison of major BLS statistical series. Consequently, although many of the included series are available monthly, all measures in these comparative tables are presented quarterly and annually.

Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys and information on rates of change in compensation provided by the Employment Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force participation rate, the employment-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major demographic groups based on the Current Population ("household") Survey are presented, while measures of employment and average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll data. The Employment Cost Index (compensation), by major sector and by bargaining status, is chosen from a variety of BLS compensation and wage measures because it provides a comprehensive measure of employer costs for hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and it is not affected by employment shifts among occupations and industries.

Data on changes in compensation, prices, and productivity are presented in table 2. Measures of rates of change of compensation and wages from the Employment Cost Index program are provided for all civilian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal and household workers) and for all private nonfarm workers. Measures of changes in consumer prices for all urban consumers; producer prices by stage of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price indexes are given. Measures of productivity (output per hour of all persons) are provided for major sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and compensation rates of change, which reflect the overall trend in labor costs, are summarized in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope, related to the specific purposes of the series, contribute to the variation in changes among the individual measures.

Notes on the data

Definitions of each series and notes on the data are contained in later sections of these notes describing each set of data.

Employment and Unemployment Data

(Tables 1; 4-29)

Household survey data

Description of the series

Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey, a program of personal interviews conducted monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample consists of about 60,000 households selected to represent the U.S. population 16 years of age and older. Households are interviewed on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive months.

Definitions

Employed persons include (1) all those who worked for pay any time during the week which includes the 12th day of the month or who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in a family-operated enterprise and (2) those who were temporarily absent from their regular jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial dispute, or similar reasons. A person working at more than one job is counted only in the job at which he or she worked the greatest number of hours.

Unemployed persons are those who did not work during the survey week, but were available for work except for temporary illness and had looked for jobs within the preceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look for work because they were on layoff are also counted among the unemployed. The unemployment rate represents the number unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.

The civilian labor force consists of all employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons not in the labor force are those not classified as employed or unemployed. This group includes discouraged workers, defined as persons who want and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months), but are not currently looking, because they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises all persons 16 years of age and older who are not inmates of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums, or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The civilian labor force participation rate is the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population that is in the labor force. The employment-population ratio is employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

Notes on the data

From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the Current Population Survey figures to correct for estimating errors during the intercensal years. These adjustments affect the comparability of historical data. A description of these adjustments and their effect on the various data series appears in the Explanatory Notes of Employment and Earnings. For a discussion of changes introduced in January 2003, see "Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003" in the February 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/eps/ rvcps03.pdf).

Effective in January 2003, BLS began using the X-12 ARIMA seasonal adjustment program to seasonally adjust national labor force data. This program replaced the X-II ARIMA program which had been used since January 1980. See "Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Labor Force Series in 2003," in the February 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/eps/epsrs.pdf) for a discussion of the introduction of the use of X-12 ARIMA for seasonal adjustment of the labor force data and the effects that it had on the data.

At the beginning of each calendar year, historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during the January-June period. The historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised for only the most recent 5 years. In July, new seasonal adjustment factors, which incorporate the experience through June, are produced for the July-December period, but no revisions are made in the historical data.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on national household survey data, contact the Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202) 691-6378.

Establishment survey data

Description of the series

Employment, hours, and earnings data in this section are compiled from payroll records reported monthly on a voluntary basis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating State agencies by about 160,000 businesses and government agencies, which represent approximately 400,000 individual worksites and represent all industries except agriculture. The active CES sample covers approximately one-third of all nonfarm payroll workers. Industries are classified in accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System. In most industries, the sampling probabilities are based on the size of the establishment; most large establishments are therefore in the sample. (An establishment is not necessarily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for example, or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and others not on a regular civilian payroll are outside the scope of the survey because they are excluded from establishment records. This largely accounts for the difference in employment figures between the household and establishment surveys.

Definitions

An establishment is an economic unit which produces goods or services (such as a factory or store) at a single location and is engaged in one type of economic activity.

Employed persons are all persons who received pay (including holiday and sick pay) for any part of the payroll period including the 12th day of the month. Persons holding more than one job (about 5 percent of all persons in the labor force) are counted in each establishment which reports them.

Production workers in the goods-producing industries cover employees, up through the level of working supervisors, who engage directly in the manufacture or construction of the establishment's product. In private service-providing industries, data are collected for nonsupervisory workers, which include most employees except those in executive, managerial, and supervisory positions. Those workers mentioned in tables 11-16 include production workers in manufacturing and natural resources and mining; construction workers in construction; and nonsupervisory workers in all private service-providing industries. Production and nonsupervisory workers account for about four-fifths of the total employment on private nonagricultural payrolls.

Earnings are the payments production or nonsupervisory workers receive during the survey period, including premium pay for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special payments. Real earnings are earnings adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in consumer prices. The deflator for this series is derived from the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W).

Hours represent the average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers for which pay was received, and are different from standard or scheduled hours. Overtime hours represent the portion of average weekly hours which was in excess of regular hours and for which overtime premiums were paid.

The Diffusion Index represents the percent of industries in which employment was rising over the indicated period, plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment; 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment. In line with Bureau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month spans are seasonally adjusted, while those for the 12-month span are unadjusted. Table 17 provides an index on private nonfarm employment based on 278 industries, and a manufacturing index based on 84 industries. These indexes are useful for measuring the dispersion of economic gains or losses and are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data

Establishment survey data are annually adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called "benchmarks"). The March 2003 benchmark was introduced in February 2004 with the release of data for January 2004, published in the March 2004 issue of the Review. With the release in June 2003, CES completed a conversion from the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and completed the transition from its original quota sample design to a probability-based sample design. The industry-coding update included reconstruction of historical estimates in order to preserve time series for data users. Normally 5 years of seasonally adjusted data are revised with each benchmark revision. However, with this release, the entire new time series history for all CES data series were re-seasonally adjusted due to the NAICS conversion, which resulted in the revision of all CES time series.

Also in June 2003, the CES program introduced concurrent seasonal adjustment for the national establishment data. Under this methodology, the first preliminary estimates for the current reference month and the revised estimates for the 2 prior months will be updated with concurrent factors with each new release of data. Concurrent seasonal adjustment incorporates all available data, including first preliminary estimates for the most current month, in the adjustment process. For additional information on all of the changes introduced in June 2003, see the June 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings and "Recent changes in the national Current Employment Statistics survey," Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 3-13.

Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 2003 data. For information on the revisions for the State data, see the March and May 2003 issues of Employment and Earnings, and "Recent changes in the State and Metropolitan Area CES survey," Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 14-19.

Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses the X-12-ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This procedure, developed by the Bureau of the Census, controls for the effect of varying survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus 5-week effect), thereby providing improved measurement of over-the-month changes and underlying economic trends. Revisions of data, usually for the most recent 5-year period, are made once a year coincident with the benchmark revisions.

In the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12-17 in the Review). When all returns have been received, the estimates are revised and published as "final" (prior to any benchmark revisions) in the third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March. For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the first 2 months of publication and final in the third month. Fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on establishment survey data, contact the Division of Current Employment Statistics: (202) 691-6555.

Unemployment data by State

Description of the series

Data presented in this section are obtained from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in cooperation with State employment security agencies.

Monthly estimates of the labor force, employment, and unemployment for States and sub-State areas are a key indicator of local economic conditions, and form the basis for determining the eligibility of an area for benefits under Federal economic assistance programs such as the Job Training Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying these data are those used in the national estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data

Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are revised to new population controls, usually with publication of January estimates, and benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on data in this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10) or (202) 691-6559 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages

Description of the series

Employment, wage, and establishment data in this section are derived from the quarterly tax reports submitted to State employment security agencies by private and State and local government employers subject to State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and from Federal, agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program. Each quarter, State agencies edit and process the data and send the information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data, also referred as ES-202 data, are the most complete enumeration of employment and wage information by industry at the national, State, metropolitan area, and county levels. They have broad economic significance in evaluating labor market trends and major industry developments.

Definitions

in general, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages monthly employment data represent the number of covered workers who worked during, or received pay for, the pay period that included the 12th day of the month. Covered private industry employment includes most corporate officials, executives, supervisory personnel, professionals, clerical workers, wage earners, piece workers, and part-time workers. It excludes proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family members, and certain farm and domestic workers. Certain types of nonprofit employers, such as religious organizations, are given a choice of coverage or exclusion in a number of States. Workers in these organizations are, therefore, reported to a limited degree.

Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday, paid vacation, and the like, are included. Persons on the payroll of more than one firm during the period are counted by each UI-subject employer if they meet the employment definition noted earlier. The employment count excludes workers who earned no wages during the entire applicable pay period because of work stoppages, temporary layoffs, illness, or unpaid vacations.

Federal employment data are based on reports of monthly employment and quarterly wages submitted each quarter to State agencies for all Federal installations with employees covered by the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program, except for certain national security agencies, which are omitted for security reasons. Employment for all Federal agencies for any given month is based on the number of persons who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th of the month.

An establishment is an economic unit, such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that produces goods or provides services. It is typically at a single physical location and engaged in one, or predominantly one, type of economic activity for which a single industrial classification may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses two or more distinct and significant activities. Each activity should be reported as a separate establishment if separate records are kept and the various activities are classified under different NAICS industries.

Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the establishment is the predominant reporting unit or statistical entity for reporting employment and wages data. Most employers, including State and local governments who operate more than one establishment in a State, file a Multiple Worksite Report each quarter, in addition to their quarterly UI report. The Multiple Worksite Report is used to collect separate employment and wage data for each of the employer's establishments, which are not detailed on the UI report. Some very small multi-establishment employers do not file a Multiple Worksite Report. When the total employment in an employer's secondary establishments (all establishments other than the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer generally will file a consolidated report for all establishments. Also, some employers either cannot or will not report at the establishment level and thus aggregate establishments into one consolidated unit, or possibly several units, though not at the establishment level.

For the Federal Government, the reporting unit is the installation: a single location at which a department, agency, or other government body has civilian employees. Federal agencies follow slightly different criteria than do private employers when breaking down their reports by installation. They are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit: 1) all installations with 10 or fewer workers, and 2) all installations that have a combined total in the State of fewer than 50 workers. Also, when there are fewer than 25 workers in all secondary installations in a State, the secondary installations may be combined and reported with the major installation. Last, if a Federal agency has fewer than five employees in a State, the agency headquarters office (regional office, district office) serving each State may consolidate the employment and wages data for that State with the data reported to the State in which the headquarters is located. As a result of these reporting rules, the number of reporting units is always larger than the number of employers (or government agencies) but smaller than the number of actual establishments (or installations).

Data reported for the first quarter are tabulated into size categories ranging from worksites of very small size to those with 1,000 employees or more. The size category is determined by the establishment's March employment level. It is important to note that each establishment of a multi-establishment firm is tabulated separately into the appropriate size category. The total employment level of the reporting multi-establishment firm is not used in the size tabulation.

Covered employers in most States report total wages paid during the calendar quarter, regardless of when the services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify that wages be reported for, or based on the period during which services are performed rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State laws or regulations, wages include bonuses, stock options, the cash value of meals and lodging, tips and other gratuities, and, in some States, employer contributions to certain deferred compensation plans such as 401(k) plans.

Covered employer contributions for old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI), health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, and private pension and welfare funds are not reported as wages. Employee contributions for the same purposes, however, as well as money withheld for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are reported even though they are deducted from the worker's gross pay.

Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross amount of all payrolls for all pay periods ending within the quarter. This includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent of any type of remuneration, severance pay, withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal employee remuneration generally covers the same types of services as for workers in private industry.

Average annual wage per employee for any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual average employment. A further division by 52 yields average weekly wages per employee. Annual pay data only approximate annual earnings because an individual may not be employed by the same employer all year or may work for more than one employer at a time.

Average weekly or annual wage is affected by the ratio of full-time to part-time workers as well as the number of individuals in high-paying and low-paying occupations. When average pay levels between States and industries are compared, these factors should be taken into consideration. For example, industries characterized by high proportions of part-time workers will show average wage levels appreciably less than the weekly pay levels of regular fulltime employees in these industries. The opposite effect characterizes industries with low proportions of part-time workers, or industries that typically schedule heavy weekend and overtime work. Average wage data also may be influenced by work stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments, and so on.

Notes on the data

Beginning with the release of data for 2001, publications presenting data from the Covered Employment and Wages program have switched to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and tabulation of economic data by industry. NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the statistical agencies of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Due to difference in NAICS and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) structures, industry data for 2001 is not comparable to the sic-based data for earlier years.

Effective January 2001, the program began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments to local government ownership. This BLS action was in response to a change in Federal law dealing with the way Indian Tribes are treated under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. This law requires federally recognized Indian Tribes to be treated similarly to State and local governments. In the past, the Covered Employment and Wage (CEW) program coded Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments in the private sector. As a result of the new law, CEW data reflects significant shifts in employment and wages between the private sector and local government from 2000 to 200l. Data also reflect industry changes. Those accounts previously assigned to civic and social organizations were assigned to tribal governments. There were no required industry changes for related establishments owned by these Tribal Councils. These tribal business establishments continued to be coded according to the economic activity of that entity.

To insure the highest possible quality of data, State employment security agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification process are introduced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year. Changes resulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first quarter. For these reasons, some data, especially at more detailed geographic levels, may not be strictly comparable with earlier years.

County definitions are assigned according to Federal Information Processing Standards Publications as issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas shown as counties include those designated as independent cities in some jurisdictions and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the Census Bureau where counties have not been created. County data also are presented for the New England States for comparative purposes, even though townships are the more common designation used in New England (and New Jersey).

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan areas for use in Federal statistical activities and updates these definitions as needed. Data in this table use metropolitan area criteria established by OMB in definitions issued June 30, 1999 (OMB Bulletin No. 99-04). These definitions reflect information obtained from the 1990 Decennial Census and the 1998 U.S. Census Bureau population estimate. A complete list of metropolitan area definitions is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Document Sales, 5205 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, telephone 1-800-553-6847.

OMB defines metropolitan areas in terms of entire counties, except in the six New England States where they are defined in terms of cities and towns. New England data in this table, however, are based on a county concept defined by OMB as New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) because county-level data are the most detailed available from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The NECMA is a county-based alternative to the city- and town-based metropolitan areas in New England. The NECMA for a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) include: (1) the county containing the first-named city in that MSA title (this county may include the first-named cities of other MSA, and (2) each additional county having at least half its population in the MSA in which first-named cities are in the county identified in step 1. The NECMA is officially defined areas that are meant to be used by statistical programs that cannot use the regular metropolitan area definitions in New England.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the covered employment and wage data, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202) 691-6567.

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

Description of the series

Data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are collected and compiled from a sample of 16,000 business establishments. Each month, data are collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as Federal, State, and local government entities in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. The JOLTS sample design is a random sample drawn from a universe of more than eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program. This program includes all employers subject to State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and Federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and size class. Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty. JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data elements. Rates then are computed from the adjusted levels.

The monthly JOLTS data series begin with December 2000. Not seasonally adjusted data on job openings, hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations levels and rates are available for the total nonfarm sector, 16 private industry divisions and 2 government divisions based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and four geographic regions. Seasonally adjusted data on job openings, hires, total separations, and quits levels and rates are available for the total nonfarm sector, selected industry sectors, and four geographic regions.

Definitions

Establishments submit job openings information for the last business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that (1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that position; and (2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found; and (3) the employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position. Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings, and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including both new and rehired employees and full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations are the total number of terminations of employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are voluntary separations by employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other separations). Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and terminations of seasonal employees. Other separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. Separations do not include transfers within the same location or employees on strike.

The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

Notes on the data

The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are relatively new. The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel enrolled each month. A full complement of panels for the original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (sic) system was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002. The supplemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely enrolled until May 2003. The data collected up until those points are from less than a full sample. Therefore, estimates from earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were reporting data at that time.

In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data were revised to address possible underreporting. As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be comparable with estimates for March 2002 and later.

The Federal Government reorganization that involved transferring approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the Federal Government. The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March 2003. The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers between establishments. The Department of Homeland Security reorganization was a massive onetime event, and the inclusion of these intergovernmental transfers would distort the Federal Government time series.

Data users should note that seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary. The historical data, therefore, may be subject to larger than normal revisions. Because the seasonal patterns in economic data series typically emerge over time, the standard use of moving averages as seasonal filters to capture these effects requires longer series than are currently available. As a result, the stable seasonal filter option is used in the seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS data. When calculating seasonal factors, this filter takes an average for each calendar month after detrending the series. The stable seasonal filter assumes that the seasonal factors are fixed; a necessary assumption until sufficient data are available. When the stable seasonal filter is no longer needed, other program features also may be introduced, such as outlier adjustment and extended diagnostic testing. Additionally, it is expected that more series, such as layoffs and discharges and additional industries, may be seasonally adjusted when more data are available.

JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net changes in payroll employment. Some reasons why it is problematic to compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, especially on a monthly basis, are: (1) the reference period for payroll employment is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period for hires and separations is the calendar month; and (2) payroll employment can vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Additionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature of their payroll systems and practices. The shortfall appears to be about 2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202) 961-5870.

