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Notes on Species of Cardiophorinae (Candeze, 1860) From Pakistan with Description of a New Species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and New Records.

Byline: Muhammad Atique Akhter, Alain Drumont, Syed Anser Rizvi and Zubair Ahmed

Abstract

A new species of genus Cardiophorus Eschscholtz is described from Punjab, Pakistan with special reference to its male and female genitalia. The present new species is compared to its closest allied species. A key to all the species of genus Cardiophorus Eschscholtz from Pakistan is formulated and the relationship of the present new species is also briefly discussed. Notes on other species of Cardiophorinae are given and new country records for Pakistan are provided.

Key words: Coleoptera, Elateridae, Cardiophorinae, Cardiophorus.

INTRODUCTION

Cardiophorinae Candeze (1860) is a cosmopolitan subfamily of the family Elateridae Leach (1815).It includes 38 genera harboring 1100 species from throughout the World. This subfamily includes two tribes, Cardiophorini Candeze (1860) and Nyctorini Gurjeva (966), of which Nyctorini consists of a monotypic genus.

Candeze (1891) described this group as tribe Cardiophorites comprising seven genera. Schwarz (1906) also treated Cardiophorinae as a tribe. Fleutiaux (1941) raised it to subfamily. Stibick (1979) and Vats and Chauhan (1991) also treated it as subfamily. Cate (2007) listed 11 Genera from Palaearctic region including six subgenera with 676 species. Fleutiaux (1947) described 23 species from Indo-Chinese region. Platia and Gudenzi (2003) divided 9 species of the genus Dicronychus Brulle of Greece in two groups, the first group with parameres apex more or less conspicuously toothed, the second group (two species) with apex of parameres simple and more or less pointed.

Platia and Gudenzi (2004) added nine new species in the genus Dicronychus Brulle to the Palearctic fauna. Vats (1984) described two new species of genus Dicronychus Burlle, while Vats and Chauhan (1991) described 18 species of genus Cardiophorus Eschscholtz including 14 new species from North India. Cate et al. (2002) listed species of the tribe Cardiophorini with seven new species in three Genera from Iran. Chakraborty and Chakrabarti (2006) redescribed five species and one new species within the genus Cardiophorus Eschscholtz from Bengal.

Fleutiaux (1931) described two species in subgenus Platynychus s.str and 22 species in subgenus Paraplatynychus in Indo-Chinese fauna. Most of these species were later transferred to other genera. Kishi (1987) listed nine species including subspecies from Japan.

A new species of Cardiophorus Eschscholtz from Kalar Khar, Punjab, Pakistan is described in this paper with a special reference to its male and female genitalia. The new taxon is compared to its most closely related species. A key to the three species of Cardiophorus Eschscholtz presently known from Pakistan including the present new species is given and in this light the relationships of the present new species within the genus Cardiophorus are also briefly discussed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Body Measurements

The measurements and illustrations were made by using an ocular grid microscope.

Body length is measured along the midline from the anterior margin of the frons to the apex of the elytra; the width is measured across the broadest part of the entire beetle.

Pronotal measurements

The pronotal length is measured along the midline; the width at the broadest part which is most usually located at the hind angles.

Preservation

For the study of male genitalia, the abdomen was excised at the base and boiled in 10 % KOH solution for about 10 minutes. It was then washed in tap water. The aedeagus was dissected out and examined under glycerin. After studying, the male genitalia were placed in microvials with a drop of glycerin and attached with the respective specimens for Natural History Museum, University of Karachi.

Abbreviations

The names of institutions, museums and collections containing study material are abbreviated as follows: CAP, Akhter collection.Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Pakistan; NHMUK, Natural History Museum, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

RESULTS

Genus CARDIOPHORUS Eschscholtz, 1829

Cardiophorus Eschscholtz, 1829:34; Candeze, 1891: 125; Schwarz, 1906: 162; Hyslop, 1921: 633; Vats and Chauhan, 1991: 11; Cate et al., 2002: 60.

Caloderus Stephens, 1830: 269; Castelnau, 1840: 249.

Dicronychus Brulle, 1832:138.

Drasterius and Dolopius Falderman, 1835: 172-177.

Platynychus Motschulsky, 1858: 59.

Gauroderus Thomson, 1859: 104.

Type species

Elater gramineus Scopoli, 1763

Diagnosis

Head capsule usually wider than long, oval, depressed, frons ridged between and above antennae; mouth parts inferior; prosternum variable; pronotum usually wider than long occasionally as wide as long, convex, prosternal process short, truncate; mesepisternum and mesepimeron cut off from mesocoxal cavity by meso- and metasternum, mesepimeron reduced in size; scutellum cordate; tarsi, simple; claws, simple, dentate or undentate.

