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Notes from the editor.

In This Issue

Most issues of the BRB begin with a memorial section. Last year's volume was an exception, being in large part a special issue devoted to Danau Sentarum National Park and dedicated to the memory of the late Reed Wadley. Consequently, we begin Volume 42 with a longer memorial section than usual, covering two years, from 2010 through the end of 2011.

To open it, Bob Reece presents a tribute to Anthony Brooke, the man who, had his uncle, Sir Vyner Brooke, not ceded Sarawak to the British Crown, would almost certainly have become Sarawak's fourth Rajah. However, it was not to be for reasons which, in retrospect, now seem inevitable. In addition to Reece's memorial, we take this occasion, to note, with sadness, the passing of Anthony Brooke's youngest daughter, Celia Margaret Brooke Captier, who died, shortly after this memorial to her father was written, in Rennes-le-Chateau, France, on 17 December 2011.

The next memorial, by Jayl Langub, pays tribute to a truly remarkable Iban woman, or, as she would have preferred, a Dayak woman, Dato' Sri Tra Zehnder.

Your Editor was one of the many foreign researchers described by Jayl who regularly consulted Dato' Tra when she was head of the Majlis Adat Istiadat. One such occasion, which I still clearly recall, took place shortly after the death of Anthony Richards in 2001. Through a recorded interview, Dato' Tra contributed a vivid, and characteristically telling, personal remembrance of Anthony for the BRB (Vol. 33 (2002): 30-33). She began with a humorous story recalling her first memory of Anthony. Early one morning, she told us, in passing the Fort Margherita parade grounds on her way to school, she saw a newly-arrived European bujang, with curly hair, leading the native police band practice. Upon asking her father, police Sergeant Jemat, she learned that the new "Tuan" was Anthony Richards. In those days, she added with a twinkle in her eye, she and her girlfriends took a keen interest in the comings and goings of newly-arrived bujang (bachelors) in Kuching. Years later, foreshadowing her role at the Majlis, Tra attended the historic Simanggang conference on the codification of Iban customary law organized by Anthony Richards and Hermanus Assan. Tra was the only woman in attendance and spoke at length about women and adat. As she recalled, "a lot of the men didn't like that. But Richards defended me and said that they should listen to what I had to say" (2002:31). Later, Richards served in the Secretariat and so wielded considerable influence in the post-World War II colonial government. Because he was kindhearted, Tra, who was then active in the Red Cross and Sarakup Indu Dayak, went to him with cases of desertion, where expatriate officers, in returning home, left behind native wives and children. Richards helped her insure that the children from these unions received some form of financial maintenance. Those involved were not only Dayak, but also Malay. Even after Richards returned to England, he continued to correspond with Traand in his letters, she told us, "he always asked about the children. And I told him," she said, "'Oh, they are doing fine,' or 'This one has gotten married.' He was always pleased" (2002: 32). Such was Tra, never censorious, but forever appealing to our better angels.

Although outspoken whenever she encountered an injustice being done, Tra was acutely sensitive to other peoples' feelings. It certainly was not her way to shame others or to moralize. It was well-known, of course, that Anthony Richards himself, as a young officer, had been one of those who had kept an Iban wife by whom he had had a son. Much to his honor, Anthony acknowledged the relationship and made provisions for his Iban son. Following Anthony's death, the Richards family in Cambridge generously made a gift of his personal papers, photographs, writings, and library so that these things would have a permanent home in Sarawak, dividing them between the UNIMAS Library and the Tun Jugah Foundation. Dato' Tra, as a long-time friend of the family, was not only on hand to welcome Anthony's two English sons, Huw and Michael, who traveled to Sarawak to formally present this material, but also helped facilitate a meeting between them and their Iban half-brother. Dato' Tra's humanitarianism, as Jayl rightly notes, was universal.

Following Jayl Langub's memorial, two of Dato' Sri Tra Zehnder's Majlis Adat Istiadat colleagues, Temenggong Robert Ridu of the Bidayuh section and Nicholas Bawin Anggat of the lban section, add their own personal tributes.

In the next memorial, your Editor writes of John Landgraf, one of the first professionally trained anthropologists to conduct fieldwork in what is now Sabah. John's research was commissioned by the colonial government of British North Borneo in 1954-55 and was, in some respects, a pioneering investigation of the implications of cultural practices on community health and reproduction. Unfortunately, the results of this work were never fully published. Later, John's career involved him mainly in university administration except for a brief time in the early 1960s in which he served as the first director of US Peace Corps operations in Sabah and Sarawak. In this capacity, he is still remembered by a number of former PC volunteers.

Next, Terry King writes a personal remembrance for his friend and, for more than 20 years, his close colleague in Borneo studies, Jan Avr. As King tells us, Ave was a formative figure in King's early academic career and, at the time of their first meeting, was Keeper of the Indonesian Collections at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden. In the years that followed, the two collaborated on a major bibliographic project related to West Kalimantan. They also worked together to organize a historic exhibition entitled "Oerwoud in ondergang, culturen op drift" (Vanishing jungles, cultures adrift), which drew from the rich collections of Borneo material culture in Dutch museums, and which marked Ave's retirement from the Rijksmuseum. This exhibition, in turn, resulted in a major book co-authored by Ave and King, People of the Weeping Forests.