Compensation and Wage Data

(Tables 1-3; 30-36)

Compensation and waged data are gathered by the Bureau from business establishments, State and local governments, labor unions, collective bargaining agreements on file with the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index

Description of the series

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a quarterly measure of the rate of change in compensation per hour worked and includes wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It uses a fixed market basket of labor--similar in concept to the Consumer Price Index's fixed market basket of goods and services--to measure change over time in employer costs of employing labor.

Statistical series on total compensation costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit costs are available for private nonfarm workers excluding proprietors, the self-employed, and household workers. The total compensation costs and wages and salaries series are also available for State and local government workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy, which consists of private industry and State and local government workers combined. Federal workers are excluded.

The Employment Cost Index probability sample consists of about 4,400 private nonfarm establishments providing about 23,000 occupational observations and 1,000 State and local government establishments providing 6,000 occupational observations selected to represent total employment in each sector. On average, each reporting unit provides wage and compensation information on five well-specified occupations. Data are collected each quarter for the pay period including the 12th day of March, June, September, and December.

Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed employment weights from the 1980 Census of Population are used each quarter to calculate the civilian and private indexes and the index for State and local governments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment weights are from the 1970 Census of Population.) These fixed weights, also used to derive all of the industry and occupation series indexes, ensure that changes in these indexes reflect only changes in compensation, not employment shifts among industries or occupations with different levels of wages and compensation. For the bargaining status, region, and metropolitan/non-metropolitan area series, however, employment data by industry and occupation are not available from the census. Instead, the 1980 employment weights are reallocated within these series each quarter based on the current sample. Therefore, these indexes are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions

Total compensation costs include wages, salaries, and the employer's costs for employee benefits.

Wages and salaries consist of earnings before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.

Benefits include the cost to employers for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retirement and savings plans, and legally required benefits (such as Social Security, workers' compensation, and unemployment insurance).

Excluded from wages and salaries and employee benefits are such items as payment-in-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data

The Employment Cost Index for changes in wages and salaries in the private nonfarm economy was published beginning in 1975. Changes in total compensation cost--wages and salaries and benefits combined--were published beginning in 1980. The series of changes in wages and salaries and for total compensation in the State and local government sector and in the civilian nonfarm economy (excluding Federal employees) were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (June 1981=100) are available on the Internet: www.bls.gov/ect/

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Employment Cost Index, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202) 691-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey

Description of the series

Employee benefits data are obtained from the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual survey of the incidence and provisions of selected benefits provided by employers. The survey collects data from a sample of approximately 9,000 private sector and State and local government establishments. The data are presented as a percentage of employees who participate in a certain benefit, or as an average benefit provision (for example, the average number of paid holidays provided to employees per year). Selected data from the survey are presented in table 34 for medium and large private establishments and in table 35 for small private establishments and State and local government.

The survey covers paid leave benefits such as holidays and vacations, and personal, funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick leave; short-term disability, long-term disability, and life insurance; medical, dental, and vision care plans; defined benefit and defined contribution plans; flexible benefits plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid family leave.

Also, data are tabulated on the incidence of several other benefits, such as severance pay, child-care assistance, wellness programs, and employee assistance programs.

Definitions

Employer-provided benefits are benefits that are financed either wholly or partly by the employer. They may be sponsored by a union or other third party, as long as there is some employer financing. However, some benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, long-term care insurance and postretirement life insurance paid entirely by the employee are included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium rates are considered a benefit.

Participants are workers who are covered by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit. If the benefit plan is financed wholly by employers and requires employees to complete a minimum length of service for eligibility, the workers are considered participants whether or not they have met the requirement. If workers are required to contribute towards the cost of a plan, they are considered participants only if they elect the plan and agree to make the required contributions.

Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to provide those benefits. Benefits are generally based on salary, years of service, or both.

Defined contribution plans generally specify the level of employer and employee contributions to a plan, but not the formula for determining eventual benefits. Instead, individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts credited to these accounts.

Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer income taxes until withdrawal.

Flexible benefit plans allow employees to choose among several benefits, such as life insurance, medical care, and vacation days, and among several levels of coverage within a given benefit.

Notes on the data

Surveys of employees in medium and large establishments conducted over the 1979-86 period included establishments that employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers, depending on the industry (most service industries were excluded). The survey conducted in 1987 covered only State and local governments with 50 or more employees. The surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 included medium and large establishments with 100 workers or more in private industries. All surveys conducted over the 1979-89 period excluded establishments in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time employees.

Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and local governments and small private establishments were conducted in even-numbered years, and surveys of medium and large establishments were conducted in odd-numbered years. The small establishment survey includes all private nonfarm establishments with fewer than 100 workers, while the State and local government survey includes all governments, regardless of the number of workers. All three surveys include full- and part-time workers, and workers in all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends on the Internet: www.bls.gov/ebs/

Work stoppages

Description of the series

Data on work stoppages measure the number and duration of major strikes or lockouts (involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring during the month (or year), the number of workers involved, and the amount of work time lost because of stoppage. These data are presented in table 36.

Data are largely from a variety of published sources and cover only establishments directly involved in a stoppage. They do not measure the indirect or secondary effect of stoppages on other establishments whose employees are idle owing to material shortages or lack of service.

Definitions

Number of stoppages: The number of strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.

Workers involved: The number of workers directly involved in the stoppage.

Number of days idle: The aggregate number of workdays lost by workers involved in the stoppages.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a percent of the aggregate number of standard workdays in the period multiplied by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data

This series is not comparable with the one terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on work stoppages data, contact the Office of Compensation and Working Conditions: (202) 691-6282, or the Internet: www.bls.gov/cba/

Price Data

(Tables 2; 37-47)

Price data are gathered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price indexes are given in relation to a base period--December 2003 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted), 1982-84 = 100 for many Consumer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990 = 100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes

Description of the series

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change in the prices paid by urban consumers for a fixed market basket of goods and services. The CPI is calculated monthly for two population groups, one consisting only of urban households whose primary source of income is derived from the employment of wage earners and clerical workers, and the other consisting of all urban households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is a continuation of the historic index that was introduced well over a half-century ago for use in wage negotiations. As new uses were developed for the CPI in recent years, the need for a broader and more representative index became apparent. The all-urban consumer index (CPI-u), introduced in 1978, is representative of the 1993-95 buying habits of about 87 percent of the noninstitutional population of the United States at that time, compared with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W. In addition to wage earners and clerical workers, the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and technical workers, the self-employed, short-term workers, the unemployed, retirees, and others not in the labor force.

The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares, doctors' and dentists' fees, and other goods and services that people buy for day-to-day living. The quantity and quality of these items are kept essentially unchanged between major revisions so that only price changes will be measured. All taxes directly associated with the purchase and use of items are included in the index.

Data collected from more than 23,000 retail establishments and 5,800 housing units in 87 urban areas across the country are used to develop the "U.S. city average." Separate estimates for 14 major urban centers are presented in table 38. The areas listed are as indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area indexes measure only the average change in prices for each area since the base period, and do not indicate differences in the level of prices among cities.

Notes on the data

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the way in which homeownership costs are meaured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence method replaced the asset-price approach to homeownership costs for that series. In January 1985, the same change was made in the CPI-W. The central purpose of the change was to separate shelter costs from the investment component of homeownership so that the index would reflect only the cost of shelter services provided by owner-occupied homes. An updated CPI-U and CPI-W were introduced with release of the January 1987 and January 1998 data.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Prices and Price Indexes: (202) 691-7000.

Producer Price Indexes

Description of the series

Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic producers of commodities in all stages of processing. The sample used for calculating these indexes currently contains about 3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quotations per month, selected to represent the movement of prices of all commodities produced in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity and public utilities sectors. The stage-of-processing structure of PPI organizes products by class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that is, finished goods, intermediate goods, and crude materials). The traditional commodity structure of PPI organizes products by similarity of end use or material composition. The industry and product structure of eel organizes data in accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System and product codes developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.

To the extent possible, prices used in calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to the first significant commercial transaction in the United States from the production or central marketing point. Price data are generally collected monthly, primarily by mail questionnaire. Most prices are obtained directly from producing companies on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices generally are reported for the Tuesday of the week containing the 13th day of the month.

Since January 1992, price changes for the various commodities have been averaged together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net selling value of all commodities as of 1987. The detailed data are aggregated to obtain indexes for stage-of-processing groupings, commodity groupings, durability-of-product groupings, and a number of special composite groups. All Producer Price Index data are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Industrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202) 691-7705.

International Price Indexes

Description of the series

The International Price Program produces monthly and quarterly export and import price indexes for nonmilitary goods and services traded between the United States and the rest of the world. The export price index provides a measure of price change for all products sold by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. ("Residents" is defined as in the national income accounts; it includes corporations, businesses, and individuals, but does not require the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import price index provides a measure of price change for goods purchased from other countries by U.S. residents.

The product universe for both the import and export indexes includes raw materials, agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price data for these items are collected primarily by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases, prices are obtained from other sources.

To the extent possible, the data gathered refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports and at either the foreign border or the U.S. border for imports. For nearly all products, the prices refer to transactions completed during the first week of the month. Survey respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported prices, so that the price used in the calculation of the indexes is the actual price for which the product was bought or sold.

In addition to general indexes of prices for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also published for detailed product categories of exports and imports. These categories are defined according to the five-digit level of detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis End-use Classification, the three-digit level for the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), and the four-digit level of detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate import indexes by country or region of origin are also available.

BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services, calculated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data

The export and import price indexes are weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The trade weights currently used to compute both indexes relate to 2000.

Because a price index depends on the same items being priced from period to period, it is necessary to recognize when a product's specifications or terms of transaction have been modified. For this reason, the Bureau's questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the physical and functional characteristics of the products being priced, as well as information on the number of units bought or sold, discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are changes in either the specifications or terms of transaction of a product, the dollar value of each change is deleted from the total price change to obtain the "pure" change. Once this value is determined, a linking procedure is employed which allows for the continued repricing of the item.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of International Prices: (202) 691-7155.

Productivity Data

(Tables 2; 48-51)

Business and major sectors

Description of the series

The productivity measures relate real output to real input. As such, they encompass a family of measures which include single-factor input measures, such as output per hour, output per unit of labor input, or output per unit of capital input, as well as measures of multifactor productivity (output per unit of combined labor and capital inputs). The Bureau indexes show the change in output relative to changes in the various inputs. The measures cover the business, nonfarm business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporate sectors.

Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions

Output per hour of all persons (labor productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per hour of labor input. Output per unit of capital services (capital productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per unit of capital services input. Multifactor productivity is the quantity of goods and services produced per combined inputs. For private business and private nonfarm business, inputs include labor and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs include labor, capital, energy, nonenergy materials, and purchased business services.

Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total compensation equals the wages and salaries of employees plus employers' contributions for social insurance and private benefit plans, plus an estimate of these payments for the self-employed (except for nonfinancial corporations in which there are no self-employed). Real compensation per hour is compensation per hour deflated by the change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers.

Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production of a unit of output and are derived by dividing compensation by output. Unit nonlabor payments include profits, depreciation, interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output. They are computed by subtracting compensation of all persons from current-dollar value of output and dividing by output.

Unit nonlabor costs contain all the components of unit nonlabor payments except unit profits.

Unit profits include corporate profits with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.

Hours of all persons are the total hours at work of payroll workers, self-employed persons, and unpaid family workers.

Labor inputs are hours of all persons adjusted for the effects of changes in the education and experience of the labor force.

Capital services are the flow of services from the capital stock used in production. It is developed from measures of the net stock of physical assets--equipment, structures, land, and inventories--weighted by rental prices for each type of asset.

Combined units of labor and capital inputs are derived by combining changes in labor and capital input with weights which represent each component's share of total cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy, materials, and purchased business services are similarly derived by combining changes in each input with weights that represent each input's share of total costs. The indexes for each input and for combined units are based on changing weights which are averages of the shares in the current and preceding year (the Tornquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data

Business sector output is an annually-weighted index constructed by excluding from real gross domestic product (GDP) the following outputs: general government, nonprofit institutions, paid employees of private households, and the rental value of owner-occupied dwellings. Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government enterprises. The measures are supplied by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral output are produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output indexes from the Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these annual output measures by the BLS. Compensation data are developed from data of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data are developed from data of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The productivity and associated cost measures in tables 48-51 describe the relationship between output in real terms and the labor and capital inputs involved in its production. They show the changes from period to period in the amount of goods and services produced per unit of input.

Although these measures relate output to hours and capital services, they do not measure the contributions of labor, capital, or any other specific factor of production. Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many influences, including changes in technology; shifts in the composition of the labor force; capital investment; level of output; changes in the utilization of capacity, energy, material, and research and development; the organization of production; managerial skill; and characteristics and efforts of the work force.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this productivity series, contact the Division of Productivity Research: (202) 691-5606.

Industry productivity measures

Description of the series

The BLS industry productivity indexes measure the relationship between output and inputs for selected industries and industry groups, and thus reflect trends in industry efficiency over time. Industry measures include labor productivity, multifactor productivity, compensation, and unit labor costs.

The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity measures for the major sectors because the industry measures are developed independently of the National Income and Product Accounts framework used for the major sector measures.

Definitions

Output per hour is derived by dividing an index of industry output by an index of labor input. For most industries, output indexes are derived from data on the value of industry output adjusted for price change. For the remaining industries, output indexes are derived from data on the physical quantity of production.

The labor input series is based on the hours of all workers or, in the case of some transportation industries, on the number of employees. For most industries, the series consists of the hours of all employees. For some trade and services industries, the series also includes the hours of partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.

Unit labor costs represent the labor compensation costs per unit of output produced, and are derived by dividing an index of labor compensation by an index of output. Labor compensation includes payroll as well as supplemental payments, including both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary programs.

Multifactor productivity is derived by dividing an index of industry output by an index of combined inputs consumed in producing that output. Combined inputs include capital, labor, and intermediate purchases. The measure of capital input represents the flow of services from the capital stock used in production. It is developed from measures of the net stock of physical assets--equipment, structures, land, and inventories. The measure of intermediate purchases is a combination of purchased materials, services, fuels, and electricity.

Notes on the data

The industry measures are compiled from data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, with additional data supplied by other government agencies, trade associations, and other sources.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 691-5618, or visit the Website at: www.bls.gov/lpc/home.htm

International Comparisons

(Tables 52-54)

Labor force and unemployment

Description of the series

Tables 52 and 53 present comparative measures of the labor force, employment, and unemployment approximating U.S. concepts for the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and six European countries. The labor force statistics published by other industrial countries are not, in most cases, comparable to U.S. concepts. Therefore, the Bureau adjusts the figures for selected countries, for all known major definitional differences, to the extent that data to prepare adjustments are available. Although precise comparability may not be achieved, these adjusted figures provide a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published by each country. For further information on adjustments and comparability issues, see Constance Sorrentino, "International unemployment rates: how comparable are they?" Monthly Labor Review, June 2000, pp. 3-20 (available on the BLS Web site at: www.bls.gov/opob/mlr/2000/06/ art1full.pdf).

Definitions

For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor force, employment, and unemployment, see the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data

The foreign country data are adjusted as closely as possible to U.S. concepts, with the exception of lower age limits and the treatment of layoffs. These adjustments include, but are not limited to: including older persons in the labor force by imposing no upper age limit, adding unemployed students to the unemployed, excluding the military and family workers working fewer than 15 hours from the employed, and excluding persons engaged in passive job search from the unemployed.

Data for the United States relate to the population 16 years of age and older. The U.S. concept of the working age population has no upper age limit. The adjusted to U.S. concepts statistics have been adapted, insofar as possible, to the age at which compulsory schooling ends in each country, and the Swedish statistics have been adjusted to include persons older than the Swedish upper age limit of 64 years. The adjusted statistics presented here relate to the population 16 years of age and older in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom; 15 years of age and older in Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. An exception to this rule is that the Canadian statistics are adjusted to cover the population 16 years of age and older, whereas the age at which compulsory schooling ends remains at 15 years. In the labor force participation rates and employment-population ratios, the denominator is the civilian noninstitutionalized working age population, except that the institutionalized working age population is included in Japan and Germany.

In the United States, the unemployed include persons who are not employed and who were actively seeking work during the reference period, as well as persons on layoff. Persons waiting to start a new job who were actively seeking work during the reference period are counted as unemployed under U.S. concepts; if they were not actively seeking work, they are not counted in the labor force. In some countries, persons on layoff are classified as employed due to their strong job attachment. No adjustment is made for the countries that classify those on layoff as employed. In the United States, as in Australia and Japan, passive job seekers are not in the labor force; job search must be active, such as placing or answering advertisements, contacting employers directly, or registering with an employment agency (simply reading ads is not enough to qualify as active search). Canada and the European countries classify passive jobseekers as unemployed. An adjustment is made to exclude them in Canada, but not in the European countries where the phenomenon is less prevalent. Persons waiting to start a new job are counted among the unemployed for all other countries, whether or not they were actively seeking work.

The figures for one or more recent years for France, Germany, and the Netherlands are calculated using adjustment factors based on labor force surveys for earlier years and are considered preliminary. The recent year measures for these countries are therefore subject to revision whenever more current labor force surveys become available.

There are breaks in series for the United States (1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003), Australia (2001), and Germany (1999).

