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Notes on Elaphoglossum (Lomariopsidaceae) section Polytrichia subsection Hybrida in Mexico and Central America.

Abstract: In Elaphoglossum sect. Polytrichia subsect. Hybrida six new species are described: E. angustioblongum A. Rojas, E. baquianorum A. Rojas, E. cotoi A. Rojas, E. jinoteganum A. Rojas, E. neeanum A. Rojas and E. silencioanum A. Rojas. New combination is made for Elaphoglossum mexicanum (E. Fourn.) A. Rojas. Two species are reported: E. barbatum (H. Karst.) Hieron. and E. scolopendrifolium (Raddi) J. Sm. Two species are redefined: E. erinaceum (Fee) T. Moore and E. tambillense (Hook.) T. Monte. E. pallidum (Baker ex Jenman) C. Chr. is eliminated for Mexico and Central America. Of the new species only E. neeanum is present outside of the region. A key is given to those species in Mexico and Central America.

Key words: Elophoglossum, new species, sect. Polytrichia, subsect. Hybrida Elaphoglossaceae, Mexico, Central America.

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This paper features some taxonomic contributions for Elaphoglossum section Polytrichia subsection Hybrida (Elaphoglossaceae) in Mexico and Central America. The section Hybrida is characterized by subulate and unrolled blade scales and hydathodes absent, and the subsection Hybrida is characterized principally by blackish blade scales (or absent) and present on costa and blade margin. In Flora Mesoamericana treatments have been mentioned six species for the region of the subsection: E. albomarginatum, E. bachouseanum, E. erinaceum, E. pallidiforme, E. pallidum and E. tambillense, however in the key of Mickel (1995) put to E. albomarginatum and E. pallidiforme as related with section Elaphoglossum subsection Pachygossa, probably because have glabrous blade. A. Rojas (1996a) report to E. denudatum for Costa Rica and A. Rojas (1996b) describe as new species to E. gomezianum that was determinate as E. pallidum.

In the Hybrida group Elaphoglossum erinaceum (Fee) T. Moore complex is mentioned as difficult because is very variable in blade shape and size, rhizome scale size and color and habitat as is mentioned in Mickel 1991a, 1992b, 1995, Mickel and Beitel 1988.

Several species has been segregated of this complex, for example: Elaphoglossum albomarginatum (Smith 1975), E. crispatum var. crispatum and var. beitelii (Mickel 1987); E. polyblepharum and E. heteroglossum (Mickel 1991b); E. pallidiforme (Mickel 1992a), E. gomezianum (Rojas 1996b). On this paper other new species are segregated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The new taxa are circumscribed on the basis of material seen at Museo Nacional de Costa Rica (CR), Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ENCB), Field Museum of Natural History (F), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (FCME), Harvard University (GH), Instituto de Ecologia, A. C. (Sede Regional del Bajio) (IEB), Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INB), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Iztacala (IZTA), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (MEXU), Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), New York Botanical Garden (NY), Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa (UAMIZ), University of California (UC) and Smithsonian Institution (US). The species have been compared with other neotropical treatments and papers as: Mickel 1987, 1991a, 1991b, 1992a, 1992b, 1995, Mickel and Beitel 1988, Rojas 1996a, 1996b, 2002, Smith 1975. The names according with index herbariorum in (Anomimous 2002).

The types that I saw are indicated with admiration marks, the types that I could not see are indicated with -n.s. as abbreviation of not seen. Some herbaria that probably have a specimen cited here but not revised are indicated with interrogation marks.

The countries indicated in bold represent the new distribution no previously reported.

NEW SPECIES

Elaphoglossum angustioblongum A. Rojas, sp. nov. (Fig. 1). Type: PANAMA. Chiriqui: Las Cumbres, hogback ridge N of Quebrada Iglesia, near town of Cerro Punta, 22 July 1971, T. Croat & D. Porter 16078 (Holotype: MO).

Ab E. gomezianum, sed stipitis longioribus, lamina latioribus angustius oblongata, laminae basis obtusa vel rotundata absimilis.

