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Nine-square round-up.

This article briefly surveys previous findings, then presents new quality nine-squares. Next, it presents squares with diagonal words to add to those previously published by me. Finally, it looks at the most popular top row words, and also at the the most popular words in any position.

Brief History

Granted that I have found 2000 ten-squares, but 300,000 nine-squares from fewer than half the number of words, it might be concluded that finding good nine-squares is easy. Not so!

The first nine-square I am aware of was produced in 1897 by Arthur Holt. By 1965 (the date of Borgmann's Language on Vacation), hundreds of squares had been produced, including the ISOSCELAR square by Rufus Strohm, in which all words come from dictionaries, though one was a phrase. In the century since, little progress has been made, despite the widespread use of computers and the application of many well-known logological brains [including Palmer Peterson, before June 1979 (see WW81-121); Darryl Francis in WW81-121; and Jeff Grant in WW80-195 and WW89-109 (Kickshaws)]. In WW91-199, Eric Albert advanced the art by producing the NECESSISM square, which has all solid words, but one is a genus name, so has an initial capital: this square is also single-source (see main body of this article). Major efforts since include Richard Sabey in WW97-13, with NEOPLASIA (one hyphen), and DISLEAVED (obsolete and derived); and Chris Cole in WW01-271, who made an interesting attempt at using modern words (some only to be found on the Internet), but all the squares have at least one phrase. Finally, I published what I believe to be the first diagonal nine-squares.

Quality Nine-Squares

From a vocabulary of rather over 300,000 words (largely excluding place names), the formula of Chris Long (WW93-5) predicts 1.8 million squares, though his program, run against my actual list, suggested 390,000. In fact, the word list yielded rather fewer than 320,000 squares, slightly more than one nine-square per word, and among these I sought a "perfect" square. Such a square would have all solid words (no hyphens or phrases); no foreign words (unless very well-known in English); no proper nouns (ie no places, personal names, or genus names); and no words from the interior of a dictionary (ie words must appear as headwords or variants, or be regularly derivable therefrom). The rigid application of such rules is not always felicitous: for example, why ban very well-known names of religious or philosophical movements; or pharmaceuticals like Viagra, but not aspirin?

Finding squares with no blemishes turned out to be very difficult, although there were many squares with just one minor defect. In a situation where no wonderful square exists (all familiar lower-case words), it is very tricky to rank the almost-wonderfuls. However, I divide what I found into those which have no real blemishes, and those that have just one minor blemish. To save space, some alternative (sometimes blemished) words are given for blemish-free words. Where a word can be derived from a headword (eg by adding -nesse), the word is counted as blemish-free, even though it may only appear in the OED text.
Squares with no blemishes

Some familiar words in ACHALASIA

ACHALASIA OED
CRENIDENS OED karanteen, Crenidens crenidens,
 or the larger bamboo-fish
HEXANDRIC OED
ANABOLITE Chambers, under anabolism
LINOLENIN Web2
ADDLEHEAD Web2, under addle
SERINETTE OED
INITIATOR OED
ASCENDERS OED ascender; or ASCENDERE OED
 ascension, Latin precursor
APPETISES The Electronic Alveary, OED has appetize vb
PARSONESE OED parson
PRECISION OED; or PRECISION OED
ESCULENTA Psoralea esculenta,
 Chambers bread, breadroot
TOILETTES OSPD
INSETTERS OED insetter
SEINTEFIE OED
ESOTERIZE OED
SENASSEES OED senassee
FOSSICEPS Aenictogiton fossiceps dilutum, ITISa
OCTAGONAL OED
STERNESSE OED sternness;
 or STURNESSE OED sternness
SARKINITE OED
IGNICOLOR Duellmanohyla ignicolor nuda, ITISa
COENOSARE TC *,'?mis-spell of coenosarc, OED
ENSILAGES OED ensilage, noun & vb

PASTORESS OED
SLEERESSE OED slayeress

* Wordsworth word list

GAMETANGE OED gametangium
ANALYZORS Stedman analyser, analysor
MALAROMAS OSPD (singular common in word lists)
ELAEOLATE elaeotate, OED
TYROCIDIN OED tyrocidine
AZOLIMINE [C.sub.10][H.sub.11][N.sub.3]0, LPS, also allegedly
 Stedman
NOMADISES The Electronic Alveary; *
GRATINEES gratinees, OSPD, or OED gratine,
 feminine gratinee in text
ESSENESSE Palindromicon II