For the United States, beginning in 1994, data are not strictly comparable for prior years because of the introduction of a major redesign of the labor force survey questionnaire and collection methodology. The redesign effect has been estimated to increase the overall unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage point. Other breaks noted relate to changes in population controls that had virtually no effect on unemployment rates.

For a description of all the changes in the U.S. labor force survey over time and their impact, see Historical Comparability in the "Household Data" section of the BLS publication Employment and Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/ eetech_methods.pdf).

For Australia, the 2001 break reflects the introduction in April 2001 of a redesigned labor force survey that allowed for a closer application of International Labor Office guidelines for the definitions of labor force statistics. The Australian Bureau of Statistics revised their data so there is no break in the employment series. However, the reclassification of persons who had not actively looked for work because they were waiting to begin a new job from "not in the labor force" to "unemployed" could only be incorporated for April 2001 forward. This reclassification diverges from the U.S. definition where persons waiting to start a new job but not actively seeking work are not counted in the labor force. The impact of the reclassification was an increase in the unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage point in 2001.

For Germany, the 1999 break reflects the incorporation of an improved method of data calculation and a change in coverage to persons living in private households only.

For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/fls/flslforc.pdf

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654 or flshelp@bls.gov

Manufacturing productivity and labor costs

Description of the series

Table 54 presents comparative indexes of manufacturing labor productivity (output per hour), output, total hours, compensation per hour, and unit labor costs for the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and nine European countries. These measures are trend comparisons--that is, series that measure changes over time--rather than level comparisons. BLS does not recommend using these series for level comparisons because of technical problems.

BLS constructs the comparative indexes from three basic aggregate measures--output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures refer to all employed persons (wage and salary earners plus self-employed persons and unpaid family workers) with the exception of Belgium and Taiwan, where only employees (wage and salary earners), are counted.

Definitions

Output, in general, refers to value added in manufacturing from the national accounts of each country. However, the output series for Japan prior to 1970 is an index of industrial production, and the national accounts measures for the United Kingdom are essentially identical to their indexes of industrial production.

The output measure for manufacturing in the United States is the chain-weighted index of real gross product originating (deflated value added), estimated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It is based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). For more information on the U.S. measure, see "Improved Estimates of Gross Product by Industry for 1947-98," Survey of Current Business, June 2000, pp. 24-38 and "Gross Domestic Product by Industry for 1947-86. New Estimates Based on the North American Industry Classification System," Survey of Current Business, December 2005, pp. 70-84. Most of the other economies now also use annual moving price weights, but earlier years were estimated using fixed price weights, with the weights typically updated every 5 or 10 years.

To preserve the comparability of the U.S. measures with those for other economies, BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States for these comparative measures. The gross product originating series differs from the manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its news releases on quarterly measures of U.S. productivity and costs (and that underlies the measures that appear in tables 48 and 50 in this section). The quarterly measures are on a "sectoral output" basis, rather than a value-added basis. Sectoral output is gross output less intrasector transactions.

Total labor hours refers to hours worked in all economies. The measures are developed from statistics of manufacturing employment and average hours. The series used for Australia, Canada, Denmark, France (from 1970 forward), Germany, Norway, and Sweden are official series published with the national accounts. For the United Kingdom from 1992, an official annual index of total manufacturing hours is used. Where official total hours series are not available, the measures are developed by BLS using employment figures published with the national accounts, or other comprehensive employment series, and estimates of annual hours worked.

Total compensation (labor cost) includes all payments in cash or in-kind made directly to employees plus employer expenditures for legally required insurance programs and contractual and private benefit plans. The measures are from the national accounts of each economy, except those for Belgium, which are developed by BLS using statistics on employment, average hours, and hourly compensation. For Australia, Canada, France, and Sweden, compensation is increased to account for other significant taxes on payroll or employment. For the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced between 1967 and 1991 to account for employment-related subsidies. Self-employed workers are included in the all-employed persons measures by assuming that their compensation is equal to the average for wage and salary employees.

Notes on the data

In general, the measures relate to total manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification. However, the measures for France include parts of mining as well.

The measures for recent years may be based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production indexes), employment, average hours, and hourly compensation until national accounts and other statistics used for the long-term measures become available.

Official published data for Australia are in fiscal years that begin on July 1. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has furnished calendar year data for recent years for output and hours. For earlier years and for compensation, data are BLS estimates using two-year moving averages of fiscal year data.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Occupational Injury and Illness Data

(Tables 55-56)

Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Description of the series

The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses collects data from employers about their workers' job-related nonfatal injuries and illnesses. The information that employers provide is based on records that they maintain under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated by other Federal safety and health laws, and Federal, State, and local government agencies are excluded from the survey.

The survey is a Federal-State cooperative program with an independent sample selected for each participating State. A stratified random sample with a Neyman allocation is selected to represent all private industries in the State. The survey is stratified by Standard Industrial Classification and size of employment.

Definitions

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses that involve one or more of the following: loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment other than first aid.

Occupational injury is any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that results from a work-related event or a single, instantaneous exposure in the work environment.

Occupational illness is an abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or disease which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.

Lost workday injuries and illnesses are cases that involve days away from work, or days of restricted work activity, or both.

Lost workdays include the number of workdays (consecutive or not) on which the employee was either away from work or at work in some restricted capacity, or both, because of art occupational injury or illness. BLS measures of the number and incidence rate of lost workdays were discontinued beginning with the 1993 survey. The number of days away from work or days of restricted work activity does not include the day of injury or onset of illness or any days on which the employee would not have worked, such as a Federal holiday, even though able to work.

Incidence rates are computed as the number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data

The definitions of occupational injuries and illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1986).

Estimates are made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable cases, lost workday cases, days away from work cases, and nonfatal cases without lost workdays. These data also are shown separately for injuries. Illness data are available for seven categories: occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physical agents (other than toxic materials), disorders associated with repeated trauma, and all other occupational illnesses.

The survey continues to measure the number of new work-related illness cases which are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during the year. Some conditions, for example, long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the workplace and are not adequately recognized and reported. These long-term latent illnesses are believed to be understated in the survey's illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming majority of the reported new illnesses are those which are easier to directly relate to workplace activity (for example, contact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).

Most of the estimates are in the form of incidence rates, defined as the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent fulltime workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee hours represent 100 employee years (2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the available measures is presented in the annual bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.

Comparable data for more than 40 States and territories are available from the BLS Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data on State and local government employees in addition to private industry data.

Mining and railroad data are furnished to BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are included in both the national and State data published annually.

With the 1992 survey, BUS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents resulting in days away from work. Included are some major characteristics of the injured and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender, race, and length of service, as well as the circumstances of their injuries and illnesses (nature of the disabling condition, part of body affected, event and exposure, and the source directly producing the condition). In general, these data are available nationwide for detailed industries and for individual States at more aggregated industry levels.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OR occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the Office of Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions at (202) 691-6180, or access the Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/

Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about the fatally injured workers and the fatal events. The program collects and cross checks fatality information from multiple sources, including death certificates, State and Federal workers' compensation reports, Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Mine Safety and Health Administration records, medical examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor vehicle fatality records, and follow-up questionnaires to employers.

In addition to private wage and salary workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program. To be included in the fatality census, the decedent must have been employed (that is working for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time of the event, engaged in a legal work activity, or present at the site of the incident as a requirement of his or her job.

Definition

A fatal work injury is any intentional or unintentional wound or damage to the body resulting in death from acute exposure to energy, such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy from a crash, or from the absence of such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific event or incident or series of events within a single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur during a person's commute to or from work are excluded from the census, as well as work-related illnesses, which can be difficult to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data

Twenty-eight data elements are collected, coded, and tabulated in the fatality program, including information about the fatally injured worker, the fatal incident, and the machinery or equipment involved. Summary worker demographic data and event characteristics are included in a national news release that is available about 8 months after the end of the reference year. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in 1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most States issue summary information at the time of the national news release.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health, and Working Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or the Internet at: www.bls.gov/iif/
1. Labor market indicators

          Selected indicators                  2004      2005

Employment data

Employment status of the civilian
  noninstitutional population household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force participation rate)            66.0      66.0
    Employment-population ratio                62.3      62.7
    Unemployment                                5.5       5.1
      Men                                       5.6       5.1
        16 to 24 years                         12.6      12.4
        25 years and older                      4.4       3.8
      Women                                     5.4       5.1
        16 to 24 years                         11.0      10.1
        25 years and older                      4.4       4.2
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data),
    in thousands: (1)
  Total                                     131,480   133,631
        Total private                       109,862   111,836
    Goods-producing                          21,884    22,141
      Manufacturing                          14,329    14,279
    Service-Providing                       109,596   111,490

  Average hours:
    Total private                              33.7      33.8
      Manufacturing                            40.8      40.7
        Overtime                                4.6       4.5

        Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
      household and Federal workers)            3.7       3.1
    Private industry workers                    3.8       3.0
      Goods-producing                           4.7       3.3
      Service-providing                         3.3       2.8
    State and local government workers          3.5       4.1
Workers by bargaining status
    (private industry):
  Union                                         5.6       2.8
  Nonunion                                      3.4       3.0

                                              2003           2004
          Selected indicators
                                               IV         I        II
Employment data

Employment status of the civilian
  noninstitutional population household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force participation rate)            66.1      66.0      66.0
    Employment-population ratio                62.2      62.2      62.3
    Unemployment                                5.9       5.6       5.6
      Men                                       6.1       5.7       5.7
        16 to 24 years                         13.0      12.6      12.9
        25 years and older                      4.9       4.5       4.5
      Women                                     5.6       5.6       5.4
        16 to 24 years                         10.9      11.1      10.9
        25 years and older                      4.6       4.5       4.4
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data),
    in thousands: (1)
  Total                                     130,168   130,541   131,125
        Total private                       108,614   108,986   109,737
    Goods-producing                          21,684    21,725    21,868
      Manufacturing                          14,313    14,285    14,338
    Service-Providing                       108,483   108,816   109,457

  Average hours:
    Total private                              33.7      33.8      33.7
      Manufacturing                            40.7      41.0      40.8
        Overtime                                4.4       4.5       4.5

        Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
      household and Federal workers)             .5       1.4        .9
    Private industry workers                     .4       1.5        .9
      Goods-producing                            .5       2.3        .9
      Service-providing                          .5       1.1       1.0
    State and local government workers           .5        .7        .4
Workers by bargaining status
    (private industry):
  Union                                          .7       2.8       1.5
  Nonunion                                       .4       1.3        .8

                                                         2004
          Selected indicators
                                               III       IV         I
Employment data

Employment status of the civilian
  noninstitutional population household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force participation rate)            66.0      66.0      65.8
    Employment-population ratio                62.4      62.4      62.4
    Unemployment                                5.5       5.4       5.2
      Men                                       5.6       5.6       5.4
        16 to 24 years                         12.5      12.6      13.2
        25 years and older                      4.4       4.3       4.1
      Women                                     5.3       5.2       5.1
        16 to 24 years                         10.9      10.9      10.4
        25 years and older                      4.3       4.2       4.1
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data),
    in thousands: (1)
  Total                                     131,731   132,302   132,814
        Total private                       110,095   110,600   111,089
    Goods-producing                          21,932    22,000    22,054
      Manufacturing                          14,353    14,338    14,314
    Service-Providing                       109,799   110,302   110,759

  Average hours:
    Total private                              33.7      33.7      33.7
      Manufacturing                            40.8      40.6      40.6
        Overtime                                4.6       4.5       4.5

        Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
      household and Federal workers)            1.0        .5       1.1
    Private industry workers                     .8        .5       1.1
      Goods-producing                            .9        .6       1.5
      Service-providing                          .8        .3       1.0
    State and local government workers          1.7        .6        .9
Workers by bargaining status
    (private industry):
  Union                                          .8        .5        .7
  Nonunion                                       .9        .4       1.3

                                                        2005
          Selected indicators
                                               II        III       IV
Employment data

Employment status of the civilian
  noninstitutional population household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force participation rate)            66.1      66.2      66.1
    Employment-population ratio                62.7      62.9      62.8
    Unemployment                                5.1       5.0       5.0
      Men                                       5.0       5.0       4.9
        16 to 24 years                         12.5      12.1      11.7
        25 years and older                      3.8       3.8       3.7
      Women                                     5.1       5.1       5.1
        16 to 24 years                         10.4       9.8      10.0
        25 years and older                      4.2       4.2       4.2
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data),
    in thousands: (1)
  Total                                     133,429   133,969   134,294
        Total private                       111,676   112,129   112,424
    Goods-producing                          22,134    22,152    22,236
      Manufacturing                          14,292    14,258    14,268
    Service-Providing                       111,295   111,817   112,058

  Average hours:
    Total private                              33.7      33.7      33.8
      Manufacturing                            40.4      40.6      40.8
        Overtime                                4.4       4.5       4.5

        Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
      household and Federal workers)             .6        .9        .5
    Private industry workers                     .7        .6        .4
      Goods-producing                            .9        .7        .2
      Service-providing                          .6        .7        .5
    State and local government workers           .3       1.8       1.0
Workers by bargaining status
    (private industry):
  Union                                          .8        .8        .4
  Nonunion                                       .7        .6        .4

(1) Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.

(2) Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly
changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.

(3) Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and
manufacturing. Service-providing industries include all other
private sector industries.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect
revised population controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion
to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) System. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with
SIC-based data.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices,
and productivity

                                        2004   2005   2003
          Selected measures
                                                       IV

       Compensation data (1,2)

Employment Cost Index-compensation
  (wages, salaries, benefits):
    Civilian nonfann                     3.7    3.1    0.5
      Private nonfarm                    3.8    3.0     .4
Employment Cost Index-wages and
  salaries:
    Civilian nonfarm                     2.4    2.6     .3
      Private nonfarm.                   2.4    2.5     .4

           Price data (1)

Consumer Price Index
  (All Urban Consumers): All Items       3.3    3.4    -.2

Producer Price Index:
  Finished goods                         4.1    5.4     .0
    Finished consumer goods              4.6    6.8     .0
    Capital equipment                    2.4    1.3     .0
  Intermediate materials, supplies,
    and components                       9.1    8.4     .0
  Crude materials                       18.0   22.1   14.4

        Productivity data (3)

Output per hour of all persons:
  Business sector                        3.4    2.2     .3
  Nonfarm business sector                3.4    2.3     .8
  Nonfinancial corporations (4)          3.9    4.8    2.4

                                                  2004

          Selected measures              I      II    III     IV

       Compensation data (1,2)

Employment Cost Index-compensation
  (wages, salaries, benefits):
    Civilian nonfann                     1.4    0.9    1.0    0.5
      Private nonfarm                    1.5     .9     .8     .5
Employment Cost Index-wages and
  salaries:
    Civilian nonfarm                      .6     .6     .9     .3
      Private nonfarm.                    .7     .7     .9     .2

           Price data (1)

Consumer Price Index
  (All Urban Consumers): All Items       1.2    1.2     .2     .2

Producer Price Index:
  Finished goods                         1.2    1.2     .0    1.1
    Finished consumer goods              1.5    1.4   -1.7     .9
    Capital equipment                     .6     .5     .4    1.6
  Intermediate materials, supplies,
    and components                       2.5    3.0    1.9     .9
  Crude materials                        6.0    7.6   -5.1    8.3

        Productivity data (3)

Output per hour of all persons:
  Business sector                        3.4    3.4    1.4    3.1
  Nonfarm business sector                2.1    4.5    1.3    2.5
  Nonfinancial corporations (4)           .8    2.3    7.4    8.5

                                                  2005
          Selected measures
                                         I      II    III     IV

       Compensation data (1,2)

Employment Cost Index-compensation
  (wages, salaries, benefits):
    Civilian nonfann                     1.1    0.6    0.9    0.5
      Private nonfarm                    1.1     .7     .6     .4
Employment Cost Index-wages and
  salaries:
    Civilian nonfarm                      .7     .5     .8     .6
      Private nonfarm.                    .7     .6     .7     .5

           Price data (1)

Consumer Price Index
  (All Urban Consumers): All Items       1.0     .5    2.2   -1.0

Producer Price Index:
  Finished goods                         2.0     .3    3.2     .0
    Finished consumer goods             -2.6    1.4    4.1    -.4
    Capital equipment                    2.1    -.2     .3     .7
  Intermediate materials, supplies,
    and components                       3.5     .8    3.9    1.1
  Crude materials                        9.7   -2.5   -1.4    2.0

        Productivity data (3)

Output per hour of all persons:
  Business sector                        2.9     .8    4.8    -.2
  Nonfarm business sector                3.2    2.1    4.1    -.6
  Nonfinancial corporations (4)          2.7    6.3    --     --

(1) Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes
are calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and
price data are not seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not
compounded.

(2) Excludes Federal and private household workers.

(3) Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages.
Quarterly percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly
indexes.

The data are seasonally adjusted.

(4) Output per hour of all employees.