Next, John Ting, an architect and architectural historian, presents a memorial for Ho Ah Chon, a tireless Sarawak photographer and collector of photographs who compiled an invaluable visual record of Sarawak's history, including the everchanging architectural landscape of Kuching. Upon his death in 2007, Ho left, as his legacy, his entire photographic archives to the people of Sarawak, and in 2009, his family bequeathed the "Ho Ah Chon Collection" to the Pustaka Negeri Sarawak (Sarawak State Library). For the next issue of the BRB, John Ting promises to write an account of the exhibition that marked the transfer of this bequest, and to discuss the cultural and historical significance of this enormous collection of photographs.

Finally, A.V.M. Horton concludes our memorial section, as he has in previous years, with an extended memorial for those connected with Brunei Darussalam, both native Bruneians and others, whose deaths occurred, in this case, over the last two years.

The first two Research Notes that follow are by Professor Andrew Smith, a frequent contributor to the BRB, and his daughter, Hilary, an Indonesianist and first-time BRB contributor. Both papers grew out of an initial interest in early trade in southern and western Kalimantan and in some unresolved questions in the early history of Borneo map-making. The first of these Notes concerns the probable location of Tanjungpura. The existence of Tanjungpura, as a trading port, has never been in question and is well-attested to by early Chinese, Malay, and Javanese sources. The name also appears on Portuguese maps of the early to mid-sixteenth century, and in Portuguese written accounts dealing with this same period. By the end of the sixteenth century, however, the name disappears, suggesting that Tanjungpura either ceased to function as a port of trade or that it had come to be known by a different name. Some historians have suggested that Tanjungpura was succeeded by the kingdom of Sukadana. Whatever the case, the precise location of Tanjungpura has long been a mystery. Two possibilities have been proposed. One is in West Kalimantan, in the lower Kapuas basin; the other is in South Kalimantan, in the Barito Delta. Since the turn of the twentieth century, authoritative Dutch sources have favored the West Kalimantan location, and since Indonesian independence, this view has hardened into what now verges on historical orthodoxy. Although the possibility exists that during its heyday the location of Tanjungpura may have shifted several times, the Smiths argue that, of these two possibilities, the weight of evidence would seem to favor South Kalimantan. This evidence consists primarily of sailing times and directions and more recent archaeological finds. The Smiths' conclusion is, to say the least, controversial. The association of Tanjungpura with West Kalimantan has become deeply inscribed in regional identity and institution naming. Thus, for example, the provincial university, with its campus in Pontianak, bears the name Universitas Tanjungpura, and, as many readers will recall, was the venue of a past BRC biennial conference. Aside from the question of Tanjungpura's location, another issue that the authors raise is the possible Dayak contribution to the early creation of pre-Islamic coastal and riverine trading ports such as Tanjungpura, the formation of states, and the development of early trading networks in southern Borneo with links to Java and Mainland Southeast Asia.

In their second Research Note, Andrew and Hilary Smith take up another mystery in the early cartography of Borneo. "Hermata" makes its first appearance, the authors tell us, on a Dutch map dated to 1598. Here, it appears as the name of a town located close to the mouth of the Sambas River in what is now West Kalimantan. The name continues to appear on maps into the eighteenth century, sometimes becoming, indeed, the name of a "kingdom." Unlike Tanjungpura, however, there is no textual support for Hermata's actual existence, and the authors conclude that the name was most likely an engraver's misreading of instructions written on the original sketch map from which the 1598 map was produced. Hence, "Hermata" was never, it seems, an actual place, and its "disappearance" was due to the vast improvement in geographical knowledge of coastal Borneo that occurred between the sixteenth and eighteen centuries.

West Kalimantan, again, is the subject of our third Research Note. In last year's BRB, Robert Pringle wrote of a trip that he and his wife, Barbara, had made in June 1966 to the Kelabit Highlands of Sarawak ("Bario Diary June 3-June 27, 1966," BRB, vol. 41: 211-249). The trip took place at the end of 13 months of doctoral research examining historical relations between the Iban and the Brooke Raj (see Rajahs and Rebels: The Iban of Sarawak under Brooke Rule, 1841-1941). As Pringle tells us, having studied Iban history, he naturally had a special interest in the upper Kapuas and, in particular, the lakes region near the West Kalimantan/Sarawak border, since the whole of this area figures centrally in Iban myths and oral historical traditions. During the period of his doctoral research (1965-66), Indonesia and Malaysia were engaged in border hostilities (Konfrontasi) and travel through the area was impossible. But by 1971, he writes, "things had largely settled down," although "Indonesian troops were still stationed along the West Kalimantan-Sarawak border." Indeed, the province of West Kalimantan was, and would remain for some years to come, effectively under military rule. As a US Foreign Service officer, Pringle's two-week trip with his wife up the Kapuas from Pontianak to Putussibau and back again and then across the lakes region to Lubok Antu just on the other side of the Sarawak border, was an "official visit." The account of the journey that appears here thus derives from a non-cable report (officially termed "airgram" A011), sent by diplomatic pouch from the US Embassy in Jakarta to the State Department in Washington DC on January 17, 1972. The visit, as Pringle tells us, followed Embassy procedures for what is called "regional travel," meaning that the author, as a Foreign Service officer, met and talked with local officials, resident US citizens (all, in this case, missionaries), and others to gain an understanding of the economic and political parameters of an Indonesian province that had been seriously "disturbed" in the recent past. Indeed, military control had kept, and would continue to keep, the province largely isolated from the outside world, and in describing his experiences and conversations during this journey, Pringle's vivid, first-person diary sheds valuable light on an extremely murky period of West Kalimantan history.