* or NOMADIZES (OED nomadize vb)

LEUCAURIN hyperdictionary.com/dictionary, or Pulliam
EURYCRENE Helicopsyche eurycrene hentscheli, ITISa
UROCRISIS Stedman
CYCLOPITE OED
ACROPOLIS NB not the Acropolis, Chambers
URIPOSIAS Stedman, uriposia
RESILIATE OED
INITIATES OED initiate vb
NESESSEST W93-100, Murray Pearce
MISBELEAD OED
INTENABLE OED
STINGBULL Chambers sting
BENGUELAE Atlantocuma benguelae munroi, ITISa
ENGULFING OED
LABEFACTA Phryganea labefacta mucronata, ITISa
EBULICION OED ebullition
ALLANTOIC OED
DELEGANCE concours d'elegance, Chambers concours
NASSICOLA Gynaecotyla nassicola leucurus, ITISa
ANTIDORON OED
STAGELAND Web2
SIGNALLEE OED
IDEATIONS OED
COLLINGEI Xyletobius collingei suturalis, ITISa
ORALOGIST Web2 oralogy
LONENESSE OED loneness
ANDESITES OED andesite noun
NONGRADED OSPD
OPERABILY in Web2 wordlist
NEGATIVES OED negative, noun
GRACILIMA Paraxiopsis gracilimana mucronata, ITISa
RATICIDES OED
ABILIMENT OED
DIVIDENTE OED dividend
ELEMENTAR Web1
DYSASTERS OED disaster
POSTNASAL OED
OOPHOROMA common on Web, oophor- in Web2
SPRINGLES OED springle, noun
THIRTEENS OED thirteen
NONTANNIN Web2
ARGENTITE OED
SOLENITIS Web2
AMENITIES OED amenity noun
LASSNESSE OED less (lass) +-nesse, or moreness
 14..q 'morenesse and lassnesse of numbir'
PROMISETH Shakespeare, Henry IV Part I, V-4
REVENTURE Web2
OVEREAGER Web2
MERESTEAD OED
INESSENCE OED
STATELETS OED statelet
EUGENESIS OED
TREACTISE OED
HERDESSES OED herdess

There are some common words in these two squares:

RAITCHEVI Trichoniscus raitchevi -inversella, ITISa
ANORHEPES Lepidostoma anorhepes beddeci, ITISa
IODOAMINO *
TROILISTS troilist, see OED troilism
CHALCOTIC Stedman chalcosis
HEMIOBOLE hemiobole, under OED hemi-
EPISTOMAL epistom(e) OED, or Web2
VENTILATE OED; or VENTILATE OED ventilate
 (Latin precursor)
ISOSCELES OED
RECAPTORS OED recaptor
EPITARSAL Stedman ([dagger])
CIGARETTE OED
ATACAMITE OED
PARAMETER OED
TREMELINE Pulliam ([paragraph])
OSTITISES OED ostitis
RATTENERS rattener, under OED ratten
SLEERESSE OED, Buffy of old!

* eg A micromethod for ... determination of iodoamino acids ...,
Journal of Endocrinology, April 1997, Volume 153, Issue 1

([dagger]) Implantation of a gold weight on the epitarsal surface
... of the upper eyelids ... www.southeasterneyecenter.com

([paragraph]) or Melissa Tremeline, married, alive, http://
www.geocities.com/-nancy-cyr-bush/html/dat161.htm

SCULPTILE OED
CURARINES OED curarine
URINEMICS allegedly Stedman,
 or by analogy with purinemia, purinemic
LANERETTE OED laner
PREROSION Chambers
TIMESHARE Usually hyphenated in dictionaries but mainly
 not in usage, esp. computer timesharing
INITIATES OED initiate noun
LECTORESS OED lector
ESSENESSE Palindromicon II
TETANICAL OED tetanic
EXAMINATE OED
TAXICOLOR Budorcas taxicolor, Chambers takin
AMIDOXIME Stedman, amidoximes
NICOTIDIN OED
INOXIDIZE OED
CALIDIPES Cnemidophorus calidipes ponticus,ITISa
ATOMIZERS OED atomize noun
LERENESSE OED leer + nesse, eg leerness, 1398q

Squares with a single blemish (a selection)