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes

                                              Quarterly change

                                       2004            2005
              Components
                                        IV     I     II    III   IV

Average hourly compensation: (1)
  All persons, business sector         11.3    4.7   -.1   4.6   3.2
  All persons, nonfarm business
    sector                             10.2    5.5    .9   4.1   2.8

Employment Cost Index-compensation:
  Civilian nonfarm (2)                   .5    1.1    .6    .9    .5
    Private nonfarm                      .5    1.1    .7    .6    .4
      Union                              .5     .1    .2    .2    .4
      Nonunion                           .4    1.3    .7    .6    .4
    State ano local governments          .6     .9    .3   1.8   1.0

Employment Cost Index--wages and
    salaries:
  Civilian nonfarm (2)                   .3     .7    .5    .8    .6
    Private nonfarm                      .2     .7    .6    .7    .5
      Union                              .4     .1    .6    .6    .6
      Nonunion                           .2     .8    .6    .6    .5
    State and local governments          .5     .6    .2   1.3    .9

                                           Four quarters ending--

                                       2004            2005
              Components
                                        IV     I     II    III   IV

Average hourly compensation: (1)
  All persons, business sector         15.3   15.4   5.5   5.1   3.1
  All persons, nonfarm business
   sector                               5.8    6.3   5.6   5.1   3.3

Employment Cost Index-compensation:
  Civilian nonfarm (2)                  3.7    3.5   3.2   3.1   3.1
    Private nonfarm                     3.8    3.4   3.2   3.0   3.0
      Union                             5.6    3.2   2.9   2.5   2.6
      Nonunion                          3.4    3.4   3.2   3.0   3.0
    State ano local governments         3.5    3.2   3.2   3.7   4.1

Employment Cost Index--wages and
    salaries:
  Civilian nonfarm (2)                  2.4    2.4   2.4   2.3   2.6
    Private nonfarm                     2.4    2.4   2.4   2.2   2.5
      Union                             2.8    2.3   2.1   2.1   2.3
      Nonunion                          2.4    2.4   2.4   2.2   2.5
    State and local governments         2.1    2.3   2.4   2.7   3.1

(1) Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from
a quarter ago, at an annual rate.

(2) Excludes Federal and household workers.

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic
origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]

                                 Annual average            2005
      Employment status
                                  2004      2005      Feb.      Mar.

            TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               223,357   226,082   225,041   225,236
  Civilian labor force           147,401   149,320   148,271   148,217
      Participation rate            66.0      66.0      65.9      65.8
    Employed                     139,252   141,730   140,285   140,601
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             62.3      62.7      62.3      62.4
    Unemployed                     8,149     7,591     7,986     7,616
      Unemployment rate              5.5       5.1       5.4       5.1
    Not in the labor force        75,956    76,762    76,770    77,019

    Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                99,476   100,835   100,321   100,419
  Civilian labor force            75,364    76,443    75,929    75,965
      Participation rate            75.8      75.8      75.7      75.6
    Employed                      71,572    73,050    72,246    72,513
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             71.9      72.4      72.0      72.2
    Unemployed                     3,791     3,392     3,683     3,453
      Unemployment rate              5.0       4.4       4.9       4.5
    Not in the labor force        24,113   243,921    24,392   244,531

   Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               107,658   108,850   108,403   108,486
  Civilian labor force            64,923    65,714    65,284    65,080
      Participation rate            60.3      60.4      60.2      60.0
    Employed                      61,773    62,702    62,220    62,129
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.4      57.6      57.4      57.3
    Unemployed                     3,150     3,013     3,064     2,952
      Unemployment rate              4.9       4.6       4.7       4.5
    Not in the labor force        42,735    43,136    43,119    43,406

  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                16,222    16,398    16,317    16,332
  Civilian labor force             7,114     7,164     7,058     7,172
      Participation rate            43.9      43.7      43.3      43.9
    Employed                      59,071     5,978     5,818     5,960
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             36.4      36.5      35.7      36.5
    Unemployed                     1,208     1,186     1,240     1,212
      Unemployment rate             17.0      16.6      17.6      16.9
    Not in the labor force         9,108     9,234     9,259     9,160

          White (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               182,643   184,446   183,767   183,888
  Civilian labor force           121,686   122,299   121,669   121,492
      Participation rate            66.3      66.3      66.2      66.1
    Employed                     115,239   116,949   116,081   116,187
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             63.1      63.4      63.2      63.2
    Unemployed                     5,847     5,350     5,588     5,306
      Unemployment rate              4.8       4.4       4.6       4.4
    Not in the labor force        61,558    62,148    62,098    62,395

Black or African American (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                26,065    26,517    26,342    26,377
  Civilian labor force            16,638    17,013    16,748    16,801
      Participation rate            63.8      64.2      63.6      63.7
    Employed                      14,909    15,313    14,941    15,069
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.2      57.7      56.7      57.1
    Unemployed                     1,792     1,710     1,807     1,733
      Unemployment rate             10.4      10.0      10.8      10.3
    Not in the labor force         9,428     9,504     9,595     9,576

      Hispanic or Latino
          ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                28,109    29,133    28,729    28,815
  Civilian labor force            19,272    19,824    19,478    19,553
      Participation rate            68.6      68.0      67.8      67.9
    Employed                      17,930    18,632    18,243    18,431
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             63.8      64.0      63.5      64.0
    Unemployed                     1,342     1,191     1,235     1,123
      Unemployment rate              7.0       6.0       6.3       5.7
    Not in the labor force         8,837     9,310     9,251     9,261

                                                 2005
      Employment status
                                  Apr.       May      June      July

            TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               225,441   225,670   225,911   226,153
  Civilian labor force           148,839   149,201   149,243   149,605
      Participation rate            66.0      66.1      66.1      66.2
    Employed                     141,196   141,571   141,750   142,111
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             62.6      62.7      62.7      62.8
    Unemployed                     7,644     7,629     7,493     7,494
      Unemployment rate              5.1       5.1       5.0       5.0
    Not in the labor force        76,601    76,469    76,668    76,548

    Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               100,520   100,634   100,754   100,874
  Civilian labor force            76,202    76,445    76,471    76,619
      Participation rate            75.8      76.0      75.9      76.0
    Employed                      72,855    73,108    73,178    73,345
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             72.5      72.6      72.6      72.7
    Unemployed                     3,347     3,337     3,294     3,274
      Unemployment rate              4.4       4.4       4.3       4.3
    Not in the labor force        24,318    24,190    24,282    24,255

   Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               108,573   108,672   108,776   108,880
  Civilian labor force            65,461    65,528    65,582    65,813
      Participation rate            60.3      60.3      60.3      60.4
    Employed                      62,426    62,515    62,552    62,744
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.5      57.5      57.5      57.6
    Unemployed                     3,036     3,013     3,030     3,070
      Unemployment rate              4.6       4.6       4.6       4.7
    Not in the labor force        43,112    43,144    43,193    43,067

  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                16,347    16,364    16,381    16,399
  Civilian labor force             7,176     7,228     7,189     7,172
      Participation rate            43.9     744.2      43.9      43.7
    Employed                       5,915     5,948     6,020     6,022
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             36.2      36.4      36.8      36.7
    Unemployed                     1,261     1,280     1,169     1,150
      Unemployment rate             17.6      17.7      16.3      16.0
    Not in the labor force         9,171     9,136     9,192     9,226

          White (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               184,015   184,167   184,328   184,490
  Civilian labor force           122,007   122,213   122,036   122,431
      Participation rate            66.3      66.4      66.2      66.4
    Employed                     116,624   116,845   116,811   117,168
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             63.4      63.4      63.4      63.5
    Unemployed                     5,383     5,368     5,224     5,263
      Unemployment rate              4.4       4.4       4.3       4.3
    Not in the labor force        62,008    61,954    62,292    62,059

Black or African American (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                26,413    26,450    26,448    26,526
  Civilian labor force            16,952    17,060    17,158    17,199
      Participation rate            64.2      64.5      64.8      64.8
    Employed                      15,206    15,347    15,392    15,581
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.6      58.0      58.1      58.7
    Unemployed                     1,746     1,713     1,766     1,619
      Unemployment rate             10.3      10.0      10.3       9.4
    Not in the labor force         9,461     9,389     9,330     9,327

      Hispanic or Latino
          ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                28,902    28,989    29,079    29,168
  Civilian labor force            19,693    19,749    19,770    19,792
      Participation rate            68.1      68.1      68.0      67.9
    Employed                      18,434    18,581    18,628    18,700
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             63.8      64.1      64.1      64.1
    Unemployed                     1,259     1,168     1,142     1,092
      Unemployment rate              6.4       5.9       5.8       5.5
    Not in the labor force         9,209     9,240     9,309     9,376

                                                 2005
      Employment status
                                  Aug.      Sept.     Oct.      Nov.

            TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               226,421   226,693   226,959   227,204
  Civilian labor force           149,792   150,083   150,043   150,183
      Participation rate            66.2      66.2      66.1      66.1
    Employed                     142,425   142,435   142,625   142,611
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             62.9      62.8      62.8      62.8
    Unemployed                     7,367     7,648     7,418     7,572
      Unemployment rate              4.9       5.1       4.9       5.0
    Not in the labor force        76,629    76,610    76,916   770,211

    Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               101,004   101,136   101,265   101,383
  Civilian labor force            76,787    76,780    76,780    76,722
      Participation rate            76.0      75.9      75.8      75.7
    Employed                      73,479    73,331    73,500    73,441
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             72.7      72.5      72.6      72.4
    Unemployed                     3,307     3,461     3,281     3,282
      Unemployment rate              4.3       4.5       4.3       4.3
    Not in the labor force        24,218    24,344    24,485    24,660

   Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               108,996   109,114   109,228   109,332
  Civilian labor force            65,778    66,129    66,175    66,223
      Participation rate            60.3      60.6      60.6      60.6
    Employed                      62,901    63,074    63,162    63,170
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.7      57.8      57.8      57.8
    Unemployed                     2,877     3,055     3,013     3,053
      Unemployment rate              4.4       4.6       4.6       4.6
    Not in the labor force        43,219    42,985    43,053    43,109

  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                16,421    16,443    16,465    16,489
  Civilian labor force             7,228     7,163     7,088     7,238
      Participation rate            44.0      43.6      43.0      43.9
    Employed                       6,045     6,030     5,964     6,000
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             36.8      36.7      36.2      36.4
    Unemployed                     7,183     1,133     1,124     1,236
      Unemployment rate             16.4      15.8      15.9      17.1
    Not in the labor force         9,193     9,281     9,377     9,251

          White (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               184,669   184,851   185,028   185,187
  Civilian labor force           122,638   122,843   122,810   122,813
      Participation rate            66.4      66.5      66.4      66.3
    Employed                     117,446   117,354   117,396   117,598
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             63.6      63.5      63.4      63.5
    Unemployed                     5,193     5,489     5,415    52,764
      Unemployment rate              4.2       4.5       4.4       4.2
    Not in the labor force        62,031    62,008    62,218    62,374

Black or African American (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                26,572    26,618    26,663    26,705
  Civilian labor force            17,130   170,681   171,501   171,181
      Participation rate            64.5      64.1      64.3      64.1
    Employed                      15,476    15,455    15,591    15,299
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             58.2      58.1      58.5      57.3
    Unemployed                     1,654     1,613     1,559     1,819
      Unemployment rate              9.7       9.5       9.1      10.6
    Not in the labor force         9,442     9,549     9,513     9,587

      Hispanic or Latino
          ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                29,264    29,361    29,456    29,552
  Civilian labor force            19,925    19,944    20,047    20,214
      Participation rate            68.1      67.9      68.1      68.4
    Employed                      18,760    18,647    18,871    18,991
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             64.1      63.5      64.1      64.3
    Unemployed                     1,164     1,297     1,176     1,223
      Unemployment rate              5.8       6.5       5.9       6.1
    Not in the labor force         9,340     9,417     9,409     9,338

                                  2005           2006
      Employment status
                                  Dec.      Jan.      Feb.

            TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               227,425   227,553   227,763
  Civilian labor force           150,153   150,114   150,449
      Participation rate            66.0      66.0      66.1
    Employed                     142,779   143,074       143
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             62.8      62.9      62.9
    Unemployed                     7,375     7,040     7,193
      Unemployment rate              4.9       4.7       4.8
    Not in the labor force        77,271    77,439    77,314

    Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               101,489   101,560   101,657
  Civilian labor force            76,786    76,928    77,115
      Participation rate            75.7      75.7      75.9
    Employed                      73,468    73,844    73,857
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             72.4      72.7      72.7
    Unemployed                     3,318     3,084     3,258
      Unemployment rate              4.3       4.0       4.2
    Not in the labor force        24,703    24,631    24,542

   Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               109,425   109,478   109,562
  Civilian labor force            66,215    66,022    66,081
      Participation rate            60.5      60.3      60.3
    Employed                      63,249    63,163    63,262
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.8      57.7      57.7
    Unemployed                     2,966     2,859     2,819
      Unemployment rate              4.5       4.3       4.3
    Not in the labor force        43,209    43,456    43,481

  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                16,511    16,515    16,545
  Civilian labor force             7,152     7,164     7,253
      Participation rate            43.3      43.4      43.8
    Employed                       6,061     6,067     6,138
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             36.7      36.7      37.1
    Unemployed                     1,091     1,097     1,115
      Unemployment rate             15.2      15.3      15.4
    Not in the labor force         9,359     9,352     9,292

          White (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)               185,327   185,436   185,570
  Civilian labor force           122,994   123,168   123,022
      Participation rate            66.4      66.4      66.3
    Employed                     117,729   118,071   117,926
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             63.5      63.7      63.5
    Unemployed                   563,264   563,097       563
      Unemployment rate              4.3       4.1       4.1
    Not in the labor force        62,333    62,268    62,548

Black or African American (3)

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                26,744    26,788    26,826
  Civilian labor force            16,979    16,982    17,273
      Participation rate            63.5      63.4      64.4
    Employed                      15,397    15,476    15,660
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             57.6      57.8      58.4
    Unemployed                     1,582     1,506     1,614
      Unemployment rate              9.3       8.9       9.3
    Not in the labor force         9,766     9,806     9,553

      Hispanic or Latino
          ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional
    population (1)                29,645    29,622    29,707
  Civilian labor force            20,292    20,528    20,485
      Participation rate            68.4      69.3      69.0
    Employed                      19,066    19,344    19,356
      Employment-pop-
      ulation ratio (2)             64.3      65.3      65.2
    Unemployed                     1,226     1,184     1,129
      Unemployment rate              6.0       5.8       5.5
    Not in the labor force         9,353     9,094     9,222

(1) The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

(2) Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional
population.

(3) Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only;
persons who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior
to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were included in
the group they identified as the main race.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African
American) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all
races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by
ethnicity as well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect
revised population controls used in the household survey.

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

                                   Annual average
                                                       2005
      Selected categories
                                   2004      2005      Feb.

        Characteristic

Employed, 16 years and older      139,252   141,730   140,285
  Men                              74,524    75,973    75,075
  Women                            64,728    65,757    65,209
  Married men, spouse
    presets                        45,084    45,483    45,356
  Married women, spouse
    present                        34,600    34,773    34,802

 Persons at wok part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,587     4,350     4,291
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,841     2,684     2,628
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,409     1,341     1,290
  Part time for noneconomic
    noneconomic reasons            19,380    19,491    19,531
Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,469     4,271     4,170
      Slack work or business
        conditions                 12,773     2,636     2,573
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,399     1,330     1,273
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,028    19,134    19,198

                                                                 2005
      Selected categories
                                   Mar.      Apr.       May      June

        Characteristic

Employed, 16 years and older      140,601   141,196   141,571   141,750
  Men                              75,436    75,773    75,998    76,099
  Women                            65,165    65,423    65,573    65,652
  Married men, spouse
    presets                        45,408    45,524    45,723    45,387
  Married women, spouse
    present                        34,310    34,595    34,771    34,678

 Persons at wok part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,367     4,321     4,375     4,457
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,652     2,631     2,740     2,670
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,423     1,367     1,352     1,408
  Part time for noneconomic
    noneconomic reasons            19,437    19,527    19,407    19,214
Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,290     4,216     4,296     4,379
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,597     2,555     2,703     2,615
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,418     1,351     1,333     1,405
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                       119,130    19,152    19,057    18,915

                                                                 2005
      Selected categories
                                   July      Aug.      Sept      Oct.

        Characteristic

Employed, 16 years and older      142,111   142,425   142,435   142,825
  Men                              78,258    76,404    76,257    76,396
  Women                            65,853    66,022    66,178    66,229
  Married men, spouse
    presets                        45,489    45,666    45,457    45,634
  Married women, spouse
    present                        34,958    34,980    34,943    34,888

 Persons at wok part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,411     4,450     4,565     4,240
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,716     2,752     2,893     2,643
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,374     1,392     1,331     1,299
  Part time for noneconomic
    noneconomic reasons            19,539    19,548    19,581    19,696
Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,353     4,406     4,500     4,161
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,670     2,728     2,846     2,592
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,371     1,394     1,335     1,284
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,110    19,168    19,207    19,255

                                                       2006
      Selected categories
                                   Nov.      Dec.      Jan.      Feb.

        Characteristic

Employed, 16 years and older      142,611   142,779   143,074   143,257
  Men                              76,410    76,529    78,857    76,888
  Women                            66,200    66,250    66,217    66,369
  Married men, spouse
    presets                        45,480    45,469    45,790    45,679
  Married women, spouse
    present                        34,910    34,948    35,167    35,039

 Persons at wok part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,175     4,138     4,133     4,204
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,595     2,541     2,649     2,655
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,246     1,246     1,226     1,238
  Part time for noneconomic
    noneconomic reasons            19,612    19,582    19,708    19,564
Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,105     4,051     4,064     4,107
      Slack work or business
        conditions                  2,567     2,508     2,606     2,590
      Could only find part-time
        work                        1,230     1,230     1,198     1,225
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,235    19,214    19,368    19,199

(1) Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey
period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

6. Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Unemployment rates]

                                          Annual average   2005
          Selected categories
                                           2004   2005      Feb.