The Research Note that follows Pringle's journey takes us back several decades in time and across the border to Sarawak. Here, the author, Peter Varney, an Anglican clergyman, describes the work of the Methodist Church among the Iban from its official beginnings in 1939 through 1968. The Note is part of a larger comparative project examining the historical development of Protestant Christianity in Sarawak. As Varney notes, the Methodist church was first established in Sarawak in 1901, and, in the beginning, served primarily a Foochow Chinese population. Indeed, church leaders initially discouraged missionary work among the Iban. It was only in 1939 that an Iban Methodist mission was established. Following the Japanese Occupation, Methodist evangelistic efforts began in the Baleh and other rivers above Kapit, in what was then the Third Division of Sarawak. In 1949, a major breakthrough occurred when a number of prominent Iban leaders converted, among them the redoubtable Temenggong Koh. From then onward, mission schooling among the Iban expanded rapidly. Education, for the Methodist Church, Varney observes, took a notably practical bent, emphasizing scientific agriculture, literacy, hygiene, and heath care. The author offers a detailed account of the structure of the Iban Methodist Church and describes how this structure evolved over time. He discusses, too, the role of the ministry and lay leadership in the Iban church and how Christian belief was adapted to Iban practice. Over the last three decades there has been a phenomenal growth of Christianity among the Iban. As the author notes, in 1947 less than 4% of the Iban population of Sarawak identified themselves as Christian. By 1960, this figure had risen to only 11%, but by 2000 it had become 70% (roughly the same proportion of the population, Varney observes, as identifies itself as Christian in the UK). Though late in starting, much of this growth, the author writes, can be attributed to the work of the Methodist mission.

In our sixth Research Note, Ann Appleton reports on the results of a project aimed at recovering the "lost voices," as she describes them, embodied in a collection of archival photographs, most of them taken in the 1960s by the Sarawak Museum photographer, Junaidi bin Bolhassen, but also a few taken by Robert Pringle in 1966. In order to discover what these photographs "have to say," Appleton took enlarged copies of them back to the Melanau communities along the Mukah and Oya Rivers where they were originally taken some 50 years earlier. Going far beyond its original objective of simply salvaging information, the project soon took on a life and significance of its own. The breakthrough came, the author tells us, when villagers recognized a man depicted in one of the photos. When presented with the photo, the man, named Nanas bin Dra, was deeply moved, stirred by long-dormant memories, and when shown an accompanying photo of a nearby river scene, he told the author that he had dreamed of that very scene the night before. Not only did photographs, as in this case, reawaken memories, but, as the author notes, they also spoke to and generated social relationships. Out of this particular encounter, Nanas' son, Dedo bin Nanas, a school headmaster, offered the author his assistance and so became an indispensible source of help, introducing her to informants, acting as an interpreter, and sharing with her his depth of local knowledge. The presence of these photos also broke cultural and linguistic barriers and created bonds of sociality, as neighbors and kin gathered to view them, often bringing out their own photo albums and family keepsakes in the process.

In a fascinating way, Appleton shows how photography itself became an integral part of her relationships with her Melanau informants. Often, she explains, informants "directed" her to take particular pictures. For example, she was often asked to take a photograph almost identical to one in her collection of archival photos, in other words, to produce a kind of "now and then" image. Another frequent request was to take a current family photo of a relative or family member who appeared in one of her archival photos. Such photographs clearly make a statement about the value of family ties and of intergenerational continuity and connections. Moreover, informants invariably insisted that the author, too, be present in these family photographs, nicely underlining, as she notes, her own inclusion in these events and their collaborative nature. Perhaps the most poignant of all the photographic "voices" that the author recovered was elicited by a photograph taken in 1962 of a small girl paddling a canoe, and was spoken by the same person, now an elderly lady: "I remember when the men came through the village and took my photo ... All my life I've wanted to see this photo." And now she has, a momentary glimpse, through a photographic image, into her own past.

In the next Research Note, Herwig Zahorka, another frequent contributor to the BRB, writes of the Benuaq Dayaks of East Kalimantan. On this occasion, he describes the carved wooden statues erected by the Ohookng Benuaq either during secondary burial rituals, or in the course of annual rituals of thanksgiving. These statues are called belontakng or sepatukng belontakng and differ, depending upon the particular occasion for which they are erected. Belontakng associated with secondary burial rites are erected at the funeral site, face westward, and depict a human figure, or figures, together with protective spirits. The statue itself is said to serve as a temporary resting place for the spirit of the deceased during secondary treatment of the deceased's remains. By contrast, belontakng associated with thanksgiving rites face eastward, also depict a human figure, but this is usually that of a shaman (beliatn), and are carved without protective spirits. Although the author suggests that these statues, too, have a memorial function, there appears to be little long-term interest in their permanence and, interestingly, he observes that today most belontakng associated with death rituals are eventually sold by the deceased's family to tribal art dealers in order to recoup some of the expenses incurred in sponsoring the rituals in which these statues were erected.