Epiphytic; rhizome 5-8 mm diam, compact; rhizome scales (10-) 15-20 x ca, 1 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate, brown, lustrous, marginally entire; phyllopodia 2-5 mm long (few evident by the scales); fronds (30-) 40-65 cm long, 4.0-5.6 cm wide, fasciculate; stipes 1/3-2/5 the frond length, with scales 3-5 mm long, dark brown to blackish, subulate, widely spreading; blade (20-) 30-45 x 2.5-4.6 cm, narrowly oblong, chartaceous, basically obtuse to rounded, apically acuminate; veins evident, free, simple or once-forked, 1-2 mm apart, at ca. 80[grados] from costa; hydathodes lacking; blade scales 1-2 x 0.2-0.5 mm, subulate, dark brown to black, marginally entire, present only on the margin; fertile fronds 25-40 cm long; stipes 2/3-3/4 the frond length; fertile blades 12-18 x 2.2-3.0 cm, lanceolate, basically obtuse to rounded, apically acute; intersporangial scales absent.

Distribution: Costa Rica and Panama; known only from Cordillera de Talamanca at 1450-2200 m.

Paratypes: COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: foothills of Cordillera de Talamanca, along Rio Vella Vista, NW of Las Alturas, ca. 8057, N, 82[grados]51' W, 1450-1600 m, G. Davidse 24334 (MO). PANAMA. Chiriqui: Bugaba, Cerro Punta, 8[grados]52' N, 82[grados]33' W, 2200 m, H. Werff & J. Herrera 6271 (MO), from STRI house to edge of mountain across the river, H. Werff & J. Herrera 6303 (MO).

The indument of this species is very similar to that of E. gomezianum A. Rojas, but it differs from that species by longer (1/3-2/5 of the frond length vs. 1/6-1/3) stipe, narrower (2.5-4.3 vs. 4.5-5.5 cm) and narrowly oblong (vs. elliptic) blades and obtuse to rounded (vs. cuneate) blade base. The name of this species refers to blade shape.

Elaphoglossum baquianorum A. Rojas, sp. nov. (Fig. 2). Type: COSTA RICA. Limon/Puntarenas: Talamanca/Coto Brus, Parque Internacional La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, sendero a Cerro Kamuk, entre Cerro Kasir y Cerro Nai, 9[grados] 11' 50" N, 83[grados] 3' 30" W, 2940-3100 m, 8 November 1996, A. Rojas et al. 3208 (Holotype: INB; Isotypes: CR, MEXU, MO, NY, UC, US).

Ab E. erinaceo lamina minori lanceolata, basin obtusa ad truncata, necnon costa nudis diversum.

Epiphytic; rhizome compact, 3-8 mm diam.; rhizome scales 5-12 x 0.5-0.8 mm, linear, brown to atropurpureous, marginally entire; phyllopodia 5-12 mm; fronds (15-) 20-42 cm long; stipes 2/5-3/5 the frond length; stipe scales 2-4 x ca. 0.2 mm, linear-lanceolate to subulate, dark-brown, dispersed, marginally entire; blades 9-22 x 3.0-5.8 cm, chartaceous, lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, basically obtuse to truncate, apically acuminate to cuspidate; blade scales 0.7-1.2 x 0.1-0.3 mm, linear to subulate, dark-brown, dispersed, marginally entire, only on blade margin; veins evident, 1-2-forked, 1-1.5 mm apart, diverging at 65-75[grados] from costa; hydathodes absent; fertile fronds 17-28 cm long; stipes 3/5-3/4 the frond length; fertile blades 4.5-10.5 x 1.3-2.8 cm, lanceolate, basically obtuse to truncate, apically acute; intersporangial scales absent.

Distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama; known from Eje Neovolcanico, Sierra de Juarez, Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Sierra de Chiapas, Montanas de Celaqne, Montanas de Santa Ana and Cordillera de Talamanca at 2000-3300 m.