            Characteristic

Total, 16 Years and older                   5.5    5.1      5.4
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years               17.0   16.6     17.6
  Men, 20 years and older                   5.0    4.4      4.9
  Women, 20 years and alder                 4.9    4.6      4.7

  White, total (1)                          4.8    4.4      4.6
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years             15.0   14.2     15.5
      Men, 16 to 19 years                  16.3   16.1     18.1
      Women, 16 to 19 years                13.6   12.3     12.8
    Men, 20 years and older                 4.4    3.8      4.1
    Women, 20 years and older               4.2    3.9      4.0

  Black or African American, total (1)     10.4   10.0     10.8
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years             31.7   33.3     32.1
      Men, 16 to 19 years                  35.6   36.3     35.0
      Women, 16 to 19 years                28.2   30.3     28.9
    Men, 20 years and older                 9.9    9.2     10.6
    Women, 20 years and older               8.9    8.5      9.1

  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity              7.0    6.0      6.3
  Married men, spouse present               3.1    2.8      2.9
  Married women, spouse present             3.5    3.3      3.2
  Full-time workers                         5.6    5.0      5.4
  Part-time workers                         5.3    5.4      5.5

      Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high school diploma             8.5    7.6      7.9
High school graduates, no college (3)       5.0    4.7      4.8
Some college or associate degree            4.2    3.9      4.1
Bachelor's degree and higher (4)            2.7    2.3      2.4

                                                     2005
          Selected categories
                                          Mar.   Apr.    May    June

            Characteristic

Total, 16 Years and older                  5.1    5.1     5.1    5.0
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years              16.9   17.6    17.7   16.3
  Men, 20 years and older                  4.5    4.4     4.4    4.3
  Women, 20 years and alder                4.5    4.8     4.8    4.8

  White, total (1)                         4.4    4.4     4.4    4.3
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years            14.4   15.2    15.2   14.1
      Men, 16 to 19 years                 17.7   17.5    17.4   15.8
      Women, 16 to 19 years               10.9   12.8    12.9   12.3
    Men, 20 years and older                3.9    3.8     3.8    3.7
    Women, 20 years and older              3.8    4.0     3.9    3.9

  Black or African American, total (1)    10.3   10.3    10.0   10.3
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years            33.0   35.9    35.9   32.3
      Men, 16 to 19 years                 36.1   38.5    36.8   37.5
      Women, 16 to 19 years               29.7   32.9    35.0   26.9
    Men, 20 years and older                9.3    9.2     9.1    9.7
    Women, 20 years and older              9.0    8.7     8.3    8.8

  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity             5.7    6.4     5.9    5.8
  Married men, spouse present              2.9    2.6     2.7    2.6
  Married women, spouse present            3.0    3.3     3.2    3.3
  Full-time workers                        5.1    5.1     5.0    4.9
  Part-time workers                        5.4    5.3     5.6    5.3

      Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high school diploma            7.8    8.3     7.7    6.9
High school graduates, no college (3)      4.7    4.4     4.5    4.7
Some college or associate degree           3.9    3.9     3.8    3.9
Bachelor's degree and higher (4)           2.4    2.4     2.4    2.3

                                                     2005
          Selected categories
                                          July   Aug.   Sept.   Oct.

            Characteristic

Total, 16 Years and older                  5.0    4.9     5.1    4.9
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years              16.0   16.4    15.8   15.9
  Men, 20 years and older                  4.3    4.3     4.5    4.3
  Women, 20 years and alder                4.7    4.4     4.6    4.6

  White, total (1)                         4.3    4.2     4.5    4.4
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years            13.6   13.8    13.3   14.2
      Men, 16 to 19 years                 15.5   15.3    15.3   15.1
      Women, 16 to 19 years               11.7   12.4    11.4   13.3
    Men, 20 years and older                3.7    3.7     4.0    3.8
    Women, 20 years and older              4.0    3.7     4.0    4.0

  Black or African American, total (1)     9.4    9.7     9.5    9.1
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years            32.8   35.9    33.1   32.4
      Men, 16 to 19 years                 38.9   39.5    33.7   35.0
      Women, 16 to 19 years               27.4   32.6    32.5   30.3
    Men, 20 years and older                8.3    8.6     8.7    8.5
    Women, 20 years and older              8.2    8.2     8.1    7.5

  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity             5.5    5.8     6.5    5.9
  Married men, spouse present              2.7    2.9     2.7    2.6
  Married women, spouse present            3.4    3.2     3.4    3.3
  Full-time workers                        4.9    4.9     5.0    4.9
  Part-time workers                        5.5    5.1     5.3    5.4

      Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high school diploma            7.6    7.6     8.2    7.1
High school graduates, no college (3)      4.8    4.7     5.0    4.8
Some college or associate degree           3.7    3.6     3.6    3.8
Bachelor's degree and higher (4)           2.4    2.1     2.3    2.3

                                             2005           2006
          Selected categories
                                          Nov.   Dec.   Jan.    Feb.

            Characteristic

Total, 16 Years and older                  5.0    4.9     4.7    4.8
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years              17.1   15.2    15.3   15.4
  Men, 20 years and older                  4.3    4.3     4.0    4.2
  Women, 20 years and alder                4.6    4.5     4.3    4.3

  White, total (1)                         4.2    4.3     4.1    4.1
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years            13.9   13.4    13.3   12.7
      Men, 16 to 19 years                 15.1   13.8    14.4   14.6
      Women, 16 to 19 years               12.6   12.9    12.1   10.7
    Men, 20 years and older                3.6    3.8     3.6    3.7
    Women, 20 years and older              3.9    3.8     3.7    3.8

  Black or African American, total (1)    10.6    9.3     8.9    9.3
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years            38.4   24.4    31.4   30.8
      Men, 16 to 19 years                 44.9   23.6    30.9   31.8
      Women, 16 to 19 years               31.5   25.2    31.8   29.9
    Men, 20 years and older                9.4    8.6     7.5    8.5
    Women, 20 years and older              9.0    8.5     8.1    7.8

  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity             6.1    6.0     5.8    5.5
  Married men, spouse present              2.6    2.6     2.4    2.4
  Married women, spouse present            3.3    3.2     3.0    2.9
  Full-time workers                        4.9    4.8     4.7    4.7
  Part-time workers                        5.7    5.5     4.8    5.2

      Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high school diploma            7.4    7.5     7.0    7.2
High school graduates, no college (3)      4.8    4.6     4.4    4.4
Some college or associate degree           3.8    3.9     3.5    3.6
Bachelor's degree and higher (4)           2.2    2.2     2.1    2.2

(1) Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only;
persons who selected more than one race group are not included.
Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were included
in the group they identified as the main race.

(2) Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

(3) Includes high school diploma or equivalent.

(4) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and
doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

7. Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

                             Annual average           2005
         Weeks of
       unemployment           2004    2005   Feb.    Mar.    Apr.

Less than 5 weeks            2,696   2,667   2,743   2,498   2,670
5 to 14                      2,382   2,304   2,320   2,318   2,271
15 weeks and over            3,072   2,619   2,862   2,793   2,688
  15 to 26 weeks             1,293   1,130   1,236   1,157   1,091
  27 weeks and over          1,779   1,490   1,626   1,636   1,597

Mean duration, in weeks       19.6    18.4    19.1    19.3    19.6
Median duration, in weeks      9.8     8.9     9.2     9.2     8.9

                                              2005
         Weeks of
       unemployment           May    June    July    Aug.    Sept.

Less than 5 weeks            2,694   2,661   2,616   2,544   2,751
5 to 14                      2,270   2,339   2,452   2,268   2,253
15 weeks and over            2,650   2,388   2,483   2,672   2,584
  15 to 26 weeks             1,122   1,053   1,069   1,229   1,120
  27 weeks and over          1,528   1,335   1,414   1,444   1,464

Mean duration, in weeks       18.6    17.2    17.7    18.9    18.2
Median duration, in weeks      9.1     9.1     8.9     9.4     8.5

                                      2005            2006
         Weeks of
       unemployment          Oct.    Nov.    Dec.    Jan.    Feb.

Less than 5 weeks            2,708   2,779   2,764   2,556   2,595
5 to 14                      2,263   2,268   2,240   2,263   2,074
15 weeks and over            2,477   2,492   2,417   2,241   2,482
  15 to 26 weeks             1,045   1,108   1,068   1,090   1,126
  27 weeks and over          1,432   1,383   1,350   1,151   1,356

Mean duration, in weeks       18.0    17.6    17.3    16.8    17.6
Median duration, in weeks      8.6     8.5     8.5     8.4     8.9

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data
seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]

                              Annual average             2005
       Reason for
      unemployment             2004     2005    Feb.     Mar.     Apr.

Job losers (1)                4,197    3,667    3,886    3,759    3,677
  On temporary layoff           998      933      960      955      841
  Not on temporary layoff     3,199    2,734    2,927    2,804    2,836
Job leavers                     858      872      950      855      894
Reentrants                    2,408    2,386    2,406    2,368    2,348
New entrants                    686      666      741      706      735

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)                 51.5     48.3     48.7     48.9     48.0
  On temporary layoff          12.2     12.3     12.0     12.4     11.0
  Not on temporary layoff      39.3     36.0     36.7     36.5     37.1
Job leavers                    10.5     11.5     11.9     11.1     11.7
Reentrants                     29.5     31.4     30.1     30.8     30.7
New entrants                    8.4      8.8      9.3      9.2      9.6

   Percent of civilian
       labor face

Job losers (1)                  2.8      2.5      2.6      2.5      2.5
Job leavers                      .6       .6       .6       .6       .6
Reentrants                      1.6      1.6      1.6      1.6      1.6
New entrants                     .5       .4       .5       .5       .5

                                                 2005
       Reason for
      unemployment             May     June     July     Aug.     Sept.

Job losers (1)                3,664    3,666    3,626    3,474    3,697
  On temporary layoff           898      974      954      874      970
  Not on temporary layoff     2,766    2,692    2,673    2,600    2,726
Job leavers                     952      838      825      839      874
Reentrants                    2,365    2,240    2,411    2,455    2,423
New entrants                    699      654      627      633      626

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)                 47.7     49.6     48.4     46.9     48.5
  On temporary layoff          11.7     13.2     12.7     11.8     12.7
  Not on temporary layoff      36.0     36.4     35.7     35.1     35.8
Job leavers                    12.4     11.3     11.0     11.3     11.5
Reentrants                     30.8     30.3     32.2     33.2     31.8
New entrants                    9.1      8.8      8.4      8.6      8.2

   Percent of civilian
       labor face

Job losers (1)                  2.5      2.5      2.4      2.3      2.5
Job leavers                      .6       .6       .6       .6       .6
Reentrants                      1.6      1.5      1.6      1.6      1.6
New entrants                     .5       .4       .4       .4       .4

                                       2005                  2006
       Reason for
      unemployment            Oct.     Nov.     Dec.     Jan.     Feb.

Job losers (1)                3,508    3,455    3,486    3,336    3,361
  On temporary layoff           944      899      935      873      885
  Not on temporary layoff     2,564    2,556    2,552    2,462    2,477
Job leavers                     889      900      841      839      849
Reentrants                    2,349    2,538    2,430    2,314    2,313
New entrants                    654      679      644      622      680

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)                 47.4     45.6     47.1     46.9     46.7
  On temporary layoff          12.8     11.9     12.6     12.3     12.3
  Not on temporary layoff      34.7     33.8     34.5     34.6     34.4
Job leavers                    12.0     11.9     11.4     11.8     11.8
Reentrants                     31.7     33.5     32.8     32.5     32.1
New entrants                    8.8      9.0      8.7      8.7      9.4

   Percent of civilian
       labor face

Job losers (1)                  2.3      2.3      2.3      2.2      2.2
Job leavers                      .6       .6       .6       .6       .6
Reentrants                      1.6      1.7      1.6      1.5      1.5
New entrants                     .4       .5       .4       .4       .5

(1) Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

9. Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]

                                  Annual average          2005
         Sex and age
                                   2004   2005     Feb.   Mar.   Apr.

Total, 16 years and older           5.5    5.1     15.4    5.1     5.1
  16 to 24 years                   11.8   11.3     12.4   11.5    11.7
    16 to 19 years                 17.0   16.6     17.6   16.9    17.6
      16 to 17 years               20.2   19.1     20.4   19.2    19.7
      18 to 19 years               15.0   14.9     15.8   15.0    16.9
    20 to 24 years                  9.4    8.8      9.9    8.9     8.8
  25 years and older                4.4    4.0      4.2    4.0     4.0
      25 to 54 years                4.6    4.1      4.3    4.2     4.1
      55 years and older            3.7    3.4      3.6    3.5     3.5

Men, 16 years and older             5.6    5.1      5.6    5.3     5.1
  16 to 24 years                   12.6   12.4     14.0   12.8    12.9
    16 to 19 years                 18.4   18.6     20.6   20.0    20.2
      16 to 17 years               22.0   22.0     24.7   22.7    21.9
      18 to 19 years               16.3   16.5     17.8   17.6    19.8
    20 to 24 years                 10.1    9.6     11.2    9.6     9.5
  25 years and older                4.4    3.8      4.1    4.0     3.8
      25 to 54 years                4.6    3.9      4.2    4.1     3.8
      55 years and older            3.9    3.3      3.7    3.5     3.5

Women, 16 years and older           5.4    5.1      5.2    5.0     5.2
  16 to 24 years                   11.0   10.1     10.5   10.0    10.4
    16 to 19 years                 15.5   14.5     14.5   13.7    14.9
      16 to 17 years               18.5   16.5     16.3   15.7    17.3
      18 to 19 years               13.5   13.1     13.6   12.2    13.8
    20 to 24 years                  8.7    7.0      8.5    8.2     8.1
  25 years and older                4.4    4.2      4.2    4.0     4.2
      25 to 54 years                4.6    4.4      4.4    4.2     4.4
      55 years and older (1)        3.6    3.4      3.5    3.2     3.2

                                                   2005
         Sex and age
                                   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.

Total, 16 years and older           5.1    5.0    5.0    4.9     5.1
  16 to 24 years                   11.7   11.2   10.8   11.3    11.0
    16 to 19 years                 17.7   16.3   16.0   16.4    15.8
      16 to 17 years               19.7   18.0   18.5   18.6    18.8
      18 to 19 years               16.1   15.1   14.4   15.0    13.9
    20 to 24 years                  8.8    8.7    8.3    8.8     8.7
  25 years and older                4.0    3.9    4.0    3.8     4.1
      25 to 54 years                4.1    4.1    4.2    4.0     4.2
      55 years and older            3.2    3.1    3.5    3.2     3.6

Men, 16 years and older             5.1    5.0    4.9    4.9     5.1
  16 to 24 years                   12.4   12.2   11.7   12.5    12.1
    16 to 19 years                 19.7   18.7   18.3   18.0    17.4
      16 to 17 years               22.3   21.4   22.9   21.4    21.3
      18 to 19 years               18.1   17.2   15.5   16.2    15.1
    20 to 24 years                  9.2    9.3    8.8   10.0     9.8
  25 years and older                3.8    3.7    3.8    3.6     3.9
      25 to 54 years                4.0    3.8    3.9    3.8     4.0
      55 years and older            3.0    3.2    3.2    3.1     3.3

Women, 16 years and older           5.2    5.1    5.1    4.9     5.1
  16 to 24 years                   10.8   10.0    9.7    9.9     9.7
    16 to 19 years                 15.7   13.8   13.8   14.7    14.3
      16 to 17 years               17.3   14.9   14.5   15.9    16.6
      18 to 19 years               14.1   12.8   13.2   13.8    12.6
    20 to 24 years                  8.3    8.0    7.7    7.4     7.4
  25 years and older                4.1    4.2    4.3    4.0     4.3
      25 to 54 years                4.3    4.4    4.5    4.2     4.4
      55 years and older (1)        3.2    3.3    4.1    3.8     3.9

                                          2005          2006
         Sex and age
                                  Oct.    Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.