The four Research Notes that follow are all, in one way or another, concerned with Sabah. The first, "From Rebellion to Sainthood" by Low Kok On, deals with the popular folklore that has come to surround the keramat, or Muslim saint, Haji Abdul Salam, stories of whom are well-known in Bajau and Brunei Malay communities along the west coast of Sabah. Dr. Low begins his Note by placing this folklore within a larger Malaysian and Muslim Malay context of keramat traditions. What is notable in the case of Haji Abdul Salam is that, as a "living saint," he is generally identified by those who tell these stories as the famous Sabahan "rebel," Mat Salleh, who led an armed uprising against the British North Borneo Chartered Company Government between 1894 and 1900. On January 31, 1900, Mat Salleh was reportedly killed during the siege of his fort at Tambunan. However, many of his followers refused to accept the fact of his death, and, in the decades that followed, until quite recently, stories came to be told about his miraculous reappearance at various places along the east coast. Because of his outlaw status, for many, he appeared disguised as a pious elder, Haji Abdul Salam. In this form, he is said to have performed various miracles. The author outlines some of the principal characteristics of a collection of Haji Abdul Salam folktales he recorded and relates them to what is known of the historical Mat Salleh.

In the next Research Note, Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan reports on the results of an ethnographic mapping project covering the interior Tambunan District of west-central Sabah. In the early days of the Borneo Research Council, one of the more ambitious projects envisioned by the Council's founding members was a comprehensive mapping of the distribution of different cultural and linguistic groups throughout the island of Borneo. The value of such a mapping was then, and remains, inestimable, but anthropological fashions have changed and there were never enough anthropologists and linguists on the ground to make the realization of such a project possible. In organizing and directing this pilot mapping project, Dr. Pugh-Kitingan has certainly placed not only future anthropologists, but the descendants of those people now living in the district, deeply in her debt. Here, through collaboration with local community leaders, she and her colleagues have defined the basic demographic, social, cultural, and economic contours of the district's population and have recorded community histories, accounts of origin and of past migrations. They have also delineated within the majority Dusunic population locally-recognized subgroups and dialect communities, and have documented regional variations in social institutions, economic activities, elements of customary law and material and intangible culture, recording these results in a digital database available through the Tambunan District Office, as well as UMS and the Sabah Museum.

The project was carried out between 2007 and 2010 and involved the participation of nearly 200 local informants. The results continue to be analyzed, and one important spinoff that the author foresees is the identification of significant items of local cultural heritage and the possible future designation of heritage sites. Following the completion of this pilot mapping, Dr. Pugh-Kitingan and her colleagues hope to expand the project to include other districts, an objective we greatly commend.

The Research Note that follows by Saeida Rouass and Nathan Waller takes up a topic of growing concern, not only in Borneo, but throughout the developing world, namely, language endangerment and the effects of national language policies on the long-term survival of minority languages. The authors note that with globalization, the status of hundreds of minority languages is now in question, and in recent years the issue of language loss has become a subject of increasing scholarly attention. In their view, the problem is particularly acute for small, traditionally isolated speech communities, and in this paper, Rouass and Waller focus on one such community, the Rungus, a Dusunic-speaking people who traditionally inhabited parts of the Kudat Peninsula and the nearby Murudu Bay area of Sabah. The particular issue the authors examine is the role of educational policy-making and, more specifically, the impact of school-based second and third language learning on native language endangerment and, ultimately, in this case, on the survival of the Rungus community itself. In carrying out their study, they used a focus-group interview method and through group discussion assessed their respondents' perspectives on the importance to them of Rungus language and culture, the role of Bahasa Malaysia and English in their children's education, and the impact of school-based language learning on Rungus identity and Rungus language use. The authors also discuss ways in which the Rungus might make their views more effectively heard in the educational decision-making process.

In the last of our Sabah Research Notes, Jayl Langub, another frequent contributor to the BRB, gives us an interesting account of the origins and present-day makeup of a large and thriving Iban settlement located at Merotai, near Tawau, on the east coast of Sabah. This, as far as we know, is the only fully contiguous and wholly Iban settlement area in Sabah except for temporary labor compounds and small urban enclaves of Iban, including one near the Kota Kinabalu airport. Otherwise, all of the remaining five to six thousand Iban living in Sabah live dispersed among other ethnic groups. The author relates the origin and growth of the Merotai settlement to the long-established Iban practice of bejalai. As he notes, bejalai means, literally, 'to walk' or 'go on a journey.' Most commonly, the term is used in the anthropological literature to describe an institution of (mostly) male sojourning undertaken for material profit, prestige, and adventure. The earliest Iban settlers at Merotai consisted of men who had reached the east coast of Sabah while traveling and working at various jobs while on bejalai. Rather than following the usual norm, however, each of these men, for a variety of reasons, married, or brought wives from home to join them, and settled down permanently in Sabah rather than returning to their homes in Sarawak, thus creating the beginnings of a transplanted Iban community. The term bejalai, it might be added, also has several other meanings. In a longhouse setting, it may also be used to describe the practice of leaving one's own bilik and walking through the longhouse to pay a social visit to another family in their own bilik. Bejalai in this sense is an important feature of longhouse sociality. In the past, Iban women were much more restricted in their travels than men. Consequently, this latter kind of bejalai within the longhouse was more characteristically a woman's activity, while, until recently, long-distance sojourning was largely limited to men. The term bejalai is also sometimes used in a figurative sense by the Iban to refer to the nightly courting formerly practiced by young men. Courting and sojourning were often combined in the past, and historically provided a way in which longhouses with marriageable young women were able to recruit in-marrying husbands coming from other areas. This process in the past was particularly important for newly-established longhouses in frontier areas of Iban outward expansion. What is fascinating here is to see this same process at work in Merotai. Once daughters of the first generation of settlers came of age, their marriages to a new generation of Iban travelers were, as we see, an important driving force behind the expansion of the Merotai community. It also gave rise to a distinctive pattern of internal relationships between families that Jayl describes in some detail.