Paratypes: MEXICO. Chiapas: Mpio. Tenejapa, near Paraje Banadil, 2713 m, D. Breedlove 53379 (NY); Mpio. Motozintla de Mendoza, near summit of Cerro Mozotal, 2750 m, D. Breedlove & B. Bartholomew 55847 (MEXU); Mpio. Motozintla de Mendoza, N and W slope of Cerro Mozotal below the microwave tower along the road from Huixtla to El Porvenir and Siltepec, 3000 m, D. Breedlove & A. Smith 22804 (ENCB, NY); Mpio. San Cristobal de Las Casas, Cerro Huitepec, (Muk-'ta Vits) W of San Cristobal de Las Casas, 2700 m, D. Breedlove & A. Smith 32046 (NY); 9.4 mi. S of Linda Vista Tropical Biological Station, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, Gittins 4157 (NY); Siera Madre de Chiapas, along trail to from high point on road to between Finca Liquidambar and Nueva Colombia, 15[grados] 40' N, 92[grados] 44' W, J. Luteyn & M. Lebron 11601 (NY). Jaliseo: Colimas, 7000 ft., C. Pringle 5530 (GH). Mexico: km 14 Zacualpan-Estracion Corona, 2050 m, J. Amaya 16 (IZTA); Mpio. Ocoyoacac, cruce de caminos Marquesa-Chalma y Marquesa-Tenancingo, 19[grados]14'03" N, 99[grados]23'25" W, 2850 m, R. Cisneros & D. Tejero 54 (IZTA); km 6-14 carretera Zacualpan-Coronas, 1900 m, R. Fragoso 32 (IZTA); km 4-8 Zacualpan-Subestacion Corona, 1900 m, M. Lopez 4 (IZTA); Cerro de Venacho, Amecameca, E. Matuda 18795 (MEXU). Michnacan: Zinapecuaro, alrededores de Laguna Larga, Los Azufres, 2750 in, H. Diaz 4674 (ENCB, IEB, MEXU, UAMIZ), J. Rzedowski 46176 (IEB, MEXU, UAMIZ); 0.1 km W of km post # 198 on Mexico Hwy. 15, between Morelia and Ciudad Hidalgo, 19[grados]40, N, 100056, W, 800 m, G. Yatskievych 81-417 (NY). Oaxaca: Mpio. Zapotitlan de Mendez, 2 km al NE de Zapotitlan, 20o01' N, 97[grados]43' W, A. Campos et al. 499 (MEXU, NY); Dist. Ixtlan, Sierra de Juarez, camino de Capulalpan a Llano Verde, a 15 km al NE de Capulalpan, 2400 m, D. Lorence & R. Cedillo 4214 (NY); Dist. Ixtlan, trail from San Pedro Nolasco, N to the Llano Verde, 6000-7000 ft, J. Mickel & R. Hellwig 3772 (ENCB, MEXU, NY, UC, US); Dist. Central, N slope of Cerro San Felipe, 7800-8400 ft., J. Mickel & R. Hellwig 4052 (NY); Dist. Teotitlan, 26-29 km NE of Teotitlan del Camino, vicinity of pass at Puerto Soledad, 7000-7400 ft., J. Mickel & L: Hellwig 4119b (NY); Dist. Ixtlan, ca. 8 km E of Ixtlan, on trail N of Capulalpan, toward Cerro Malacate, ca. 8000 ft., J. Mickel & S. Leonard 5325 (NY); Dist. Ixtlan, 2-6 km NE of Natividad, on trail from San Pedro Nolasco to the Llano Verde, 6000-7000 ft., J. Mickel & L. Pardue 7040 (NY); Mpio. Santiago Zacatepec, carretera Mitla-Zacatepec, 21.6 km de Ayutla rumbo a Zacatepec, costado N del Cerro Zempoaltepetl, 17[grados] 16' 38" N, 96[grados] 00' 17" W, 2480 m, A. Rojas et al. 4436 (INB, UAMIZ); about 15 km E of Ixtlan, near Natividad, along trail leading to Llano Verde, 6000-7000 ft, A. Smith 503 (UC); E slope of Sierra de Juarez, about 25-26 mi. SW of bridge over Rio Valle Nacional along Rte. 175, P. Sumers et al. 371 (NY). GUATEMALA. Chimaltenangn: Cerro de Tecpam, region of Santa Elena, 2400-2700 m, P. Standley 61034 (F, US); Barranca de La Sierra, SE of Patzum, 2100 m, P Standley 61523 (F, US). Quezaltenango: cumbre de Tuilacan, SW of San Martin Chile Verde, about 2400 m, P Standley 67804 (F, US); region of Boxantin, SE of San Martin Chile Verde, 2400 m, P Standley 83830 (F, US); El Pocito, S of San Martin Chile Verde on road to Colomba, 2200 m, P. Standley 84927 (F); vicinity of Fuentes Georginas, slopes of Volcan of Zuuil, 2300-2500 m, P. Standley 85977 (F); P. Standley 85979 (F), P. Standley 86030 (F). San Marcos: El Pocito, S of San Martin Chile Verde, on road to Colomba, about 2200 m, P Standley 84927 (F); along Quebrada Canjula, between Sibinal and Canjula, Volcan Tacana, 2200-2500 m, J. Stevermark s. n. (F); along road between San Sebastian at km 21 and km 8, 8-18 mi. NW of San Marcos, 2700-3800 m, J. Steyermark 35762 (F); slopes of Volcan Tajumulco, between Las Canojas and top of te bridge, 7 mi. from San Sebastian, 3300-3900 m, J. Steyermark 35821 (F), Z Steyermark 35870 (F); along Quebrada Canjula, between Sibinal and Canjula, 3 mi. from Guatemala-Mexico boundary, in vicinity of San Rafael, 2500-3000 m, J. Steyermark 36171 (F); Barranca Eminencia, road beteen San Marcos and San Rafael Pie de La Cuesta, in upper part of the barranca between Finca La Lucha and Buena Vista, 2500-2900 m, P Standley 86512 (F); near Aldea Fraternidad, between San Rafael Pie de La Cuesta and Palo Gordo, W facing slope of the Sierra Madre Mountains, 1800-2400 m, L. Williams et al. 25777 (F). HONDURAS. Lempira: Celaque National Park, trail from Camp 1 to Rio Naranjal, 14[grados]33' N, 88[grados]40, W, 2000 m, R. Moran 5547 (MO, NY). El Paraiso: Quebrada Tapahuasca, 1300 m, A. Molina 14654 (F, NY). EL SALVADOR. Santa Ana: Bosque de Montecristo, 2250 m, R. Seiler 290 (F); Cerro Montecristo, 2300 m, R. Seiler 688 (NY). COSTA RICA. Heredia: along Rio Ciruelas, Paso Llano, S slope of Volcan Barva, 6 km N of San Jose de La Montana, 2000 m, J. Montgomery & D. Huttleston 85-96 (NY). Limon/Puntarenas: Talamanca/Coto Brus, Parque Internacional La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, sendero a Cerro Kamuk, entre Cerro Kasir y Cerro Nai, 9[grados]11'50" N, 83[grados]3'30" W, 2940-3100 m, A. Rojas et al. 3208 (CR, INB, MEXU, MO, NY, UC, US). Cartago/San Jose: along Rio Tiribi, upstream from Planta Electrica Maria del Rosado (SW of Rancho Redondo), 9[grados]57, N, 83[grados]57.5, W, 1800-1900 m, M. Grayum & G. Stiles 5294 (MO). Paraiso/Perez Zeledon, Carretera Interamericana, entre Cerro Estaquero y la entrada a las torres, 9[grados]33'35" N, 83[grados]45'25" W, 3100-3300 m, A. Rojas 4525 (CR, INB). PANAMA. Chiriqui: Potrero Muleto to summit, Volcan de Chiriqui, 3100-4000 m, R. Woodson & Schery 355 (MO).