Total, 16 years and older           4.9    5.0    4.9    4.7     4.8
  16 to 24 years                   10.8   11.2   10.7   10.5    10.7
    16 to 19 years                 15.9   17.1   15.2   15.3    15.4
      16 to 17 years               18.7   21.4   17.8   16.5    17.9
      18 to 19 years               14.2   14.2   13.5   14.4    13.9
    20 to 24 years                  8.5    8.4    8.5    8.2     8.5
  25 years and older                3.9    3.9    3.9    3.7     3.8
      25 to 54 years                4.1    4.1    4.1    3.8     4.0
      55 years and older            3.2    3.1    3.3    3.2     2.9

Men, 16 years and older             4.8    5.0    4.9    4.6     4.8
  16 to 24 years                   11.5   12.3   11.3   11.2    11.6
    16 to 19 years                 16.5   19.1   16.0   16.2    17.1
      16 to 17 years               18.1   23.6   19.8   17.0    21.3
      18 to 19 years               15.5   15.6   13.8   15.4    14.6
    20 to 24 years                  9.4    9.1    9.2    8.9     9.1
  25 years and older                3.7    3.7    3.8    3.5     3.7
      25 to 54 years                3.8    3.8    3.9    3.5     3.9
      55 years and older            3.2    3.1    3.3    3.2     2.8

Women, 16 years and older           5.1    5.1    5.0    4.8     4.7
  16 to 24 years                   10.1   10.0    9.9    9.8     9.7
    16 to 19 years                 15.2   15.0   14.4   14.4    13.6
      16 to 17 years               19.1   19.5   16.1   16.1    14.7
      18 to 19 years               12.8   12.7   13.2   13.2    13.1
    20 to 24 years                  7.5    7.5    7.7    7.4     7.7
  25 years and older                4.2    4.3    4.1    4.0     3.9
      25 to 54 years                4.4    4.5    4.4    4.1     4.1
      55 years and older (1)        3.1    3.1    2.9    3.3     3.1

(1) Data are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted

                             Jan.       Dec.         Jan.
State                        2005     2005 (p)     2005 (p)

Alabama                       4.4        3.6          3.8
Alaska                        7.1        6.9          6.7
Arizona                       4.5        4.7          4.8
Arkansas                      5.1        4.7          4.3
California                    5.8        5.1          4.8

Colorado                      5.2        4.8          4.7
Connecticut                   4.9        4.6          4.6
Delaware                      4.1        4.6          3.9
District of Columbia          7.1        5.9          5.4
Florida                       4.2        3.4          3.0

Georgia                       5.1        5.3          4.8
Hawaii                        3.0        2.7          2.4
Idaho                         4.2        3.5          3.3
Illinois                      5.9        5.5          5.2
Indiana                       5.6        5.5          4.7

Iowa                          4.7        4.5          4.1
Kansas                        5.4        4.9          4.5
Kentucky                      5.4        6.5          6.3
Louisiana                     5.6        6.4          4.8
Maine                         4.7        4.7          4.5

Maryland                      4.2        4.0          3.6
Massachusetts                 4.9        4.8          4.6
Michigan                      7.0        6.7          6.2
Minnesota                     4.4        4.2          4.1
Mississippi                   6.9        8.8          8.4

Missouri                      5.9        5.2          4.7
Montana                       4.2        3.9          3.8
Nebraska                      4.0        3.8          3.4
Nevada                        4.3        3.8          3.6
New Hampshire                 3.7        3.5          3.3

New Jersey                    4.4        4.6          4.5
New Mexico                    5.5        5.0          4.9
New York                      5.2        5.0          4.6
North Carolina                5.1        5.1          4.3
North Dakota                  3.5        3.3          3.1

Ohio                          6.0        5.9          5.3
Oklahoma                      4.5        4.2          3.9
Oregon                        6.5        5.7          5.3
Pennsylvania                  5.2        4.7          4.3
Rhode Island                  5.0        5.1          4.7

South Carolina                6.7        7.2          6.2
South Dakota                  4.0        3.9          3.4
Tennessee                     5.5        5.4          5.1
Texas                         5.5        5.2          5.0
Utah                          4.5        4.0          3.9

Vermont                       3.6        3.6          3.4
Virginia                      3.4        3.3          3.0
Washington                    5.7        5.2          4.6
West Virginia                 4.8        4.8          3.8
Wisconsin                     5.0        4.8          4.5
Wyoming                       3.4        3.3          3.1

(p) = preliminary

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State,
seasonally adjusted

                              Jan.          Dec.          Jan.
State                         2005        2005 (p)      2006 (p)

Alabama                     2,145,025     2,164,755     2,173,486
Alaska                        337,940       341,801       340,837
Arizona                     2,796,908     2,880,168     2,888,261
Arkansas                    1,338,054     1,376,781     1,393,127
California                 17,587,275    17,823,401    17,714,169

Colorado                   12,529,838     2,560,443     2,565,319
Connecticut                 1,810,134     1,818,875     1,819,967
Delaware                      433,494       443,135       444,381
District of Columbia          299,904       293,278       295,209
Florida                     8,547,216     8,734,856     8,789,433

Georgia                     4,521,539     4,637,948     4,650,406
Hawaii                        624,496       644,103       645,722
Idaho                         727,514       746,138       748,584
Illinois                    6,454,376     6,484,028     6,513,459
Indiana                     3,194,269     3,228,503     3,260,733

Iowa                        1,645,560     1,667,162     1,666,895
Kansas                      1,474,154     1,479,769     1,471,378
Kentucky                    1,979,596     2,013,352     2,013,520
Louisiana                   2,096,260     1,909,833     1,892,888
Maine                         704,409       717,419       715,262

Maryland                    2,905,159    29,555,151     2,964,799
Massachusetts               3,364,679     3,366,817     3,359,698
Michigan                    5,088,688     5,106,162     5,104,727
Minnesota                   2,940,959     2,960,228     2,947,726
Mississippi                 1,344,468    13,188,141     1,325,081

Missouri                    3,028,164                   3,023,302
Montana                       488,256       496,560       495,819
Nebraska                      987,046       988,409       981,506
Nevada                      1,197,525     1,230,800     1,231,671
New Hampshire                 728,559       733,942       736,154

New Jersey                  4,390,550    44,670,251     4,481,826
New Mexico                    926,933       944,559       944,737
New York                    9,382,790     9,457,180     9,494,657
North Carolina              4,291,860     4,369,451     4,362,082
North Dakota                  357,275       360,510       361,676

Ohio                        5,885,046     5,911,894     5,908,304
Oklahoma                    1,727,423    17,528,511     1,753,575
Oregon                      1,850,932     1,866,361     1,869,190
Pennsylvania                6,293,879     6,288,867         6,291
Rhode Island                  562,765       574,029       574,208

South Carolina              2,061,357     2,106,804     2,096,415
South Dakota                  429,616       433,697       430,200
Tennessee                   2,894,996     2,916,614     2,926,083
Texas                      11,136,725    11,310,786    11,348,441
Utah                        1,252,362     1,282,261     1,283,477

Vermont                       354,075       359,338       360,943
Virginia                    3,890,198     3,963,744     3,968,787
Washington                  3,257,491     3,321,257     3,313,453
West Virginia                 792,840     8,042,161       805,122
Wisconsin                   3,044,347     3,047,179     3,061,313
Wyoming                       281,285       285,894       286,222

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published
elsewhere because of the continual updating of the database.

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data
seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

                                           Annual average      2005
              Industry
                                          2004       2005       Feb

    TOTAL NONFARM                        131,480    133,631    132,736
  TOTAL PRIVATE                          109,862    111,836    110,995
GOODS-PRODUCING                           21,884    221,411     22,052
Natural resources and
  mining                                     591        629        610
    Logging                                 67.8       65.2       66.7
  Mining                                   523.2      563.5      543.1
    Oil and gas extraction                 123.1      125.8      123.3
    Mining except oil and gas (1)          207.0      219.3      209.4
      Coal mining                           71.7       77.7       72.5
    Support activities for mining          193.1      218.4      210.4
  Construction                             6,964      7,233      7,166
    Construction of buildings            1,632.2    1,700.9    1,683.3
    Heavy and civil engineering            902.5      933.2      928.8
    Speciality trade contractors         4,429.7    4,598.7    4,554.3
  Manufacturing                           14,329     14,279     14,276
      Production workers                  10,083     10,096     10,054
    Durable goods                          8,923      8,950      8,963
        Production workers                 6,137      6,212      6,181
      Wood products                        548.2      550.8      556.9
      Nonmetallic mineral products         504.8      501.3      505.6
      Primary metals                       465.9      466.5      468.7
      Fabricated metal products          1,470.3    1,521.4    1,512.4
      Machinery                          1,141.5    1,157.2    1,152.1
      Computer and electronic
        products (1)                     1,326.2    1,332.2    1,317.3
      Computer and peripheral
        equipment                          212.1      213.6      205.0
      Communications equipment             150.5      154.7      148.3
      Semiconductors and
        electronic components              452.8      447.2      451.2
      Electronic instruments               431.8      439.5      435.1
    Electrical equipment and
      appliances                           446.8      440.6      439.5
    Transportation equipment             1,763.5    1,764.8    1,785.7
    Furniture and related
      products                             572.7      561.3      570.2
    Miscellaneous manufacturing            655.5      654.0      654.9
  Nondurable goods                         5,406      5,329      5,313
      Production workers                   3,945      3,884      3,873
    Food manufacturing                   1,497.4    1,484.6    1,482.6
    Beverages and tobacco
      products                             194.3      190.9      192.9
    Textile mills                          238.5      223.1      225.5
    Textile product mills                  177.7      179.2      172.0
    Apparel                                284.8      258.3      269.3
    Leather and allied products             42.9       43.3       39.8
    Paper and paper products               499.1      495.2      490.1
    Printing and related support
      activities                           665.0      656.1      651.6
    Petroleum and coal products            112.8      116.1      112.0
    Chemicals                              887.0      878.9      876.4
    Plastics and rubber products           806.6      803.4      800.7

SERVICE-PROVIDING                        109,596    111,490    110,684

  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                             87,978     89,696     88,943

  Trade, transportation,
      and utilities                       25,510     25,833     25,787
    Wholesale trade                      5,654.9    5,724.0    5,712.6
      Durable goods                      2,949.1    2,987.8    2,972.6
      Nondurable goods                   2,007.1    2,012.0    2,016.2
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                 698.8      724.3      723.8
    Retail trade                        15,034.7   15,174.1   15,198.1
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                    1,901.2    1,915.8    1,913.5
        Automobile dealers                1254.2     1250.8     1257.2
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                 560.2      568.0      571.7
      Electronic and appliance
        stores                             514.4      527.8      520.3
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                    1,226.0    1,269.0    1,269.3
      Food and beverage stores           2,826.3    2,829.5    2,815.4
      Health and personal care
        stores                             941.7      955.7      948.3
      Gasoline stations                    877.1      875.5      870.7
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores               1,361.8    1,402.8    1,390.1
      Sporting goods, hobby,
        book and music stores              639.2      636.0      643.2
      General merchandise stores (1)     2,843.5    2,853.8    2,918.7
        Department stores                1,612.5    1,622.3    1,604.7
      Miscellaneous store retailers        918.6      919.0      905.9
      Nonstore retailers                   424.8      421.3      431.0

    Transportation and
        warehousing                      4,250.0    4,358.6    4,319.3
      Air transportation                   514.8      502.6      508.4
      Rail transportation                  224.2      223.4      228.6
      Water transportation                  57.2       62.8       58.0
      Truck transportation               1,350.7    1,392.7    1,360.3
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                     385.5      391.2      388.5
      Pipeline transportation               38.8       39.3       38.0
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                      26.7       28.0       26.1
      Support activities for
        transportation                     535.7      555.3      549.7
      Couriers and messengers              560.5      583.1      564.4
      Warehousing and storage              556.0      580.1      564.5
    Utilities                              570.2      576.0      557.3
    Information                            3,138      3,142      3,063
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                           909.8      907.7      903.5
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries               389.0      393.1      366.2
      Broadcasting, except Internet        326.6      331.1      325.9
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                        31.3       35.4       30.4
      Telecommunications                 1,042.5    1,032.8    1,007.3
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                    388.1      391.8      379.2
      Other information services            50.9       50.4       50.9
  Financial activities                     8,052      8,227      8,097
    Finance and insurance                5,965.6    6,077.4    5,984.9
      Monetary authorities
        central bank                        21.6       20.4       20.7
      Credit intermediation and
        related activities (1)           2,832.3    2,920.4    2,846.2
      Depository credit
          intermediation (1)             1,761.2    1,805.3    1,761.7
        Commercial banking               1,285.3    1,313.4    1,292.3
      Securities, commodity
        contracts, investments             766.8      790.6      780.4
      Insurance carriers and
        related activities               2,260.3    2,260.8    2,250.4
      Funds, trusts, and other
        financial vehicles                  84.7       85.2       87.2
    Real estate and rental
        and leasing                      2,086.2    2,149.3    2,112.2
      Real estate                        1,417.0    1,465.9    1,437.6
      Rental and leasing services          643.9      657.6      648.5
      Lessors of nonfinancial
        intangible assets                   25.4       25.9       26.1

  Professional and business
      services                            16,414     16,935     16,711
    Professional and technical
        services (1)                     6,762.0    6,965.9    6,936.6
      Legal services                     1,161.8    1,160.2    1,164.8
      Accounting bookkeeping
        services                           816.0      862.0      829.3
      Architectural and engineering
        services                         1,260.8    1,315.9    1,284.0
      Computer systems design
        and related services             1,147.4    1,186.2    1,176.7
      Management and technical
        consulting services                779.0      809.3      825.3
    Management of companies
      and enterprises                    1,718.0    1,731.9    1,748.7
    Administrative and waste
        services                         7,934.0    8,237.1    8,026.1
      Administrative and support
          services (1)                   7,608.7    7,914.4    7,689.6
        Employment services (1)          3,470.3    3,707.6    3,507.1
          Temporary help services        2,393.2    2,555.0    2,491.0
        Business support services          754.5      750.1      765.2
        Services to buildings
         and dwellings                   1,694.2    1,730.6    1,710.5
      Waste management and
        remediation services               325.3      322.6      336.5
  Educational and health
      services                            16,954     17,344     17,188
    Educational services                 2,766.4    2,829.6    2,801.8
    Health care and social
        assistance                      14,187.3   14,514.6   14,385.8
      Ambulatory health care
        services                         4,946.4    5,090.9    5,053.3
      Offices of physicians              2,053.9    2,120.3    2,074.3
      Outpatient care centers              446.2      459.7      464.3
      Home health care services            773.2      803.3      806.5
    Hospitals                            4,293.6    4,375.5    4,311.7
    Nursing and residential
        care facilities (1)              2,814.8    2,845.2    2,840.6
      Nursing care facilities            1,575.3    1,574.3    1,576.3
    Social assistance (1)                2,132.5    2,202.9    2,180.2
      Child day care services              767.1      792.4      775.2
  Leisure and hospitality                 12,479     12,748     12,703
    Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                   1,833.0    1,828.4    1,861.0
      Performing arts and
        spectator sports                   364.8      359.3      365.7
      Museums, historical sites,
        zoos, and parks                    117.1      116.9      117.5
      Amusements, gambling, and
        recreation                       1,351.1    1,352.3    1,377.8
    Accommodations and
        food services                   10,646.0   10,919.3   10,841.8
      Accommodations                     1,795.9    1,830.2    1,809.9
      Food services and drinking
        places                           8,850.1    9,089.1    9,031.9
  Other services                           5,431      5,467      5,394
    Repair and maintenance               1,227.6    1,238.7    1,237.4
    Personal and laundry services        1,274.1    1,280.3    1,276.3
    Membership associations and
      organizations                      2,929.1    2,947.6    2,880.0
  Government                              21,618     21,795     21,741
    Federal                                2,728      2,719      2,727
      Federal, except U.S. Postal
        Service                          1,943.4    1,938.9    1,952.3
      U.S. Postal Service                  784.1      779.9      774.6
      State                                4,985      2,283      5,016
        Education                        2,249.2    5,030.0    2,249.1
        Other State government           2,736.2    2,747.2    2,767.2
      Local                               13,905     14,046     13,998
        Education                        7,762.5    7,856.1    7,830.2
        Other local government           6,143.0    6,189.9    6,167.9

                                                     2005
              Industry
                                          Mar.       Apr.       May

    TOTAL NONFARM                        132,876    133,104    133,210
  TOTAL PRIVATE                          111,129    111,336    111,437
GOODS-PRODUCING                           22,077     22,119     22,126
Natural resources and
  mining                                     616        620        620
    Logging                                 68.1       65.3       64.0
  Mining                                   547.9      554.5      556.1
    Oil and gas extraction                 124.8      124.4      125.2
    Mining except oil and gas (1)          208.9      211.1      211.9
      Coal mining                           72.3       72.9       72.7
    Support activities for mining          214.2      219.0      219.0
  Construction                             7,193      7,243      7,255
    Construction of buildings            1,685.0    1,686.0    1,686.7
    Heavy and civil engineering            931.0      940.5      947.1
    Speciality trade contractors         4,576.0    4,615.7    4,621.5
  Manufacturing                           14,268     14,256     14,251
      Production workers                  10,054     10,053     10,059
    Durable goods                          8,959      8,959      8,964
        Production workers                 6,186      6,195      6,205
      Wood products                        559.3      555.6      551.8
      Nonmetallic mineral products         504.6      507.1      504.0
      Primary metals                       468.8      468.7      469.1
      Fabricated metal products          1,515.0    1,516.1    1,519.1
      Machinery                          1,156.2    1,159.0    1,161.1
      Computer and electronic
        products (1)                     1,315.3    1,317.7    1,317.6
      Computer and peripheral
        equipment                          204.6      205.4      205.8
      Communications equipment             147.0      147.5      147.5
      Semiconductors and
        electronic components              451.2      451.0      450.5
      Electronic instruments               435.0      435.9      436.0
    Electrical equipment and
      appliances                           438.5      437.1      438.2
    Transportation equipment             1,781.1    1,781.5    1,786.8
    Furniture and related
      products                             568.4      565.0      563.7
    Miscellaneous manufacturing            652.2      650.8      652.1
  Nondurable goods                         5,309      5,297      5,287
      Production workers                   3,868      3,858      3,854
    Food manufacturing                   1,482.8    1,476.8    1,475.2
    Beverages and tobacco
      products                             192.0    1,476.8      191.9
    Textile mills                          223.7      219.6      220.2
    Textile product mills                  171.5      171.6      172.2
    Apparel                                265.5      265.0      261.4
    Leather and allied products             39.5       39.5       39.0
    Paper and paper products               490.4      488.0      486.8
    Printing and related support
      activities                           650.9      650.9      649.1
    Petroleum and coal products            111.6      113.0      113.7
    Chemicals                              877.9      878.5      877.9
    Plastics and rubber products           803.1      802.1      800.0