Bejalai travels, in addition, typically provided a fund of experience from which men later in life drew as a source of storytelling material. Another interesting thing that Langub does in his Note is to make use of this fund of orally-transmitted experiences to reconstruct an account of the community's history through a series of bejalai narratives. It is also, as readers will see, a remarkable account of a community's resilience, its capacity to organize itself, draw upon the leadership abilities of its members, and adapt to a new setting. In the course of adapting, the Merotai Iban have pioneered what, for the Iban, is a comparatively new economic niche as oil-palm smallholders, a form of economic pioneering that can also be seen among recent Iban settlers in Miri and Bintulu Districts in northern Sarawak. Finally, Jayl reports that early on, transplanted Iban from Sarawak built two longhouses on the upper reaches of the Merotai River. Today, for much of the year, these longhouses are occupied by only a few elderly people, as virtually everyone now lives in single-family dwellings, many of them along the Tawau-Kelabakan highway. But, interestingly, both of these longhouses fill with families during Gawai celebrations, as many parents, although living in single-family houses themselves, still consider it important that their children experience Ionghouse living, at least briefly, seeing it as a meaningful part of their Iban heritage. Much the same phenomenon can now be observed among urban and town-living Iban in Sarawak.

In the next Research Note, Dr. Masachiro Ichikawa takes up the issue of urban migration and rural population loss. He does so by comparing the impact of out-migration on two rural villages, both of them located along the Apoh River in the Miri Division of Sarawak. As the author notes, Sarawak has just begun a major demographic shift in which, for the first time, over half of the state's population now lives in urban areas. While much has been written about the process of rural depopulation in general, we have very few concrete case studies that look at the process in detail within particular village settings, and even fewer comparative studies that attempt to identify the factors causing different rates and effects of out-migration. Here, Dr. Ichikawa, by comparing two villages, identifies a number of such factors, among them education, road construction, and relations between logging companies and local village leaders.

Finally, Professor Bob Reece, in our last Research Note in this issue, follows up his memorial for Anthony Brooke by presenting a fuller account of him in his role as the Rajah Muda of Sarawak and, ultimately, as champion of the Anti-cession movement. Reece does this by allowing Brooke to speak for himself through a series of extended excerpts drawn from interviews that Reece conducted in London in 1975. "Now that Anthony Brooke has passed on, it is only appropriate," as Professor Reece rightly observes, "that his important role in Sarawak history be seen from the inside, from his own perspective."

Again, as in previous years, our Brief Communications section opens with another "Letter from Lundu." Here, our resident man of letters, Otto Steinmayer, describes his return home to Lundu after an absence of two years at the University of Malaya. In his letter this year, Otto writes of the melancholic events that occurred during Sarawak's recent landas or rainy season. Otto also takes note of some remarkable changes that occurred in Lundu during his absence. For some of us who still remember with nostalgia small-town sundry shops in Sarawak and the rapid clicking of abacus beads as our grocery bills were reckoned up, the thought of such shops now being equipped with laser barcode readers and closed-circuit TV surveillance comes as a shock. But, of course, it shouldn't. The world, Otto reminds us, is becoming ever more homogenous and interconnected. Distant tragedies, through the magic of the internet, now occur, as it were, in our own backyard.

Dee Baer concludes our Brief Communications section with a discussion of the large-scale historical implications of recent genetic findings relating to Iban DNA. As a footnote, your Editor would add that the Iban DNA materials reported in the essay that Dee cites were collected and recorded by the late Rob Barrett and his Iban medical colleague, Edward Jerah, in the Sri Aman Division of Sarawak, with a level of anthropological sophistication seriously lacking in virtually all of the genetic data their co-authors draw upon for comparative purposes. The Iban DNA findings, because of their carefully established provenance, might usefully serve in the future as a genetic benchmark when addressing the questions of Southeast Asian cultural and linguistic history that Dr. Baer lays out in her Brief Communication.


Out of discussions between your Review Editor, myself, and others, we have decided to add a new category of contributions to the BRB. These contributions, we propose to call "Memoirs." Memoirs, as distinct from "Research Notes," "Brief Communications," and "Review Essays," are meant to be personal reflections by an author on how he or she came to undertake and carry out a particular line of research, the results of which may be said to have added, in some significant way, to our knowledge of Borneo.

Happily, to initiate our Memoirs series, we successfully prevailed upon Donald Brown, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, to write "How it came to be" or, "How I came to write Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate. His essay marks the fortieth anniversary of the publication of this ground-breaking monograph, which, to this day, remains essential reading for any serious student of Brunei Malay history and society. In this connection, your Editor welcomes suggestions for possible future Memoirs.