BRASSARTS OED brassard
RECKEVERE OED
ACOEMETIC Web2
SKEVINAGE OED
SEMINOLES Seminole, OED
AVENOLITH Web2
RETALIATE OED
TRIGETTUR OED tregetour
SECESHERS OED secesher
CORUSCARE Chambers coruscate, Latin
OMENTALIS bursa omentalis (noun) *
READERESS OED reader
UNDERPUKE Web2, under b
STERCORIN OED
CARPOGONE OED carpo- (solid)
ALEURODES Aleurodes, Web2; or ALEURONES OED
RISKINESS OED
ESSENESSE Palindromicon II

* "an isolated part of the peritoneal cavity ..." define.ansme.
com/words/

DEADMARCH dead-march, Chambers dead
ENNEAMERA Crematogast erenneamer amarielinum, ITISa
ANACLASES plural, Stedman, anaclasis
DECRETIST OED
MALETOLTE OED maletolt
AMATORIAL OED; or AMATORIAN OED
RESILIATE OED
CRESTATUS Eudyptes crestatus occidentalis, ITISa; or
 CRISTATUS Chambers crest, crested tit
HASTELESS OED
DEFORCING OED deforce vb
EVITERNAL OED
FILOSETTA OED
OTOCONITE OED oto-, but otoconite is solid
RESONATES OED resonate vb
CRENATURE OED
INTITULER OED intitule vb, or French, = entitle
NATTERERI OED Natterer's bat, Myotis nattereri
GLAESERIA Glaeseria vermiformis pacifica, ITISa
FEASTINGS OED feasting under feast
ECUMANIAC OED
AURORALLY OED
SMOKEBOAT smoke-boat, OED smoke
TAREFITCH Web2
INABILITE OED
NILOTICUM Monomorium niloticum niloticum, ITISa
GALACTURA Cyprinella galactura espei, ITISa
SCYTHEMAN OED
GLASSCALM glass-calm, OED glass 16
LINTEARIA Lagetta lintearia discoideus, ITISp
ANNECTANS Plagithmysus annectans hirsutus, ITISa
STEALAGES OED stealage
SECLAZONE *
CATAZANER OED
ARAGONITE OED
LINENETTE OED
MASSEREEN OED

* Seclazone: http://dtpws4.ncifcrf.gov/FTP/CNAMES/CHNAME_77.TXT,
line 294833, also allegedly Stedman

One square plus five variations, and one square akin to FEASTINGS
above:

GLEMARECI Pseudolaophonte glemareci paraminuta, ITISa
LAMINARAN OED
EMANATIST Emantist, OED
MINIROSEA Ocenebra minirosea atlantica, ITISa
ANARCOTIN Web2
RATOONING OED ratoon
ERISTICAL OED
CASEINASE an exoenzyme, common on Web;
 or CASEINATE Web2
INTANGLED or INTANGLES or INTANGLER,
 OED entangle, verb
IEASTINGS Shakes. Pass. Pilgr. vi
ECUMANIAC OED
AURORALLY OED
SMOKEBOAT smoke-boat, OED smoke 11
TAREFITCH Web2
INABILITE OED
NILOTICUM Monomorium niloticum biminiense, ITISa
GALACTURA Cyprinella galactura espei, ITISa
SCYTHEMAN Chambers, scythe

IMPERSIST Stedman impersistence
MARRONGIE Kupellonura marrongie beringia, ITISa
PRAISINGS OED praising
ERIZEPINE LPS 23.4.2001
ROSEPETAL rose-petal, OED rose 23a
SNIPEBILL Web2
IGNITIBLE OED
SIGNALLER OED
TESELLERS OED teaseler
ISMATICAL OED ism
STANOLONE Stedman
MARABENTA Bloomsbury Thes. (dance, Mozambique)
ANABROSES pharmaol.narod.ru/EPeoplAppl.htm.
 Singular anabrosis is common on Internet
TOBROCENE Wulfstan, Sermo Lupi ad Anglos
ILEOCECAL Stedman
CONSECUTE OED
ANTENATUS OED esnecy (Latin)
LEASELESS OED

The -IZE variant of the NECESSISM square was first found by Eric
Albert, who said all the words were in Web2 (as they are also in
the OED).