SERVICE-PROVIDING                        110,799    110,985    111,084

  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                             89,052     89,217     89,311

  Trade, transportation,
      and utilities                       25,822     25,861     25,897
    Wholesale trade                      5,726.4    5,730.8    5,742.5
      Durable goods                      2,979.2    2,981.6    2,986.7
      Nondurable goods                   2,020.6    2,020.8    2,022.7
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                 726.6      728.4      733.1
    Retail trade                        15,211.1   15,233.5   15,294.0
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                    1,915.5    1,918.1    1,919.9
        Automobile dealers                1259.7     1262.0     1264.1
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                 572.4      575.8      579.1
      Electronic and appliance
        stores                             528.0      523.6      527.8
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                    1,269.4    1,268.0    1,269.1
      Food and beverage stores           2,814.2    2,819.6    2,820.2
      Health and personal care
        stores                             947.1      952.7      955.7
      Gasoline stations                    870.3      871.6      872.1
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores               1,394.4    1,396.4    1,401.1
      Sporting goods, hobby,
        book and music stores              643.9      645.6      644.2
      General merchandise stores (1)     2,920.9    2,925.9    2,924.4
        Department stores                1,601.5    1,604.6    1,603.4
      Miscellaneous store retailers        903.8      903.8      904.2
      Nonstore retailers                   431.3      432.4      431.6

    Transportation and
        warehousing                      4,330.1    4,340.2    4,384.4
      Air transportation                   507.4      507.6      506.8
      Rail transportation                  228.8      228.0      229.4
      Water transportation                  58.7       59.3       59.7
      Truck transportation               1,385.0    1,389.0    1,392.2
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                     387.6      387.6      387.5
      Pipeline transportation               37.8       37.8       37.6
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                      28.0       28.8       29.7
      Support activities for
        transportation                     551.3      550.3      551.8
      Couriers and messengers              566.2      571.0      571.2
      Warehousing and storage              566.2      571.1      571.2
    Utilities                              554.8      556.0      556.2
    Information                            3,067      3,072      3,065
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                           905.0      902.1      901.5
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries               373.0      384.0      379.8
      Broadcasting, except Internet        326.0      325.7      325.2
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                        30.4       30.6       30.5
      Telecommunications                   103.9      102.5    1,000.2
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                    378.3      377.3      377.8
      Other information services            50.6       50.0       49.9
  Financial activities                     8,096      8,100      8,101
    Finance and insurance                5,982.6    5,982.9    5,983.8
      Monetary authorities
        central bank                        20.8       20.8       20.8
      Credit intermediation and
        related activities (1)           2,847.5    2,849.7    2,851.8
      Depository credit
          intermediation (1)             1,762.6    1,763.5    1,765.9
        Commercial banking               1,293.4    1,292.4    1,292.9
      Securities, commodity
        contracts, investments             782.7      781.7      780.7
      Insurance carriers and
        related activities               2,244.5    2,246.4    2,245.1
      Funds, trusts, and other
        financial vehicles                  87.1       84.3       85.4
    Real estate and rental
        and leasing                      2,113.7    2,117.0    2,116.7
      Real estate                        1,439.5    1,441.9    1,444.9
      Rental and leasing services          648.1      648.2      644.5
      Lessors of nonfinancial
        intangible assets                   26.1       26.9       27.3

  Professional and business
      services                           167,451     16,780     16,794
    Professional and technical
        services (1)                     6,949.8    6,966.9    6,977.0
      Legal services                     1,165.2    1,165.0    1,166.2
      Accounting bookkeeping
        services                           830.0      833.3      829.8
      Architectural and engineering
        services                         1,287.6    1,291.5    1,295.6
      Computer systems design
        and related services             1,178.4    1,180.3    1,182.0
      Management and technical
        consulting services                830.1      833.9      836.2
    Management of companies
      and enterprises                    1,750.6    1,752.5    1,753.3
    Administrative and waste
        services                         8,044.4    8,060.8    8,063.2
      Administrative and support
          services (1)                   7,708.6    7,727.2    7,732.9
        Employment services (1)          3,515.1    3,532.6    3,534.9
          Temporary help services        2,493.0    2,504.6    2,503.0
        Business support services          764.8      765.6      764.5
        Services to buildings
         and dwellings                   1,713.0    1,715.9    1,718.8
      Waste management and
        remediation services               335.8      333.6      330.3
  Educational and health
      services                            17,211     17,241     17,291
    Educational services                 2,804.2    2,805.8    2,812.6
    Health care and social
        assistance                      14,407.2   14,435.5   14,478.2
      Ambulatory health care
        services                         5,061.0    5,074.4    5,089.9
      Offices of physicians              2,074.4    2,084.3    2,095.2
      Outpatient care centers              466.2      467.8      469.5
      Home health care services            809.4      809.0      809.6
    Hospitals                            4,317.8    4,325.5    4,333.8
    Nursing and residential
        care facilities (1)              2,842.1    2,843.9    2,852.7
      Nursing care facilities            1,577.9    1,576.6    1,577.5
    Social assistance (1)                2,186.3    2,191.7    2,201.8
      Child day care services              777.3      777.7      780.4
  Leisure and hospitality                 12,722     12,770     12,778
    Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                   1,865.4    1,879.9    1,884.3
      Performing arts and
        spectator sports                   367.7      371.7      369.7
      Museums, historical sites,
        zoos, and parks                    119.5      120.5      121.1
      Amusements, gambling, and
        recreation                       1,378.2    1,387.7    1,393.5
    Accommodations and
        food services                   10,856.1   10,889.9   10,893.4
      Accommodations                     1,807.6    1,814.2    1,812.1
      Food services and drinking
        places                           9,048.5    9,075.7    9,081.3
  Other services                           5,389      5,393      5,385
    Repair and maintenance               1,237.7    1,237.5    1,237.1
    Personal and laundry services        1,276.2    1,278.7    1,274.9
    Membership associations and
      organizations                      2,874.8    2,876.6    2,873.3
  Government                              21,747     21,768     21,773
    Federal                                2,730      2,729      2,725
      Federal, except U.S. Postal
        Service                          1,956.0    1,955.3    1,950.6
      U.S. Postal Service                  774.0      773.5      774.7
      State                                5,015      5,018      5,017
        Education                        2,246.7    2,247.0    2,247.0
        Other State government           2,767.8    2,770.6    2,770.0
      Local                               14,002     14,021     14,031
        Education                        7,829.2    7,838.6    7,841.5
        Other local government           6,172.9    6,182.1    6,189.4

                                                     2005
              Industry
                                          June       July       Aug.

    TOTAL NONFARM                        133,376    133,617    133,792
  TOTAL PRIVATE                          111,590    111,795    111,941
GOODS-PRODUCING                           22,133     22,131     22,146
Natural resources and
  mining                                     623        624        627
    Logging                                 63.7       63.8       63.4
  Mining                                   559.7      559.9      563.1
    Oil and gas extraction                 125.3      126.1      126.2
    Mining except oil and gas (1)          213.9      212.7      121.6
      Coal mining                           73.5       74.1       73.7
    Support activities for mining          220.5      221.1      224.3
  Construction                             7,277      7,283      7,306
    Construction of buildings            1,689.1    1,691.8    1,699.8
    Heavy and civil engineering            961.2      961.0      961.4
    Speciality trade contractors         4,626.0    4,629.8    4,645.1
  Manufacturing                           14,233     14,224     14,213
      Production workers                  10,054     10,050     10,054
    Durable goods                          8,953      8,946      8,950
        Production workers                 6,208      6,204      6,222
      Wood products                        553.9      553.6      553.7
      Nonmetallic mineral products         504.5      501.8      501.5
      Primary metals                       468.2      468.1      468.0
      Fabricated metal products          1,519.5    1,521.1    1,521.9
      Machinery                          1,161.8    1,165.0    1,164.3
      Computer and electronic
        products (1)                     1,322.2    1,322.8    1,323.6
      Computer and peripheral
        equipment                          207.8      207.6      207.8
      Communications equipment             147.6      147.6      147.6
      Semiconductors and
        electronic components              451.4      451.4      451.7
      Electronic instruments               438.0      439.1      440.1
    Electrical equipment and
      appliances                           435.0      434.3      434.5
    Transportation equipment             1,772.1    1,761.3    1,765.2
    Furniture and related
      products                             562.6      561.3      561.3
    Miscellaneous manufacturing            653.6      656.9      655.9
  Nondurable goods                         5,280      5,278      5,263
      Production workers                   3,846      3,846      3,832
    Food manufacturing                   1,475.2    1,474.7    1,468.6
    Beverages and tobacco
      products                             191.0      190.8      189.9
    Textile mills                          219.3      217.5      216.2
    Textile product mills                  171.3      172.0      172.0
    Apparel                                260.1      259.4      257.1
    Leather and allied products             39.1       39.5       39.7
    Paper and paper products               485.1      484.6      483.2
    Printing and related support
      activities                           648.6      646.4      645.3
    Petroleum and coal products            113.2      113.3      113.6
    Chemicals                              878.4      879.4      878.3
    Plastics and rubber products           798.8      800.1      799.2

SERVICE-PROVIDING                        111,243    111,486    111,646

  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                             89,457     89,664     89,795

  Trade, transportation,
      and utilities                       25,908     25,976     25,985
    Wholesale trade                      5,747.9    5,755.3    5,759.3
      Durable goods                      2,990.8    2,993.4    2,995.4
      Nondurable goods                   2,022.1    2,023.6    2,023.1
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                 735.0      738.3      740.8
    Retail trade                        15,256.3   15,309.8   15,312.9
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                    1,918.8    1,925.9    1,927.6
        Automobile dealers                1262.0     1266.5     1266.2
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                 575.8      578.5      578.9
      Electronic and appliance
        stores                             531.1      534.0      537.3
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                    1,271.7    1,279.3    1,277.8
      Food and beverage stores           2,822.1    2,822.6    2,810.7
      Health and personal care
        stores                             955.1      954.1      960.4
      Gasoline stations                    669.0      874.6      876.2
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores               1,410.9    1,430.7    1,430.8
      Sporting goods, hobby,
        book and music stores              644.1      642.7      643.0
      General merchandise stores (1)     2,920.6    2,931.1    2,931.3
        Department stores                1,603.1    1,613.5    1,611.4
      Miscellaneous store retailers        905.2      903.1      903.9
      Nonstore retailers                   437.9      433.2      435.1

    Transportation and
        warehousing                      4,347.6    4,353.0    4,353.9
      Air transportation                   505.6      503.6      501.6
      Rail transportation                  229.1      228.9      228.4
      Water transportation                  60.0       60.2       61.0
      Truck transportation               1,396.0    1,396.3    1,394.4
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                     381.5      387.3      386.7
      Pipeline transportation               37.5       37.4       37.6
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                      30.6       31.4       31.7
      Support activities for
        transportation                     549.4      549.5      549.2
      Couriers and messengers              571.2      571.3      574.1
      Warehousing and storage              586.6      587.1      589.2
    Utilities                              556.2      587.1      559.1
    Information                            3,062      3,061      3,065
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                           902.7      905.9      904.8
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries               376.6      375.9      381.2
      Broadcasting, except Internet        327.3      328.3      329.1
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                        30.5       29.9       30.1
      Telecommunications                   998.6      996.8      994.2
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                    376.4      373.6      375.6
      Other information services            50.3       50.7       50.1
  Financial activities                     8,114      8,136      8,155
    Finance and insurance                5,989.8    6,002.5    6,014.7
      Monetary authorities
        central bank                        20.8       20.7       20.7
      Credit intermediation and
        related activities (1)           2,856.6    2,866.1    2,871.4
      Depository credit
          intermediation (1)             1,768.0    1,773.5    1,778.5
        Commercial banking               1,295.4    1,296.9    1,300.0
      Securities, commodity
        contracts, investments             778.4      779.6      783.4
      Insurance carriers and
        related activities               2,247.0    2,249.3    2,252.9
      Funds, trusts, and other
        financial vehicles                  87.0       86.8       86.3
    Real estate and rental
        and leasing                      2,124.6    2,133.3    2,139.8
      Real estate                        1,451.5    1,458.8    1,464.8
      Rental and leasing services          646.2      647.4      647.8
      Lessors of nonfinancial
        intangible assets                   26.9       27.1       27.2

  Professional and business
      services                            16,844     16,898     16,932
    Professional and technical
        services (1)                     7,000.3    7,024.7      743.9
      Legal services                     1,165.6    1,167.5    1,166.9
      Accounting bookkeeping
        services                           837.3      841.3      845.5
      Architectural and engineering
        services                         1,302.0    1,307.8    1,314.6
      Computer systems design
        and related services             1,187.1    1,189.2    1,191.7
      Management and technical
        consulting services                841.4      847.6      851.0
    Management of companies
      and enterprises                    1,755.6    1,757.1    1,756.6
    Administrative and waste
        services                         8,087.9    8,116.0    8,131.5
      Administrative and support
          services (1)                   7,754.3    7,778.4    7,797.6
        Employment services (1)          3,550.6    3,561.5    3,582.2
          Temporary help services        2,512.0    2,523.9    2,538.7
        Business support services          760.8      759.5      759.4
        Services to buildings
         and dwellings                   1,727.2    1,738.5    1,735.3
      Waste management and
        remediation services               333.6      337.6      336.9
  Educational and health
      services                            17,333     17,368     17,413
    Educational services                 2,820.6    2,820.4    2,832.4
    Health care and social
        assistance                      14,512.8   14,547.4   14,580.3
      Ambulatory health care
        services                         5,104.7    5,121.8    5,137.7
      Offices of physicians              2,098.9    2,104.2    2,117.8
      Outpatient care centers              471.2      474.7      476.5
      Home health care services            815.1      817.1      819.6
    Hospitals                            4,344.6    4,353.5    4,361.0
    Nursing and residential
        care facilities (1)              2,853.5    2,859.0    2,863.4
      Nursing care facilities            1,578.8    1,579.9    1,580.9
    Social assistance (1)                2,210.0    2,213.1    2,218.2
      Child day care services              787.4      786.6      785.7
  Leisure and hospitality                 12,802     12,833     12,860
    Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                   1,890.9    1,894.9    1,903.1
      Performing arts and
        spectator sports                   372.0      372.2      372.9
      Museums, historical sites,
        zoos, and parks                    121.5      121.3      121.1
      Amusements, gambling, and
        recreation                       1,397.4    1,401.4    1,409.1
    Accommodations and
        food services                   10,911.3   10,937.9   10,956.6
      Accommodations                     1,812.7    1,813.2    1,817.9
      Food services and drinking
        places                           9,098.6    9,124.7    9,138.7
  Other services                           5,394      5,392      5,385
    Repair and maintenance               1,240.9    1,240.9    1,235.6
    Personal and laundry services        1,274.1    1,271.3    1,271.7
    Membership associations and
      organizations                      2,879.3    2,879.6    2,877.9
  Government                              21,786     21,822     21,851
    Federal                                2,727      2,726      2,725
      Federal, except U.S. Postal
        Service                          1,951.5    1,950.7    1,950.4
      U.S. Postal Service                  775.7      775.5      774.6
      State                                5,016      5,023      5,024
        Education                        2,244.4    2,249.0    2,251.5
        Other State government           2,771.9    2,773.8    2,772.1
      Local                               14,043     14,073     14,102
        Education                        7,851.1    7,878.0    7,900.9
        Other local government           6,192.3    6,195.0    6,200.6