The Eleventh International Biennial BRC Conference, Universiti Brunei Darussalam in Bandar Seri Begawan, 25-27 June 2012

The eleventh Biennial Conference of the Borneo Research Council will be held on the Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD) campus, Bandar Seri Begawan, over a three-day period, from 25 through 27 June 2012. For detailed information regarding the conference see the ANNOUNCEMENTS section in this issue. Additional updated information is also available through the conference website:

Some Internet Connections

Dr. Stephanie Morgan writes that she has put up a few of her Mendalam Kayan traditional oral texts on a community Facebook page, mostly, so far, for the Kayans. For those who may be interested, she suggests they have a look at the current posting, "Uvakkavo", downloading the materials through the links provided. Stephanie asks that those of you who do so let her know what you think of this posting and pass on word of its existence to others. Continuing, she writes
   The UW [University of Wisconsin] server allows only one gigabyte of
   storage, so to put more texts up I'll need to take some of these
   down. Not for a few weeks though, till I'm certain that any Kayan
   who wants them has got them... I can get round the limit by posting
   pictures and scans as a photo gallery, and soon will. This isn't a
   website yet, just a sample....

Your Editor adds that Stephanie's daughter, Brihannala Morgan, recently became Executive Director of the Berkeley-based NGO, "The Borneo Project," which last year celebrated its 20th anniversary. The Project puts out a monthly newsletter describing its activities. For more information, those who are interested should consult the Borneo Project's website:

A long-time friend and former teaching colleague of your Editor, Anthony R. Walker, writes from Universiti Brunei Darussalam that the university's publication, Southeast Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, is now online in full as an E-journal (no hard copy available). For more information the reader is invited to visit: The most recent issue of Southeast Asia available is Volume 10 (2010) which includes a number of articles of likely interest to readers of the BRB:

1) Kazimierz Becek, "Brunei Darussalam's Way to the Future through Modern Mapping," pp. 1-10. (PDF Version)

2) Anthony R. Walker, "A Kingdom of Unexpected Treasures: Contributions to a National Ethnography of Brunei by UBD Sociology-Anthropology Students," pp. 11-38. (PDF Version)

3) Salbrina Sharbawi, "The Sounds of Brunei English-14 Years On," pp. 39-56. (PDF Version)

4) Hajah Dayang Fatimah binti Haji Awang Chuchu, "Bahasa Dalam: Continuity, Change and Preservation," pp. 57-64. (PDF Version)

5) B.A. Hussainmiya, "The Malays of Brunei Darussalam and Sri Lanka," pp. 65-78. (PDF Version)

Your Editor particularly recommends Anthony's paper, "A Kingdom of Unexpected Treasures," which surveys some 11 years (1999-2010) of research and writing on Brunei society by UBD students and assesses its contribution to the development of a "national ethnography."

Dr. Walker also announces his retirement from the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, UBD. He and his wife, Chhobi, plan to depart from Brunei on February 22, 2012. The Walkers will take up residence in their bungalow, "Suvarnasikha," near Kandy, Sri Lanka, later in the year. For Anthony's many Malaysian and Brunei friends, their new address will be: "Suvarnasikha," 426 Mahakanda Road, Hindagala 20400, Sri Lanka, and, for the present, their email address is: <>

Finally, Jennifer Alexander sends a link to a website that is likely to be of interest to Borneo specialists: On this site, Mike Heppell writes a commentary based on his participation in the recent 60 years of Anthropology at the ANU symposium, discussing the contributions of Jim Fox and his ANU Ph.D. supervisor, the late Derek Freeman. Also on the site is Jenny Alexander's review of Monica Freeman's Diaries.

Thanks and acknowledgments

In closing these Notes, I would like to thank all of those who assisted me during the year with article reviews, editorial or technical assistance, or who contributed news items, announcements, comments, bibliography, or book reviews. The list, as always, is a long one, but here I would like to thank in particular Sander Adelaar, George Appell, Ann Appleton, Ann Armstrong, Dee Baer, Peter Bellwood, Bibi Aminah, James Chin, Adrian Clynes, Rob Cramb, Mary Elmendorf, Traude Gavin, Mike Heppell, A.V.M. Horton, Roger Kershaw, Terry King, Jayl Langub, Paolo Maiullari, Robert Menua Saleh, Bob Pringle, Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan, Bob Reece, Bernard Sellato, Kenneth Sillander, Andrew Smith, Otto Steinmayer, Vinson Sutlive, John Ting, Anthony Walker, and Herwig Zahorka. As in past years, I am grateful to Alan Morse for the skillful work he did in preparing the present volume for publication, and to the other members of the BRC staff in Phillips, Maine, for overseeing its printing, distribution, and mailing. In his role as Book Review Editor and compiler of our annual abstracts and bibliography sections, I am especially indebted to A.V.M. Horton. As always, Dr. Horton has also been a regular correspondent during the year and a frequent source of news items, advice, and information. Once again, too, a special thanks goes to my wife, Louise Klemperer Sather, who, as our Assistant Editor, carefully read through and co-edited all of the papers, reviews, announcements, and brief communications that appear in this volume. Her editorial skills, as always, have been an invaluable help.

Members Support

Here we wish to express our thanks to the following individuals for their contribution over the last year to the BRC endowment and general funds.