LEASTINGS OED leasting
ECUMANIAC OED
AURORALLY OED
SMOKEBOAT smoke-boat, OED smoke 11
TAREFITCH Web2
INABILITE OED
NILOTICUM Monomorium niloticum gracilicorne, ITISa
GALACTURA Cyprinella galactura espei, ITISa
SCYTHEMAN OED
NECESSISM OED
EXISTENCE OED
CIRCUMFER OED
ESCARPING OED escarp, vb
STURNIDAE Sturnidae, OED starling
SEMPITERN OED
INFIDELIC OED
SCENARIZE OED scenario; or -ise (Chambers)
MERGENCES OED mergence

Two of the OLIVIFORM squares are all-OED:

NUMERATUS Chambers numerate (Latin)
UNELEGANT OED
MELITEMIA Web2
ELIMINANT OED
RETINERVE Microcentrum retinerve thomae, ITISa
AGENESIAS OED agenesis
TAMARINDI OED tamarind
UNINVADED OED
STATESIDE OED
OLIVIFORM OED
LAMINARIA OED;
 or LUMINARIA Chambers limber (Latin)
IMPOSITOR OED
VIOLURATE OED
INSULANTS OED insulant or INSURANTS, OED insurant
FAIRATION OED
ORTANIQUE OED
RIOTTOURS OED rioter
MARESNEST mare's-nest, OED

Another square with familiar words:

OPTICISTS OED opticist
PERMANERE Chambers permanent (Latin)
TRAILSMAN Web2
IMITATING OED
CALAMINAR OED calaminary
INSTIGATE OED
SEMINARIE OED seminary
TRANATION OED
SENGREENS OED sengreen noun
PECTOROSA Pteromicra pectorosa nycticorax, ITISa
EXHALENTS OSPD; also OED exhalant B, 1805q
CHELICERS OED chekiler
TALAVERAE Palaemon talaverae mammillodactylus, ITISa
OLIVENESS OED
RECENTEST OSPD, also OED recent 3a 1535q
ONEREELER one-reeler, OED one 35
STRASSENI Synonchus strasseni americana; or -RI
 Illyrionethes strasseri quarta, both ITISa
ASSESTRIX OED

POSTFURCA OED
OPERATORS OED operator noun
SERICITIC OED sericite
TRIHILATE OED
FACILITES OED facility
UTILIDORS Utilidor OED (no initial cap in quotes)
ROTATORIA Rotatoria, OED definition 3 of rotator (plant)
CRITERION OED
ASCESSANT Web1, ascessancy
POSTREMAS postrema common on Web *
OSTEOTOMY OED
STETSONED Stetsoned, OED Stetson
TETRAMINE Web2
ROSANILIN Stedman
ETOMIDATE Stedman
MONILARIS Tharyx monilaris beringia, ITISa
AMENITIES OED amenity noun
SYDENESSE OED side (syde) + -NESSE,
 also sideness 1440q

* eg "The area postrema modulates hypothalamic Fos responses"

RABBISSHE OED rabbish
ADRENITIS Dorland adrenalitis
BRITTLEST OED brittle, superlative
BETNOVATE electronic Medicines Compendium
INTONATOR OED
SILVACOLA Beameromyia silvacola columbiani, ITISa
STEATOMYS Steatomys, genus of mouse, Chambers fat
HISTOLYSE OED histo- (solid)
ESTERASES OED esterase
RARIPILIS Meranoplus raripilis polyacantha, ITISa
ALINIDINE drug, many refs on Web
RIPPERMAN Web2
INPATIENT Web2
PIETRANEL OED
IDRIALINE Web2
LIMENITES Venezillo limenites aestiva, ITISa
INANENESS Chambers inane
SENTLESSE hyphenated. sent (OED scent) + -lesse,
 eg scentless 1605q
SENESCERE Chambers senescent (Latin)
EDENTATES OED edentate noun
NERTERIUS Cambarus nerterius eruca, ITISa
ENTERPONE OED
STERCOLIN Web2
CARPOLITE OED
ETIOLIPES Camponotus etiolipes floridus, ITISa
REUNITERS OED erunite
ESSENESSE Palindromicon II
TAPADEROS OED tapadero noun
AGREEMONY OED
PROGNOSED OED prognose vb
AEGROTARE Chambers aegrotat (Latin)
DENOMINAL OED
EMOTIVITY OED emotive 2c
ROSANILIN Stedman
ONERATING OED onerate vb, also in Web1 under onerate
SYDELYNGE OED sideling


Diagonal Squares

I have previously published nine-squares with a diagonal word in the NE-SW (= SW-NE) direction, (May 2002), with a word in the NW-SE direction (November 2002), and with a word in the remaining direction, the SE-NW diagonal (May 2003).