                                                     2005
              Industry
                                         Sept.       Oct.       Nov.

    TOTAL NONFARM                        133,840    133,877    134,231
  TOTAL PRIVATE                          111,985    112,025    112,351
GOODS-PRODUCING                           22,143     22,179     22,264
Natural resources and
  mining                                     631        636        641
    Logging                                 62.7       62.1       62.1
  Mining                                   567.9      573.8      579.3
    Oil and gas extraction                 126.5      127.4      128.9
    Mining except oil and gas (1)          212.7      214.5      215.0
      Coal mining                           74.5       75.1       75.1
    Support activities for mining          228.7      231.9      235.4
  Construction                             7,325      7,347      7,409
    Construction of buildings            1,697.6    1,702.4      172.2
    Heavy and civil engineering            963.9      965.3      977.1
    Speciality trade contractors         4,663.3    4,679.2    4,709.4
  Manufacturing                           14,187     14,196     14,214
      Production workers                  10,048     10,069     10,103
    Durable goods                          8,933      8,952      8,960
        Production workers                 6,218      6,249      6,274
      Wood products                      5,522.0      550.7      556.7
      Nonmetallic mineral products         501.1      500.8      502.0
      Primary metals                       469.7      470.5      471.5
      Fabricated metal products          1,521.7    1,520.8    1,524.1
      Machinery                          1,163.4    1,174.5    1,164.4
      Computer and electronic
        products (1)                     1,322.8    1,323.5    1,322.0
      Computer and peripheral
        equipment                          207.4      207.9      206.3
      Communications equipment             147.9      148.2      148.0
      Semiconductors and
        electronic components              451.8      450.7      450.6
      Electronic instruments               440.6      441.6      442.0
    Electrical equipment and
      appliances                           431.8      431.1      434.3
    Transportation equipment             1,753.7    1,765.5    1,771.8
    Furniture and related
      products                             561.3      560.5      558.4
    Miscellaneous manufacturing            655.0      653.6      654.7
  Nondurable goods                         5,254      5,244      5,254
      Production workers                   3,830      3,820      3,829
    Food manufacturing                   1,461.4    1,458.5    1,465.0
    Beverages and tobacco
      products                             191.0      192.4      193.4
    Textile mills                          214.7      213.2      210.9
    Textile product mills                  173.0      173.8      174.5
    Apparel                                255.1      251.8      253.7
    Leather and allied products             39.5       39.6       39.5
    Paper and paper products               480.5      478.5      478.5
    Printing and related support
      activities                           646.4      645.1      644.8
    Petroleum and coal products            113.0      113.1      112.3
    Chemicals                              880.3      879.3      881.5
    Plastics and rubber products           799.5      799.1      799.4

SERVICE-PROVIDING                        111,697    111,698    111,967

  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                             89,842     89,846     90,087

  Trade, transportation,
      and utilities                       25,944    259,451     26,006
    Wholesale trade                      5,762.3    5,767.8    5,782.7
      Durable goods                      2,997.8    3,002.3    3,010.5
      Nondurable goods                   2,022.1    2,021.7    2,028.9
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                 742.4      743.8      743.3
    Retail trade                        15,267.0   15,259.6   15,292.9
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                    1,929.4    1,921.5    1,914.3
        Automobile dealers                1268.9     1260.5     1254.5
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                 580.9      581.5      583.3
      Electronic and appliance
        stores                             539.9      540.5      541.2
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                   12,772.3    1,273.1    1,281.6
      Food and beverage stores           2,803.0    2,809.5    2,806.6
      Health and personal care
        stores                             953.8      959.3      964.7
      Gasoline stations                    873.9      874.6      869.1
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores               1,414.2    1,413.5    1,434.5
      Sporting goods, hobby,
        book and music stores              631.3      638.7      641.5
      General merchandise stores (1)     2,927.4    2,910.6    2,920.4
        Department stores                1,610.9    1,590.6    1,595.2
      Miscellaneous store retailers        902.2      899.1      897.3
      Nonstore retailers                   438.7      437.7      438.4

    Transportation and
        warehousing                      4,355.4    4,358.4    4,370.2
      Air transportation                   495.1      493.7      488.9
      Rail transportation                  228.2      228.1      227.8
      Water transportation                  61.8       62.6       63.6
      Truck transportation               1,397.4    1,402.0    1,403.8
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                     388.0      388.5      394.9
      Pipeline transportation               37.6       37.2       37.2
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                      31.8       31.5       31.4
      Support activities for
        transportation                     551.9      549.8      553.9
      Couriers and messengers              573.8      576.3      576.8
      Warehousing and storage              589.8      588.7      576.9
    Utilities                              558.9      559.4      560.1
    Information                            3,071      3,058      3,064
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                           904.4      903.7      902.8
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries               390.6      379.3      383.5
      Broadcasting, except Internet        326.7      327.6      325.7
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                        30.4       30.1       30.1
      Telecommunications                   993.4      991.2      995.1
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                    376.1      376.9      376.7
      Other information services            49.7       49.4       49.9
  Financial activities                     8,172      8,201      8,217
    Finance and insurance                6,029.1    6,053.3    6,066.7
      Monetary authorities
        central bank                        20.7       20.7       20.9
      Credit intermediation and
        related activities (1)           2,880.9    2,892.9    2,895.8
      Depository credit
          intermediation (1)             1,783.5    1,790.8    1,793.3
        Commercial banking               1,302.9    1,306.9    1,309.0
      Securities, commodity
        contracts, investments             786.2      790.5      790.7
      Insurance carriers and
        related activities               2,255.1    2,262.1    2,271.8
      Funds, trusts, and other
        financial vehicles                  86.2       87.1       87.5
    Real estate and rental
        and leasing                      2,143.3    2,147.5    2,150.2
      Real estate                        1,469.0    1,474.7    1,478.4
      Rental and leasing services          646.8      645.1      643.9
      Lessors of nonfinancial
        intangible assets                   27.5       27.7       27.9

  Professional and business
      services                            16,997     16,991     17,061
    Professional and technical
        services (1)                     7,062.2    7,074.8    7,087.2
      Legal services                     1,159.5    1,159.2    1,160.0
      Accounting bookkeeping
        services                           848.9      851.0      847.5
      Architectural and engineering
        services                         1,324.3    1,326.1    1,335.3
      Computer systems design
        and related services             1,195.9    1,204.4    1,204.9
      Management and technical
        consulting services                852.9      855.5      861.4
    Management of companies
      and enterprises                    1,754.2    1,749.9    1,743.2
    Administrative and waste
        services                         8,180.5    8,165.8    8,230.5
      Administrative and support
          services (1)                   7,846.5    7,835.6    7,897.8
        Employment services (1)          3,628.2    3,617.2    3,663.7
          Temporary help services        2,573.7    2,576.2    2,616.2
        Business support services          757.2      752.7      754.7
        Services to buildings
         and dwellings                   1,735.4    1,741.1    1,755.4
      Waste management and
        remediation services               334.0      330.2      332.7
  Educational and health
      services                            17,451     17,440     17,481
    Educational services                 2,844.9    2,815.9    2,820.2
    Health care and social
        assistance                      14,605.8   14,624.5   14,661.2
      Ambulatory health care
        services                         5,145.1    5,152.9    5,172.7
      Offices of physicians              2,115.3    2,119.8    2,128.4
      Outpatient care centers              479.3      480.6      482.4
      Home health care services            820.5      820.8      824.3
    Hospitals                            4,366.8    4,371.7    4,379.2
    Nursing and residential
        care facilities (1)              2,871.0    2,868.1    2,871.9
      Nursing care facilities            1,582.2    1,578.9    1,582.5
    Social assistance (1)                2,222.9    2,231.8    2,237.4
      Child day care services              787.8      793.2      792.9
  Leisure and hospitality                 12,826     12,840     12,881
    Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                   1,895.1    1,897.8    1,907.5
      Performing arts and
        spectator sports                   372.2      365.0      362.8
      Museums, historical sites,
        zoos, and parks                    123.2      121.6      121.0
      Amusements, gambling, and
        recreation                       1,399.7    1,411.2    1,423.7
    Accommodations and
        food services                   10,931.2   10,942.4   10,973.9
      Accommodations                     1,814.5    1,812.9    1,811.1
      Food services and drinking
        places                           9,116.7    9,129.5    9,162.8
  Other services                           5,381      5,371      5,377
    Repair and maintenance               1,230.8    1,227.1    1,232.0
    Personal and laundry services        1,271.3    1,270.3    1,271.1
    Membership associations and
      organizations                      2,879.2    2,873.2    2,873.6
  Government                              21,855     21,852     21,880
    Federal                                2,725      2,724      2,728
      Federal, except U.S. Postal
        Service                          1,949.9    1,949.5    1,953.1
      U.S. Postal Service                  774.7      774.1      774.9
      State                                5,026      5,022      5,032
        Education                        2,255.1    2,248.1    2,256.6
        Other State government           2,771.1    2,773.5    2,775.8
      Local                               14,104     14,106     14,120
        Education                        7,891.9    7,894.9    7,899.3
        Other local government           6,212.1    6,211.5    6,220.6

                                          2005       2006
              Industry
                                          Dec.     Jan. (p)   Feb. (p)

    TOTAL NONFARM                        134,376    134,546    134,789
  TOTAL PRIVATE                          112,498    112,699    112,904
GOODS-PRODUCING                           22,282     22,347     22,392
Natural resources and
  mining                                     644        647        652
    Logging                                 62.0       61.8       61.7
  Mining                                   582.1      585.0      590.1
    Oil and gas extraction                 128.7      128.9       29.5
    Mining except oil and gas (1)          214.3      214.4      214.8
      Coal mining                           75.4       75.9       76.5
    Support activities for mining          239.1      241.7      245.8
  Construction                             7,416      7,471      7,512
    Construction of buildings            1,727.2    1,741.3    1,743.7
    Heavy and civil engineering            974.8      988.9      996.1
    Speciality trade contractors         4,714.3    4,741.0    4,772.6
  Manufacturing                           14,222     14,229     14,228
      Production workers                  10,123     10,151     10,154
    Durable goods                          8,970      8,979      8,980
        Production workers                 6,299      6,321      6,323
      Wood products                        558.9      559.8      557.1
      Nonmetallic mineral products         500.7      504.6      504.6
      Primary metals                       469.4      473.1      469.6
      Fabricated metal products          1,526.7    1,528.3    1,532.3
      Machinery                          1,166.9    1,163.7    1,168.3
      Computer and electronic
        products (1)                     1,322.2    1,317.5    1,322.5
      Computer and peripheral
        equipment                          205.7      201.4      202.5
      Communications equipment             149.2      147.3      148.4
      Semiconductors and
        electronic components              451.0      451.5      453.5
      Electronic instruments               441.7      443.1      444.8
    Electrical equipment and
      appliances                           434.4      435.3      435.3
    Transportation equipment             1,776.7    1,784.3    1,775.0
    Furniture and related
      products                             558.0      557.2      556.6
    Miscellaneous manufacturing            655.8      655.4      659.0
  Nondurable goods                         5,252      5,250      5,248
      Production workers                   3,824      3,830      3,831
    Food manufacturing                   1,466.0    1,464.3    1,463.0
    Beverages and tobacco
      products                             192.3      194.5      194.3
    Textile mills                          209.0      209.3      207.9
    Textile product mills                  173.9      175.1      174.1
    Apparel                                253.5      252.6      251.7
    Leather and allied products             39.7       39.1       38.7
    Paper and paper products               478.1      478.0      479.3
    Printing and related support
      activities                           644.0      643.2      643.9
    Petroleum and coal products            112.3      111.4      112.9
    Chemicals                              884.0      885.1      884.9
    Plastics and rubber products           798.9      797.1      796.8

SERVICE-PROVIDING                        112,094    112,199    112,397

  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                             90,216     90,352     90,512

  Trade, transportation,
      and utilities                       26,015     26,028     26,043
    Wholesale trade                      5,783.8    5,799.1    5,802.1
      Durable goods                      3,017.6    3,026.2    3,027.7
      Nondurable goods                   2,023.9    2,025.3    2,028.1
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                 742.3      747.6      746.3
    Retail trade                        15,300.3   15,268.8   15,293.5
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                    1,914.7    1,911.8    1,915.9
        Automobile dealers                1252.4     1249.0     1250.0
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                 583.0      589.8      590.9
      Electronic and appliance
        stores                             540.5      534.2      538.8
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                    1,290.9    1,299.3    1,307.9
      Food and beverage stores           2,805.9    2,804.7    2,801.4
      Health and personal care
        stores                             966.1      958.2      953.2
      Gasoline stations                    869.6      869.7      868.9
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores               1,448.1    1,435.2    1,439.1
      Sporting goods, hobby,
        book and music stores              640.0      641.0      640.3
      General merchandise stores (1)     2,906.9    2,912.9    2,911.3
        Department stores                1,595.6    1,594.4    1,594.2
      Miscellaneous store retailers        899.0      899.2      898.1
      Nonstore retailers                   435.6      432.6      427.8

    Transportation and
        warehousing                      4,371.6    4,382.3    4,386.8
      Air transportation                   486.9      488.4      483.1
      Rail transportation                  227.3      227.3      227.2
      Water transportation                  63.7       63.4       62.9
      Truck transportation               1,404.0    1,406.5    1,407.1
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                     392.2      393.0      396.2
      Pipeline transportation               37.0       37.5       37.5
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                      31.1       31.1       31.7
      Support activities for
        transportation                     556.2      560.4      562.7
      Couriers and messengers              579.7      578.9      580.9
      Warehousing and storage              593.5      595.8      597.5
    Utilities                              559.7      560.1      560.6
    Information                            3,066      3,067      3,074
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                           902.5      901.2      904.0
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries               387.7      390.5      390.9
      Broadcasting, except Internet        325.1      324.4      325.2
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                        30.4       29.7       30.8
      Telecommunications                   993.3      993.9      995.4
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                    377.8      377.3      378.4
      Other information services            49.6       50.3       49.6
  Financial activities                     8,223      8,244      8,266
    Finance and insurance                6,068.2    6,081.8    6,098.0
      Monetary authorities
        central bank                        21.0       21.2       21.3
      Credit intermediation and
        related activities (1)           2,894.2    2,899.0    2,905.1
      Depository credit
          intermediation (1)             1,793.2    1,792.5    1,796.7
        Commercial banking               1,306.0    1,302.7    1,305.0
      Securities, commodity
        contracts, investments             790.4      792.7      796.2
      Insurance carriers and
        related activities               2,274.8    2,281.3    2,287.6
      Funds, trusts, and other
        financial vehicles                  87.8       87.6       87.8
    Real estate and rental
        and leasing                      2,154.5    2,168.8    2,167.5
      Real estate                        1,481.6    1,490.1    1,493.4
      Rental and leasing services          645.0      643.9      646.2
      Lessors of nonfinancial
        intangible assets                   27.9       27.8       27.9

  Professional and business
      services                            17,121     17,138     17,177
    Professional and technical
        services (1)                     7,118.9    7,133.9    7,152.2
      Legal services                     1,160.8    1,162.6    1,162.7
      Accounting bookkeeping
        services                           859.0      848.8      850.9
      Architectural and engineering
        services                         1,335.6    1,340.4    1,344.3
      Computer systems design
        and related services             1,212.1    1,222.9    1,226.4
      Management and technical
        consulting services                865.4      869.0      873.8
    Management of companies
      and enterprises                    1,756.7    1,771.5    1,775.6
    Administrative and waste
        services                         8,245.1    8,232.3    8,248.9
      Administrative and support
          services (1)                   7,911.0    7,894.8    7,912.9
        Employment services (1)          3,671.0    3,655.1    3,645.5
          Temporary help services        2,628.1    2,621.7    2,614.4
        Business support services          751.8      755.3      756.0
        Services to buildings
         and dwellings                   1,751.1    1,747.3    1,759.8
      Waste management and
        remediation services               334.1      337.5      336.0
  Educational and health
      services                            17,507     17,557     17,604
    Educational services                 2,827.5    2,836.8    2,859.9
    Health care and social
        assistance                      14,679.6   14,719.7   14,743.6
      Ambulatory health care
        services                         5,181.4    5,202.1    5,213.3
      Offices of physicians              2,135.8    2,142.5    2,146.3
      Outpatient care centers              484.1      486.2      487.3
      Home health care services            822.1      827.8      830.2
    Hospitals                            4,382.5    4,385.9    4,391.5
    Nursing and residential
        care facilities (1)              2,871.9    2,878.7    2,880.1
      Nursing care facilities            1,582.5    1,583.3    1,580.8
    Social assistance (1)                2,243.8    2,253.0    2,258.7
      Child day care services              793.3      797.6      797.9
  Leisure and hospitality                 12,898     12,923     12,948
    Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                   1,905.9    1,901.8    1,908.3
      Performing arts and
        spectator sports                   362.1      357.3      363.1
      Museums, historical sites,
        zoos, and parks                    121.6      121.8      122.4
      Amusements, gambling, and
        recreation                       1,422.2    1,422.7    1,422.8
    Accommodations and
        food services                   10,992.3   11,020.8   11,040.0
      Accommodations                     1,809.2    1,806.7    1,805.1
      Food services and drinking
        places                           9,183.1    9,214.1    9,234.9
  Other services                           5,386      5,395      5,400
    Repair and maintenance               1,241.4    1,240.5    1,240.9
    Personal and laundry services        1,270.3    1,277.9    1,279.0
    Membership associations and
      organizations                      2,874.5    2,877.0    2,879.6
  Government                              21,878     21,847     21,885
    Federal                                2,713      2,705      2,707
      Federal, except U.S. Postal
        Service                          1,941.2    1,935.8    1,939.2
      U.S. Postal Service                  772.1      768.7      768.1
      State                                5,036      5,011      5,030
        Education                        2,258.1    2,233.0    2,249.6
        Other State government           2,777.4    2,777.6    2,780.1
      Local                               14,129     14,131     14,148
        Education                        7,906.9    7,903.0    7,915.2
        Other local government           6,222.2    6,228.0    6,232.5

(1) Includes other industries not shown separately.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent
benchmark revision. p = preliminary.
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Title Annotation:1. Labor market indicators--12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
Publication:Monthly Labor Review
Date:Apr 1, 2006
Words:30702
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