Elaphoglossum baquianorum resembles E. tambillense (Hook.) T. Moore in form of the blades, with the scales only on the costa and margin, but differs in its thicker rhizome (0.5-0.8 mm diam. vs. 0.3-0.5 cm), longer rhizome scales (5-10 x 0.5-0.8 mm vs. 4-7 x 0.20.5 mm), longer fronds [the sterile (15-) 20-45 cm vs. 15-25 cm, and the fertile 17-28 cm vs. 5-10 cm], bigger fertile blade (4.5-10.5 x 1.3-2.8 cm vs. 2.5-3.5 x 1.2-1.5 cm), hydathodes absent (vs. present), and scaly blade margin (vs. no scaly). The shape of the blades of E. baquianorum is similar to that of E. pallidum (Baker ex Jenman) C. Chr., but the rhizome scales are plane and yellowish (vs. twisted and blackish), with shorter blade (3.0-3.8 vs. 4.3-6.4 times longer than wide), and scaly blade margin (vs. no scaly). Also is similar to E. erinaceum in blade shape, but differs in narrow (0.5-0.8 mm 1.0-2.5 mm) and brown to blackish (vs. yellow to orange) rhizome scales, more dense stipe scales, larger [9-22 x 3.0-5.8 cm vs.(14-) 20-40 (-65) x (4-) 5-9 (-11.5) cm] blade, smaller [0.7-1.2 x 0.1-0.3 mm vs. 2-6 x 0.2-0.6 (-1) mm] and present only in margin (vs. costa and margin) blade scales.