In just over 300,000 nine-squares in total, there was only one square with a diagonal pointing to the south-east, and only one with a diagonal pointing to the north-west. The two dozen or so squares with palindromic diagonals exaggerate their true frequency when compared with the other diagonals, because without the very broad catchment area of the Palindromicon II, I would have found perhaps three or fewer. I would say it is only a little easier to find a diagonal nine-square than an ordinary ten-square. Inclusion of foreign placenames would multiply the number of words by about 2.5, and would be expected to lead to a profusion of nine-squares, with probably many diagonal examples.

Throughout, squares made of words with a repeated letter (eg ZZZZZZZZZ) are ignored. Here are the remaining diagonal nine-squares:
Seven more with SAIASAIAS (Palindromicon II), most of quality
superior to AISLELESS:

ISOSERUMS "Iso|serum engl.: isoserum" from Roche Lexikon Medizin,
 should be in Stedman
SANTAANAE Catostomus santaanae -immaculatus, ITISa
ONYERBIKE on yer bike, famous advice for jobless by Norman Tebbitt
STELLATED OED
EARLSTARS OED overbend 1886q (Gerard Manley Hopkins)
RABATINES OED rabatine, noun
UNITANGLE unit-angle, OED radian 1879q
MAKERELLE OED
SEEDSSEED W93-100, Chris Long, eg "crop rotation, healthy seedsseed"
 in http://www.gtz.de/proklima/doc/pub1998/mebr-2.pdf.
 (Sustainable Pest Management Systems, Jordan)

Half of the words in the SMOAKLESS square are familiar:

SCRAPLETS OED scraplet
CYANEIDAE Cyaneidae pauper hyacinthata, ITISa
RAZORLIKE razor-like, OED razor 3b
ANOCIATED ETERNITY by Anwar Shaikh, Chapter 13 *
PERISCIAN OED
LILACROSE B. W. Warhurst, Colour Dict. 1899.
 Lilac-rose is a dull rose (OED mauve)
EDITIONES plural of editio princeps, OED
TAKEASEAT take a seat, Chambers
SEEDNESTS seed-nests, OED seed 9
SMOAKLESS OED smokeless, 1732q
MELINIDAE Tertiary Faunas
OLDREGIME old regime, OED grand 10c,
 1897 P. Warung Tales Old Regime
AIRHEATER air-heater, OED air II
KNEESTONE Web2
LIGATURES OED
EDITORESS OED under editor
SAMENESSE OED sameness, 1607q
SEERESSES OED seeress

* "myriads of [star] clusters anociate to rank as a
superstructure", also perhaps Stedman anociassociation.

An unusual example: the next three squares two/three words with the
others different:

STROMNESS Stromness in Orkney Islands, Autostreet Lite
TAENIADAE Taeniadae, OED hook 1b 1888q
RETENTIFE OED cell 1, 1430q
ONESEATER *
MINESTONE Chambers under mine
NATATORES Natatores, OED
EDITORESS OED under editor
SAFENESSE OED safeness, 1639q
SEERESSES OED seeress
STRONGERS OED
TAENIADAE Taeniadae, OED hook 1b 1888q
REVENGIVE OED
ONESEATER *
NINESPINE ninespine sticklebacks, ITIS animals
GIGAPRONS gig-apron, OED gig 4
EDITIONES plural of editio princeps, OED
RAVENNESE OED coupe 1834q
SEERESSES OED seeress

* Alfa's P3 was the first monoposto (oneseater) Grand Prix-car.
www.histomobile.com/histomob/presmark.asp ?ID=2&Ian=2, OR one-sealer,
OED ultralight

STROWLERS OED stroller 1679q, initial cap in quote
TAENIIDAE Taeniidae sepulchralis parafurciger, ITISa
REUENGIUE OED revengive, 1608q (King Lear)
ONESEATER see above
WINESTONE wine-stone, Chambers
LIGATURES OED
EDITORESS OED under editor
RAUENESSE OED raveness, 1623q (with initial cap)
SEERESSES OED seeress
TOPBLOCKS top-block, OED top 34
ORALAURAL oral-aural, OED tactile 1978q (or oral/aural)
PARENTILE OED
BLENDABLE OED blusher 1965q (Vogue)
LANDSCRIP land-scrip, OED land 12
OUTACTIVE out-active, OED
CRIBRIFER Porcellio cribrifer coronata, ITISa
KALLIVERE Kallivere, Estonia, NIMA
SLEEPERED OED under sleeper