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CARDIOPHORUS FROM PAKISTAN

1.Elytra without patches............2

- Elytra with four broad patches...............Cardiophorus quadrillum Candeze

2. Aedeagus with median lobe, narrower, apically long apex, parameres contact to median lobe, basal plate rounded, median strut slightly passes in the cavity, female genitalia with bursa copulatrix leaf-like with several denticles, tubercles on surface .............Cardiophorus varius Cate et al

- Aedeagus with median lobe, broadened up to apex, parameres distinctly isolated from median lobe, median strut reaches up to base of basal plate, female genitalia with bursa copulatrix sickle-like with four external denticles, without tubercles on surface..........Cardiophorus kaharensis, new species

1. Cardiophorus kaharensis, new species

Type locality

Pakistan; Kalar Kahar, Punjab Province.

Coloration

Head, pronotum, scutellum and elytra piceous brown, legs and antennae castaneous brown, garishly recumbent pubescence.

Head

Moderately lobate, clypeus margin slightly excised in the middle, transverse laterally, frons almost flattened with deep punctation, dense recumbent long pubescence; antennae extending to the base of pronotum, basal segment broad and robust, 1st segment small but cylindrical.

Thorax

Slightly broader than long, sides entire, subrounded, hind angles broadly acute, disc slightly convex, strongly bisinuate basally, dense but deep punctures on disc, scattered recumbent pubescence; Scutellum cordiform, medially depressed, pit-like; elytral shoulders slightly broader than base of pronotum, parallel to apex, strial margins with distinct groove, interstriae with fine puncture, very dense pubescence on the entire elytra, 1st elytral interval at the apex of the elytra carinate.

Male genitalia

Aedeagus (Fig. 1B) with median lobe longer than parameres, broadened up to apex, towards apex slightly narrower, apex truncated; parameres evidently away from median lobe, thin, tubiform apically, broad at base; two median struts elongate, lying in the cavity of basal plate, reaching at base; basal plate pear-shaped, apically broad, sides rounded then obliquely turned, forming rounded base.

Female genitalia

Bursa copulatix (Fig. 1C) sclerotised without tubercle on surface, with four external teeth, upper long pointed teeth; remains smaller than previous but all of spiny, posteriorly form a short stalk, which ended in a subrounded apex.

Etymology

This species name was derived from the type locality.

Measurement

Holotype; Length 4.5 mm; width 1.3-1.7 mm.

Material examined

Pakistan: Punjab: Kalar Kahar; Holotype 1; 2.ix.2007, leg., Akhter (NHMUK). Allotype 1 , with same data as holotype(CAP).

Comparative note

This species is most closely related to C. varius Cate et al. (2002) in having elytra without any patches, head moderately lobate, prothorax slightly broader than long, hind angles acute but it can easily be separated from C. varius by its aedeagus broader up to apex, parameres distinctly isolated from median lobe, median struts reaching up to base of the basal plate, female genitalia with bursa copulatrix sickle-like with four external denticles.

Discussion

The new species C. kaharensis is remarkably closely related to C. varius Cate et al. (2002) and appears to form a sister group to this species. Both the species are brown, head moderately lobate, prothorax slightly broader than longer, hind angles acute, aedeagus with median lobe longer than paramers. C. varius is represented in Pakistan from Sindh province but C. kaharensis n.sp. appears to be restricted to Punjab province in Pakistan, the new species also seems to be more advanced than C. varius in having parameres evidently away from the median lobe, thin, tubiform apically, basal plate pear-shaped. The species C. quadrillium Candeze appears to play out-group relationship with varius and kaharensis and is quite advanced with four broad yellow patches on elytra.

The new species appears to be quite isolated in the entire genus as the 1st elytral interval at the apex of the elytra carinate. The new taxon is not only the smallest in all the Indian species but Aedeagus with median lobe, broadened up to apex, parameres distinctly isolated from median lobe, median strut reaches up to base of basal plate, female genitalia with bursa copulatrix sickle-like with four external denticles, without tubercles on surface are entirely different among all the described Indian species. This bizarre looking elaterid appears endemic distributed as far as Kalar Khar in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It basically appears to be a Palearctic species just extending itself into the Northern borders of Oriental region.

2. Cardiophorus quadrillum Candeze

Cardiophorus quadrillum Candeze, 1860:207.

Type locality

Hindoustan.

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: Thatta; 1 ; 13.vii.2005, leg. Akhter (NHMUK). Tandojam;1 , 14.iiiv.2007, leg. Imran (CAP).

3. Cardiophorus varius Cate et al.

Cardiophorus varius Cate et al., 2002: 50.