This species is dedicated to park rangers Bernardo Picado and Errol Morales, to trailblazers ("baqueanos") Freddy Acuna, Eduardo Alfaro, Rodrigo Mora and Juan Solano, and to engineer Ricardo Segura from La Amistad International Park.

Elaphoglossum cotoi A. Rojas, sp. nov. (Fig. 3). Type: COSTA RICA. San Jose: Dota, Cordillera de Talamanca, San Gerardo de Dota, Finca de la Familia Viquez, 9[grados]32'50" N, 83[grados]49'50" W, 2300-2400 m, 17 July 1996, A. Rojas & M. Coto 2790 (Holotype: INB; Isotypes: CR, MO, NY, UC).

Ab E. erinaceo incola terrestri, lamina lanceolata, basi rotunda ad truncata, squamis rhizomatis pallido-pardalis, necnon costa nudis absimilis.

Terrestrial; rhizome 6-12 mm diam, compact; rhizome scales 10-15 x 0.7-1.5 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate, pale brown, flaccid, marginally entire to occasionally dentate, phyllopodia 10-17 mm long; fronds 33-83 cm long; stipes 1/3-1/2 the frond length; stipe scales 2-5 x 0.2-0.4 mm, subulate, pale brown on the base, the others brown, dense, marginally entire, mixed with glandular hairs less than 0.2 mm long; blades 20-49 x 6.3-10.3 cm, sub-coriaceous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, basically broadly cuneate to rounded, apically acuminate to cuspidate; costa glabrous to dispersedly scaly only on base, the scales similar to those of the stipe scales; marginal scales 1.0-2.5 x 0.2-0.5 mm, linear-lanceolate to subulate, pale brown to brown, dense, marginally entire; abaxial blade surface glabrous or occasionally with stellate hairs 0.1-0.3 mm long, pale to dark brown, dispersed; veins evident, simple to 2-forked, 1-1.5 mm apart, diverging at 65-80[grados] from costa; hydathodes absent; fertile fronds 42-57 cm long; stipes 1/2-3/4 the frond length; fertile blades 12-22 x 2.8-5.2 cm, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, basically broadly cuneate to obtuse, apically acute to acuminate; intersporangial scales absent.

Distribution: Costa Rica and Panama; known only from Cordillera de Talamanca at (1700-) 2000-3000 (-3300) m.