Contributors to the General Fund:

Dr. Adela Baer, Dr. Martin Baier, Dr. Clare Boulanger, Dr. & Mrs. Allen Drake, Ms. Katherine Edwards, Ms. Judith Heimann, Dr. A.V.M. Horton, Dr. A. H. Klokke, Ms. Valerie Mashman, Dr. Azam Othman, Ms. Vicki Pearson-Rounds, Dato Seri John Pike, Dr. & Mrs. Clifford Sather, Dr. Bernard Sellato, Professor F. Andrew Smith, Dr. Jack Stuster, Fr. Brian Taylor, Dr. Phillip Thomas, Mr. William Wilkinson, Dr. Robert Winzeler, and Dr. Leigh Wright.

Contributors to the Endowment Fund:

Dr. Clare Boulanger, Dr. Michael Dove, Professor H. Arlo Nimmo, Mr. J. Pearson, Dr. Robert Pringle, and Professor Robert Reece.

We thank each of these individuals for their generous support.

Ann Appleton received her Ph.D. in Social Anthropology from Massey University, New Zealand. Her principal focus has been on Melanau-related research, particularly over the past five years while attached to the Institute of East Asian Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. She is the author of Acts of Integration, Expressions of Faith; Madness, Death and Ritual in Melanau Ontology (BRC 2006) and Speak Melanau Mukah: An English-Melanau Mukah Word and Phrase List (Unimas Publications 2010). A major paper on the existential significance of Melanau ancestors is forthcoming in a collection of essays edited by Pascal Couderc and Kenneth Sillander, NIAS Press. She is currently working on a visual ethnography which is described in her contribution to this volume of the Borneo Research Bulletin.

Donald E. Brown is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1969, based on archival and field research on Brunei from 1966 to 1968.

Jayl Langub is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of East Asian Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). A retired civil servant, Jayl Langub received a B.A. in anthropology at McGill University and a M.A. in Community Development at the University of Alberta. He has published numerous papers on the Penan and Orang Ulu, including entries in The Encyclopedia of Malaysia. He has also written on local adat, human rights issues, and social change. Recently, he co-edited with James Chin Reminiscences: Recollections of Sarawak Administrative Service Officers (Pelanduk Publications, 2007). Jayl is also a frequent contributor to the BRB, his most recent publications being "Penan and the Pulong Tau National Park: Historical links and contemporary life," 39 (2008): 128-165, and "Notes on the Seping of Belaga District, Sarawak," 40 (2009): 147-72. In addition to his work on the Iban of Sabah, as reported in this volume of the BRB, Jayl is currently engaged in a two-year study of salt springs and traditional salt trade among the indigenous peoples of the Kelabit-Krayan Highlands.

Ichikawa Masahiro received his Ph.D. from Kyoto University in 2002 and is currently a Professor on the Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Japan. His principal research interests include change in the rural societies in Asia, population dynamics in rural areas and natural resource management. His Ph.D. research focused on natural resource use by the Iban of Sarawak. His recent publications are "Changes and diversity in rules of natural-resource tenure by the Iban of Sarawak, East Malaysia: An evaluation from the viewpoint of biodiversity conservation" Asian and African Area Studies 8(1): 121(2008) and "Rules of Inheritance and Transfer of Land by the Iban of Sarawak: Land as an intergenerational resource" Borneo Research Bulletin 38 (2008): 148-158.

Low Kok On (Ph.D., Universiti Sains Malaysia) is an Associate Professor in the School of Arts Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The main focus of his research is Kadazandusun and Malay folklore. Recent publications include the book, Oral Tradition of Keramat (Muslim Saint) Tunku Syarif Kedah in Labuan Island (2010), published in Malay by Universiti Malaysia Sabah; a journal article in Malay entitled "Lambang Semangat Juang dalam Legenda Rentap dan Sejarah Penentangannya terhadap Raja Brooke di Sarawak" published in Sari--International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation 28 (1) (2010): 151-175, and a chapter entitled "Mantera: An Overview of the Malay Archipelago," in the book Charms, Charmers and Charming (2009) edited by Jonathon Roper and published by Palgrave Macmillan.

Robert Pringle first came to Borneo to do research on Brooke-era Iban history for his Cornell University Ph.D. dissertation in collaboration with the late Benedict Sandin. This was later published as Rajahs and Rebels: the Iban of Sarawak under Brooke Rule, 1841-1941, a new edition of which has recently been issued by the University of Malaysia Sarawak. After completing his Ph.D. in 1967, Pringle served in the US Foreign Service for 37 years. His first assignment abroad was to Jakarta, and while there, he prevailed on his superiors to allow him to travel to the Kapuas lakes region of West Kalimantan, adjacent to the area of Sarawak where he had done his doctoral research six years previously. His report on that trip is published in the current volume of the BRB.

Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan (BA Hons., Monash; Ph.D., Queensland) is an ethnomusicologist who holds the Kadazandusun Chair at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. She is also Associate Professor and teaches Borneo Ethnography and Ethnomusicology in the UMS School of Social Sciences, and Borneo Music Studies and Ethnomusicology in the UMS School of Arts. She is a member of the Borneo Research Council and BRC Regional Vice President for Sabah, a member of the ICTM Study Group on the Performing Arts Southeast Asia, and sits on the Jawatankuasa Pakar Pendafiaran Warisan (Adat) of the Jabatan Warisan Negara, Malaysia.