Type locality

Southern Iran: Hormozgan Province; Dar-pahn

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: Karachi; 4 , 16.iv.2007, leg. Ahmed (CAP). Thar; 05 , 23.iiiv.2007, leg.

Ahmed (CAP). Mirpur Khas; 3 , 10.iv.2007, leg. Ahmed on light (NHMUK).

New record for Pakistan

4. Dicronychus hobertlandi Cate et al.,

Dicronychus hobertlandi Cate et al., 2002:55.

Type locality

Southern Iran: Hormozgan Province: Issin. Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: Thar, 31 , 20.x.2007, leg. Ahmed (CAP). Kantio, male and 4 , 23.iiv.2007, leg. Ahmed(CAP). Islamkot, 3 and 1 , 23.vii.2007, leg. Ahmed on light (CAP). Punjab: Kalar Kahar, 2 , 2.ix.2007, leg. Ahmed(NHMUK). New record for Pakistan

5. Platynychus marginalis (Candeze), 1860 Cardiophorus marginalis Candeze, 1860:138. Platynychus marginalis Fleutiaux, 1905:328. Type locality Hindoustan.

Material examined

Pakistan: North West Frontier Province: Dader, 1 female, 29.iiv.2004, leg. Ahmed(CAP).

New record for Pakistan

6. Platynychus systenus (Candeze), 1860 Cardiophorus systenus Candeze, 1860:210. Platynychus systenus Schenkling,1925:240. Type locality Hindoustan.

Material examined

Pakistan: Punjab Province: Kalar Kahar 3 , 2.ix.2007, leg. Ahmed (CAP). Bhakar, 01 , 14.ix.2007, leg. Ahmed(CAP). New record for Pakistan

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are indebted to Dr. Giuseppe Platia, Italy for the loan of the material and Dr Hume Douglus Carleton University, Canada, for providing valuable literature and suggestions.

REFERENCES

CANDeZE, E., 1891. Catalogue methodique des elaterides connus en 1890. H. Vaillant-Carmanne. Liege: Xii + 246 pp.

CATE, P.C., 2007. Family Elateridae, 89-209. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, Vol. 4. Elateroidea - Derodontoidea - Bostrichoidea - Lymexyloidea - Cleroidea - Cucujoidea (eds. I. Lobl and A. Smetana). Apollo Books, Stenstrup, pp. 935.

CATE, P.C. PLATIA, G. AND SCHIMMEL, R., 2002. New species and records of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from Iran, with a checklist of known species. Folia Heyrovskyana, 10: 25-68.

CHAKRABORTY, P. AND CHAKRABARTI, S., 2006. A contribution to the fauna of click-beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea: Elateridae) of West Bengal. Zoological Survey of India. 254, pp. 220.

FLEUTIAUX, E., 1931. Les Elaterides de l'Indochine Francaise (catalogue raisonne). Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 56: 306-334.

FLEUTIAUX, E., 1941. Les Elaterides de francaise. Huitieme et derniere partie. Annl. Soc. Ent. France, 109:19-40.

FLEUTIAUX, E., 1947. Revision des Elaterides de l'Indochine francaise. Notes d'Ent. Chinoise, 11: 233-420.

KISHII, T., 1987. A Taxonomic study of the Japanese Elateridae (Coleoptera) with the keys to the subfamilies, tribes and genera. Kyoto, Japan. pp. 262.

PLATIA, G. AND GUDENZI, I., 2003. Contributo alla conoscenza dei Dicronychus Brulle della Grecia con descrizione di nuove specie e chiave di determinazione per quelle note. (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Cardiophorini). Annl. Mus. civico Storia nat. Ferrara, 5: 27-39.

PLATIA, G. AND GUDENZI, I., 2004. Contributo alla conoscenza dei Dicronychus Brulle della Turchia con descrizione di nuove specie e chiave di determinazione per quelle note. (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Cardiophorini). Bol. Soc. Ent. Aragonesa, 34: 9-22.

SCHWARZ, O., 1906. In: Genera Insectorum (Wytsmann). Fasc. 46A and 46B, Bruxelles, 224pp.

STIBICK, J.N.L., 1979. Classification of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Relationships and Classification of the subfamilies and tribes. Pacif. Insects, 20: 145-186.

VATS, L.K., 1984. Two new species of Dicronychus Brulle (Cardiophorinae: Elateridae). Annl. Ent., 2:7-9.

VATS, L.K. AND CHAUHAN, R.L., 1991. The species of Cardiophorus from North India (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Res. Bull. Sci. Punjab Univ., 24: 11-29.

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Departement d'Entomologie, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium.

Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.
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Author:Akhter, Muhammad Atique; Drumont, Alain; Rizvi, Syed Anser; Ahmed, Zubair
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2011
Words:2049
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