Paratypes: COSTA RICA. Estrella- Santa Maria road, 7000 ft., H. Stork 1521 (UC). Puntarenas: Buenos Aires, Ujarras, estribaciones del Cerro Amu, Macizo Durika, 9021, 10" N, 83[grados]17'30" W, 2500 m, A. Chacon 478 (CR, MO, UC). San Jose: Canton de Perez Zeledon, Parque Nacional Chirripo, Cuenca Terraba-Sierpe, Llano Bonito, 9[grados]26'58" N, 83[grados]31 '25" W, 3200 m, R. Aguilar 5076 (INB); Dota, hills around Rio Savegre, near Finca Sacatales, 9[grados]35' N, 83[grados]47' W, 2000-2400 m, H. Gay et al. 1551 (CR, MO); Dota, Cordillera de Talamanca, San Gerardo de Dota, finca de la Familia Viquez, 9[grados]32'50" N, 83[grados]49'50" W, 2300-2400 m, A. Rojas & M. Coto 2790 (CR, INB, MO, NY, UC). Cartago: El Guarco, Cordillera de Talamanca, Finca Los Lagos, Madreselva, 9[grados]40'34" N, 83[grados]52'38" W, 2700 m, M. Chavarria et al. 567 (CR, INB); Paraiso, Cordillera de Talamanca, Finca El Sitio, Sendero La Catarata, 9[grados]34'30" N, 83[grados]41'10" W, 2650 na, B. Gamboa & A. Picado 371 (INB, MO). Puntarenas: Buenos Aires, Ujarras, estribaciones del Cerro Amu, Macizo Durika, 9[grados]21'10" N, 83[grados]17 30" W, 2500 m, A. Chacon 478 (CR, F, INB, MO, NY, UC); Buenos Aires, Parque Internacional La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, Cerro Frantzius, sobre sendero, 90[grados]3'25" N, 82[grados]59'20" W, 2130 m, M. Moraga et al. 303 (CR, INB, MO, NY); Coto Brus, Parque Internacional La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, Valle del Silencio, entre sitio de acampar y Casacoca, 9[grados]07'15" N, 82[grados]57'55" W, 1700-2500 m, E Quesada et al. 1464 (CR, INB, MO, NY). San Jose: Perez Zeledon, Parque Nacional Chirripo, Llano Bonito, 9[grados]26'58" N, 83[grados]31'25" W, 3200 m, R. Aguilar 5076 (INB); road from Copey de Dota to Providencia, ca. 2.6 km from Copey de Dota at edge of forest on ridge, A. Evans & D. Lellinger 223 (US); near end of road ca. 5 km E of Copey de Dota, 2300 m, D. Lellinger et al. 1799 (INB, US); Dota, Cordillera de Talamanca, camino a San Gerardo de Dota, entrando por Jaboncillo, 9[grados]36'15" N, 83[grados]49'20" W, 2400-3000 m, A. Rojas & M. Coto 2710 (CR, INB, MO); Dota, Hills around Rio Savegre, near Finca Zacatales, 9035, N, 83[grados]47' W, 2000-2400 m, H. Gay et al. 1551 (CR, INB, MO); Perez Zeledon, Parque Nacional Chirripo, Cordillera de Talamanca, Monte sin Fe, 9[grados]27'05" N, 83[grados]31'25" W, 2900-3300 m, A. Rojas 2861 (CR, INB, MO, NY); near Laguna de La Escuadra, NE of El Copey, 2000-2200 m, P. Standley 42044 (US), P. Standley 42079 (US); Estrella-Santa Maria road, 7000 ft., H. Stork 1521 (UC). COSTA RICA/PANAMA. Puntarenas/Chiriqui: Coto Brus, Parque Internacional La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, sendero entre Mellizas y Cerro Quijada del Diablo, linea divisoria, 8[grados]54'25" N, 82[grados]44'55" W, 1700-2130 in, A. Rojas et al. 3286 (INB, MO).

Elaphoglossum cotoi resembles E. erinaceum in having orange rhizome scales and blackish brown stipes and blade scales, but it differs in its terrestrial (vs. epiphytic) habitat, pale brown (vs. orange-yellowish) rhizome scales, lanceolate (vs. elliptic) blades, basically rounded to truncate (vs. cuneate to obtuse) and glabrous (vs. scaly) costa.