Dr. Pugh-Kitingan originally researched Huli music in Papua New Guinea and has spent over 30 years studying indigenous cultures in Sabah. Her recent publications include "Dance and Rituals in Sabah," In: Mohd Anis Md Nor and Stephanie Burridge, eds., Sharing Identities. Celebrating Dance in Malaysia (Routledge, 2011), "An Ethnomusicological Discussion of Bi Te, Chanted Tales of the Huli," In: Alan Rumsey and Don Niles, eds., Sung Tales from the Papua New Guinea Highlands (ANU E-Press, 2011), and an article co-authored with Hanafi Hussin and Judeth John Baptist, "Music in the Monogit Rituals of the Kadazan of Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia" (Musika Jornal 7, 2011). Her most recent contribution to the BRB (co-authored with Judeth John Baptist) was "Music for Cleansing the Universe--Drumming and Gong Ensemble Music in the Mamahui Pogun Ceremonies of the Lotud Dusun of Tuaran, Sabah," BRB, vol. 40 (2009): 249-276. Recently, two of her Kadazandusun Chair research projects, one on the Lotud Dusun Mamahui Pogun and the other, "Ethnographic and Cultural Mapping in Tambunan," won gold medals in the PEREKA 2011 Research and Innovation Competition. The latter forms the basis of her paper in this volume of the BRB.

Saeida Rouass is a UK PGCE-qualified teacher who has worked in state and private education, both in Britain and internationally, for over fourteen years. Her interests include community development, sustainability, and indigenous rights. She currently lives in Kudat, Malaysia, where she works as a Mentor/Teacher Trainer for the British Council. She has published various articles for Asian Woman Magazine and is the author of The Path to Wisdom (Cube Publishers [UK], 2006), a book exploring the relevance of Islamic classical thought in modern life.

F. Andrew Smith, Ph.D., is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Adelaide, South Australia. Originally trained as a plant biologist, his research interests since the mid-1990s, thanks to daughter Hilary, have centered primarily on the history and ecology of Borneo, especially West Kalimantan. He is a Fellow of the Borneo Research Council and a frequent contributor to the Borneo Research Bulletin. His most recent BRB publications are "Daniel Smith's last seven years: Hardships in country trade in the East Indies in the early nineteenth century," Volume 39 (2008): 71-90, and "Piracy against the Sambas "pirates"? The case of Captain Burnside--and what happened to him afterwards in the Antipodes," Volume 40 (2009): 67-80.

Hilary F. Smith, Ph.D., is a development geographer. She is currently working as a consultant on forest carbon and agroforestry projects, working with a number of indigenous communities in Northern Australia on a range of issues involving savanna fire management, feral animal control and sustainable forestry. Hilary did her Ph.D. research in West Kalimantan through the University of Adelaide and is currently undertaking a Masters of Law, specializing in Governance, Law and Development. She became interested in the history of Borneo via her father, Andrew.

Peter Varney, M. A., is a research associate in the School of International Development at the University of East Anglia. His interest in the Iban began in 1958 when he was posted to the island of Labuan during Royal Air Force National Service. From there he had the opportunity to accompany an Anglican priest, Leonard Melling, on a visit to Iban Anglicans who had recently moved to the interior of Brunei Darussalam. Like many other RAF servicemen, he was recently awarded the Pingat Jasa Malaysia medal by the Malaysian High Commissioner in the UK. In 1967 he began field work at Betong, Sarawak, focusing on Anglican work with the Iban. His other role as an Anglican priest gave him ready access to church members. Two papers based on this research were published in the SMJ in 1968 and 1969, and a further article in the 2010 SMJ focuses on the changing response of missionaries to the Iban understanding of sebayan. He is a fellow of the Borneo Research Council and chairman of the Borneo Mission Association, which has supported Anglican work since 1909. His current research on Iban Anglicans focuses on burial rites and eschatological beliefs in urban Kuching, considering issues of religious accommodation, urbanization, and globalization.

Nathan Waller is a recent Child Development graduate, with interests in anthropology, children within culture, and Children's Rights. He has worked in child-centered education and development projects in the UK, Kenya, Oman, Egypt, and now Malaysia. He currently lives in Kudat, Malaysia, where he works as a Mentor/Teacher Trainer with the British Council.

Herwig Zahorka, MSc. (Gottingen University), is a German forestry scientist who has worked for the German government and international consultancies in Thailand, Malaysia, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and, most extensively, Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sumatra). He has written four books on Indonesia and more than two hundred articles, mostly on ethnography, history, archaeology, ethnobotany, and ecology. An expedition he led in Sumatra was the subject of a German/French TV film, "Urzeit am Geistersee," broadcast in Germany and France in 2009-2010. He is a frequent contributor to the BRB, his most recent Research Note being "The shamanic belian sentiu rituals of the Benuaq Ohookng, with special attention to the ritual use of plants," Vol. 38, 2007, 127-47. Since his retirement, he has lived in Bogor, Indonesia.


In concluding these Notes, as we go to press, our BRC President makes the following announcement:

It is my sad duty to announce the death of Monica Freeman on February 22 in Canberra. A memorial service is to be held on Saturday 14th April at 5 Daly Street at 2 P.M. An obituary will appear in the next issue of the Borneo Research Bulletin. A tragic loss of a lovely, talented, extraordinary woman.

G.N. Appell
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Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Jan 1, 2011
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