One with diagonal SETIFITES (Palindromicon II)

CAPSOMERS Stedman capsomer
ABRAVANEL Abravanel, OED 3a 1662q (family name)
PREFECTLY OED
SAFARIHAT safari hat, OED safari 3
OVERFLUSH OED
MACILENTE OED macilent
ENTHUNDER OED
RELASTERS Relasters, of the House of Relaster in Onnwal,
 a fantasy game on the Internet
SLYTHERST Slytherst, OED yeoman 2a 1455q, family name

Two with SAGASAGAS, saga-sagas (Palindromicon II)

INSETTERS OED insetter; or ONSETTERS, OED onsetter
NOCTURNAL OED
SCLAREGIA Sclaregia, OED clary 2a 1100q
ETARNALLY OED eternally 2b 1664q
TURNSTILE OED
TREATISOR OED treatiser 1637q
ENGLISSCE OED English 4a 1240q, all lower case
RAILLOCKS on railcars, see www.besser.com/manuals/LSCI00_INSTALL.
 pdf (Transfer Cars System)
SLAYERESS OED--modern Buffy!

One with SEERTREES (seer-trees OED sere 1616q)

INTERPASS OED
NURSETREE nurse-tree, OED
TRACLEERE OED treacler 1415q
ESCHARNIR OED, Old French precursor of scorn
RELATEING OED verderer 1710q
PTEREALER ?, ptereal, Web2 below line, noun
ARENILITE OED arenilitic
SERINETTE OED
SEERGREEN Seer Green, Bucks, England, or SeerGreen Way
 95630--Folsom, Sacramento County

Two with TITTITTIT, tit-tit-tit (EDD)

SCHUCKERT 68113th family name in US Census, or Kap Schuckert,
 Greenland, 80[degrees] 49', -64[degrees] 55'
CHANOINIE OED canonry, French precursor
HAGBUTTTS OED hereat 2, 1557q
UNBITTEST OED unbitt vb
COUTIEREI Nereis coutierei acutifrons, ITISa
KITTELMAN Kittelman 82899th family name in US Census; or
 KITTERMAN 13740th
ENTERMINE OED
RIISEANUS Atys riiseanus tahoensis, ITISa
TESTINESS OED

Four with AAAAAAAAA (Brooklyn antiques shop, Palindromicon II)

First is all-OED except diagonal

ABEASTOFA a beast of a, OED beast 5b
BALCARRAS OED Tory 1b 1651q (Lord Balcarras)
ELECTUARS OED pothecar, 1480q
ACCURANCE OED
SATRANGIS Satrangis, OED sitringee, 1969q (rug type)
TRUANDALS OED truandal
ORANGARIE OED orangery 1, 1664q
FARCILITE OED
ASSESSEES OED assessee
CAMERIERA Pulliam
AVICENNAS Avicenna's, OED fen
MILLSEATS mill-seat, OED mill 12
ECLATANTE eclatante, OED preux, 1711q (French)
RESTARTER Chambers
INEARTHST OED inearth, vb
ENANTHATE Stedman
RATTESTON Suffolk, England *
ASSERTENE OED ascertain

* Rattest:birthplace of Ursula Scott in 1596, http://
www.csolve.net/~nikf/geneal/1842.htm = Rattlesden?

HAHAMISHA Ma'aleh Hahamisha, Israel, 31[degrees] 49',
 35[degrees] 07',
 NIMA
ARAMINTAS Araminta's, OED slatternly 2, 1801q
HAGISLARS Hagislars, OED hadji, 1585q
AMIDWARDE OED amidward, 1400q
MISWANDER Webl
INLANCEST OED inlance, vb
STARDELTA star-delta, OED star 20
HARDESTER US Census
ASSERTARE OED assert, Latin precursor
HOTCHACHA hot-cha-cha, OED hotcha
OXALEMIAS oxalemia, Stedman
TAGALIANS Tagalian, OED Tagalog, 1704q
CLAMPARDE OED clamper, 1545q
HELPABLER OED helpable, adj
AMIABLEST OED amiable, superlative (also in quote)
CIARLETTA Ciarletta, US Census
HANDESTER OED hanaster
ASSERTARE OED assert, Latin precursor