C. V. Morton 5524 identified as Elaphoglossum christii H. Chr. (unpublished) is probably E. cotoi, but I did not see the holotype, only a photograph.

This species is dedicated to M. Se. Mateo Coto Rutherford, North American ecologist, and co-collector of the type material.

Elaphoglossum jinoteganum A. Rojas, sp. nov. (Fig. 4). Type: NICARAGUA. Jinotega: along Hwy 3, ca 1 km NW of La Fundadora entrance, unnamed peak ca. 500 m W of Hwy, 13[grados] 01' N, 85[grados] 56' W, 1450-1520 m, 24 May 1981, W. Stevens et al. 20411 (Holotype: CR; Isotype: MO).

Ab E. erinaceo lamina lineari-elliptica, squamis rhizomatis longioribus, iis stipitis laminaeque margine sparcis, necnon costa nudis ad sparse squamosa diversum.

Epiphytic; rhizome 3-5 mm diam, compact; rhizome scales (8-) 12-22 x 0.5-1.0 mm, linear-lanceolate, orange-yellowish to orange-reddish, marginally entire; phyllopodia 510 mm long (not visible for the scales); fronds 17-45 cm long; stipes 1/5-1/4 the frond length; stipe scales 1.0-3.5 x 0.2-0.4 mm, subulate, dark brown to blackish, very dispersed, marginally entire; blades 14-30 x 3.05.2 cm, narrowly elliptic to oblong-elliptic, basically cuneate, apically acuminate; costal glabrous to dispersely scaly only on the base, similar to stipe scales; marginal scales 1.0-1.5 x 0.2-0.4 mm, linear-lanceolate to subulate, dark brown to blackish, dispersed, marginally entire; abaxial blade surfaces glabrous; veins evident, simple or 1-forked, 1.0-1.5 mm apart, diverging at 70-80[grados] from costa; hydatbodes absent; fertile fronds 26 cm long; stipes ca. 1/2 the frond length; fertile blades 12 x 2.2 cm, oblong-elliptic, basically cuneate to obtuse, apically acute to obtuse; intersporangial scales absent.

Distribution: Nicaragua; known only from Cordillera Isabelia at 1450-1600 m.

Paratype: NICARAGUA. Esteli: Cerro Quiabu, situado a unos 8 km NO de la ciudad de Esteli, 1500-1600 m, A. Grijalva & M. Araquistain 618 (CR).

Elaphoglossum jinoteganum resembles E. erinaceum in having pale rhizome scales and blackish stipe and blade scales, but differs in its narrower and longer rhizome scales [(8-) 12-22 x 0.5-1 mm vs. 6-12 (-15) x 1.02.5 mm], orange-yellowish to orange-reddish (vs. pale brown-yellowish to orange-yellowish); shorter stipes of the sterile blades (1/5--1/3 vs. 1/3-1/2) narrowly elliptic to oblong-elliptic (vs. elliptic to broadly elliptic), 35.2 cm vs. (4-) 5-11 cm wide, glabrous to very sparsely scaly (vs. scaly) on costa; stipe and blade margin dispersely scaly (vs. densely scaly), smaller scales (stipe scales 1.0-3.5 mm vs. 3-8 mm, blade margin scales 1-1.5 mm vs. 1.5-3.0 mm). The blades shape and size recall E. mexicanum (Liebm.) A. Rojas, but the rhizome scales are orange-yellowish to orange-reddish (vs. pale to dark brown), and the costa is glabrous and dispersely scaly on the stipe and margin (vs. costa, stipe and margin densely scaly); smaller scales (costa and stipe scales 1-3.5 mm vs. 3-5 mm, blade margin scales 1.0-1.5 mm vs. 1.5-3 mm).

The name of this species refers to the type locality.

Elaphoglossum neeanum A. Rojas, sp. nov. (Fig. 5). Type: PANAMA. Darien: Middle slopes on W side of Cerro Pirre, 7[grados]56, N, 77[grados]45' W, 800-1050 m, T. Croat 68931 (Holotype: MO).

