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Nobel Prizes.

Nobel Prizes

Annual monetary awards of variable amounts (averaging about $100,000) made to persons who have benefited mankind through contributions in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and work for peace. They are paid out of a fund established for that purpose by the will of Alfred Bernhard Nobel. The awards are presented in Stockholm each year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. They are occasionally reserved in one or more categories, especially the peace prize.

The literary awards are selected by the Swedish Academy of Literature. The recipients have been: 1901, Rene Francois Armand Sully Prudhomme (Fr); 1902, Theodor Mommsen (Ger); 1903, Bj ornstjerne Bjornson (Norw); 1904, Frederic Mistral (Fr) and Jose Echegaray (Sp); 1905, Henryk Sienkiewicz (Pol); 1906, Giosue Carducci (Ital); 1907, Rudyard Kipling (Eng); 1908, Rudolf Eucken (Ger) 1909, Selma Lagerlof (Sw); 1910, Paul von Heyse (Ger); 1911, Maurice Maeterlinck (Belg); 1912, Gerhart Hauptmann (Ger); 1913, Rabindranath Tagore (India); 1914, none; 1915, Romain Rolland (Fr); 1916, Verner von Heidenstam (Sw); 1917, Karl A. Gjellerup (Den) and Hendrik Pontoppidan (Den); 1918, none; 1919, Carl Spitteler (Switz); 1920, Knut Hamsun (Norw); 1921, Anatole France (Fr); 1922, Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (Sp); 1923, William Butler Yeats (Ir); 1924, Wladislaw S. Reymont (Pol); 1925, George Bernard Shaw (Eng); 1926, Grazia Deledda (Ital); 1927, Henri Bergson (Fr); 1928, Sigrid Undset (Norw); 1929, Thomas Mann (Ger); 1930, Sinclair Lewis (U.S.); 1931, Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Sw); 1932, John Galsworthy (Eng); 1933, Ivan Gasse Bunin (Russ); 1934, Luigi Pirandello (Ital); 1935, none, 1936, Eugene O ' Neill (U.S.); 1937, Roger Martin du Gard (Fr); 1938, Pearl S. Buck (U.S.); 1939, Frans Eemil Sillanpaa (Fin); 1940 to 1943, none; 1944, Johannes V. Jensen (Den); 1945, Gabriela Mistral (Chile); 1946, Hermann Hesse (Ger); 1947, Andre Gide (Fr); 1948, T. S. Eliot (Eng); 1949, William Faulkner (U.S.); 1950, Bertrand Russell (Eng); 1951, Par Lagerkvist (Sw); 1952, Francois Mauriac (Fr); 1953, Sir Winston Churchill (Eng); 1954, Ernest Hemingway (U.S.); 1955, Halldor Laxness (Icel); 1956, Juan Ramon Jimenez (P.R.); 1957, Albert Camus (Fr); 1958, Boris Pasternak (Russ, declined); 1959, Salvatore Quasimodo (Ital); 1960, Alexis Leger (Fr); 1961, Ivo Andrie (Yugo); 1962, John Steinbeck (U.S.); 1963, Giorgos Seferis (Gr); 1964, Jean - Paul Sartre (Fr, declined); 1965, Mikhail Sholokhov (Russ); 1966, S. Y. Agnon (Pol - Isr) and Nelly Sachs (Ger - Sw); 1967, Miguel Angel Asturias (Guat); 1968, Yasunari Kawabata (Jap); 1969, Samuel Beckett (Ir - Fr); 1970, Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn (Russ); 1971, Pablo Neruda (Chile); 1972, Heinrich Boll (Ger); 1973, Patrick White (Austral); 1974, Harry Martinson (Sw) and Eyvind Johnson (Sw); 1975, Eugenio Montale (Ital); 1976, Saul Bellow (U.S.); 1977, Vicente Aleixandre (Sp); 1978, Isaac Bashevis Singer (U.S.); 1979, Odysseus Elytis (Gr); 1980, Czeslaw Milosz (Pol); 1981, Elias Canetti (Bulg); 1982, Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colom); 1983, William Golding (Eng); 1984, Jaroslav Seifert (Czech); 1985, Claude Simon (Fr); 1986, Wole Soyinka (Nigeria); 1987, Joseph Brodsky (U.S.); 1988, Naguib Mahfouz (Egypt).

For author entries, see individual listings.

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Publication:Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, 3rd ed.
Article Type:Reference Source
Date:Jan 1, 1987
Words:492
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