Ab E. cincto rhizomate repens, rhizomatis squamis fuscus et lamina latiori differt.

Epiphytic; rhizome 4-7 mm diam., short creeping, dorsiventral; rhizome scales 7-15 x 0.3-1.0 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate, pale-brown to atropurpureous, marginally entire to occasionally dentate; phyllopodia 2-6 mm (not visible for the scales); fronds 23-52 cm long; stipes 2/5-1/2 the frond length; stipe scales 1.54.0 x ca. 0.1-0.2 mm, linear to subulate, dark brown, dispersed, marginally entire; blades 1431 x 3.1-5.4 cm, narrowly elliptic to oblong-elliptic, subcoriaceous, basically cuneate, apically acute to cuspidate; blade scales 1-2 x 0.1-0.3 mm, linear to subulate, dark brown to atropurpureous, marginally entire, only on blade margin and rarely on base of costa, dispersed of absent; few evident veins, simple or 1-forked, 1-2 mm apart, diverging at 60-75[grados] from costa; hydathodes absent; fertile fronds 30-45 cm long; stipes 3/5-4/5 the frond length; fertile blades 10.5-17 x 2.6-3.2 cm, lanceolate to elliptic, basically cuneate to obtuse, apically acute to acuminate; interporangial scales absent.

Distribution: Panama and Colombia; known from Serrania del Darien and Cordillera de Los Andes at 800-1850 m.

Paratypes: COLOMBIA. Antioquia Guatape, Vereda Santa Rita, ca. 1850 m, L. Atehortua 1169 (MO); Urrao, Las Orquideas, Vereda Calles, Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquideas, Quebrada Honda, al NW de la Cabana Calles, 6[grados]29' N, 76[grados]14' W, 1330m, J. Pipoly et al. 16855 (MO).

Elaphoglossum neeanum resembles E. cinctum Rosenst. in blade shape and size, but differs in short-creeping (vs. compact) rhizome and brown (vs. yellowish) rhizome scales and broader [3.1-5.4 cm vs. 1.7-3 (-3.5) cm] blade. Also is very similar to E. albomarginatum A. R. Sm. by the brown rhizome scales and glabrous Nade, but the rhizome is short-creeping (vs. compact) and dorsiventral (vs. radial), the rhizome scales are longer and narrower (7-15 x 0.3-1.0 mm vs. 7-10 x 1-2 mm) and has green blade margin (vs. yellowish to whitish).

The specific epithet is in honor to Dr. Michael Nee of New York Botanical Garden, for the many interesting collections in ferns.

Elaphoglossum silencioanum A. Rojas, sp. nov. (Fig. 6). Type: COSTA RICA. Limon/Puntarenas: Talamanca/Coto Brus, Parque Internacional La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, Valle del Silencio, entre sitio de acampar y Casacoca, 9[grados]07'15" N, 82[grados]57'55" W, 1700-2500 m, 14 April 1996, F. Quesada et al. 1421 (Holotype: INB; Isotypes: CR, MO, NY).

Ab E. erinaceo statura minori, stipite longiori, lamina minori, squamis rhizomatis angustioribus, necnon costa glabrous absimilis.

Epiphytic; rhizome compact, 4-7 mm diam.; rhizome scales 7-15 x 0.3-1.0 mm,

Alexander Fco. Rojas-Alvarado (1,2)

(1) Coordinacion de docencia y atencion a alumnos, Division de Ciencias Biologicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, sede Iztapalapa, Av. Michoacan y La Purisima s. n., Col. Vicentina, 09340, Mexico, D. F. E-mail: arojas@xanum.uam.mx, afroiasa@hotmail.com

(2) Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Apdo. 22-3100, Sto. Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Received 25-V-2001. Corrected 11-XII-2001. Accepted 15-V-2002.
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Author:Rojas-Alvarado, Alexander Fco.
Publication:Revista de Biologia Tropical
Date:Mar 1, 2003
Words:4388
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