Six with SASASASAS, sasa sasas (orchids, Palindromicon II)

MARISSHES OED uncultured l, 1555q; OR PARISSHES OED clergy 4, 1382q
AMICITIAE OED show 7c, 1681q (Latin)
RIMELESSE OED timeless, 1532q; OR RITELESSE OED riteless, 1611q
ICESKATER ice-skater, Chambers
SILKSTARE silk stare, OED silk 10d
STEATITES OED steatite
HISTATUSS = ephedrine, http://www.mythos.com/pharmacy/Index
 GenericName.aspx?L=E&P=ITC
EASERESSE OED crier, 1631q
SEERESSES OED scercss
RAMUSCLES OED ramuscle
ARENARIAE Web2
MEANNESSE OED meanness 2, 1556q
UNNEGATED Web2
SANGSTERS Sangsters, OED refained, 1969q (family name)
CREATORES OED turn 22, 13..q, or Latin plural of creator; OR
 CREATURES OED creature
LISTERISE Listerise (disinfect), Chambers
EASERESSE OED easer, 1631q
SEEDSSEED W93-100, eg "crop rotation, healthy seedsseed" in
 http://www.gtz.de/prokiima/doc/pub1998/mebr-2.pdf.

Three with SATARATAS (eg Thomas SATARATA, Palindromicon II)

Three familiar words or phrases:

MISAWARDS misaward vb, OED
ICEGATEAU ice-gateau, OED cassata
SETOUTTUB set-out tub, OED set-out 4
AGONYAUNT agony aunt, OED agony la
WAUYRYNGE OED sparpling, 1434q
ATTAYNDER OED attainder
RETUNDERE Chambers retund, Latin precursor
DAUNGERES OED glove 1f, 1430q; OR DAUNGERUS OED gorge 5,
 1575q; OR DAUNGERYS OED danger 5a, 1538q
SUBTERESA Bolitophila subteresa distincta, ITISa

One with DEEPSPEED, deep speed (American football, Palindromicon II)

PRESTHOLD OED
RANCHEREE OED rancheria
ENGRALEST OED engrail, vb
SCRIMPIER OSPD
THAMSELUE tham-selue, OED thoughtful 1b, 13..q (th is a thorn)
HELPEALES helpe-ales, OED ale A3, 1687q
OREILLERS OED oreille, 1523q (French)
LESEUERII Juncus leseuerii fonticola, ITIS plant
DETRESSIT OED detressed, 1500q


Most Popular Top Row Words

The most popular top row word among the nine-squares was SHAPFACED (shap-faced, OED shap, 1882q), heading about 0.7 in every thousand squares. Some good examples of its use (including a pair of all-OED squares) are:
SHAPFACED shap-faced, OED shap, 1882q
HARRISONI eg Stauroneis harrisoni gracilis, ITISp
ARMORINGS OED orgone, 1949q
PROLEPTIC OED
FIRESHINE OED fire, 1871q
ASIPHONEA Webl (mollusc)
CONTINUES OED continue
ENGINEERS OED engineer
DISCEASSE OED decease, verb
SHAPFACED shap-faced, OED shap, 1882q
HYDROVAN OED
ADHERENTS OED adherent
PRESENTER OED
FORESTORE OED fore-, 5b (solid)
AVENTURLY OED adventurely
CANTORIAN OED
ENTERLACE OED; OR ENTERLADE OED
DESREYNER OED deraign, 1292q (really French)

This could alternatively end with:

ENGINEERY OED
DISCEASYD OED disseise 1494q

The next most popular top row words were many to be found heading
about 0.4 in every thousand squares:

RASPISHER OED raspish adj
WASPISHER OED waspish adj
FLATCAPPD flat-capp'd, OED wall 16, 1821 q
RESPASSES OED respass
DOSPASSOS Dos Passos, 1930s author of eg Big Money, 42nd Parallel
MISCHIEVD mischiev'd, OED mischeive 3, 1649q, and others
HADIWISTS OED hadiwist
SPISCATED OED spissated, 1779q
STRABISME OED strabism, 1661q
ECREVISSE OED ecrevisse
FASTPACED fast-paced, OED give 37d, 1964q
etc


Words most commonly found (ergo most useful?) in nine-squares

Readers may like to compare the words in the list below with the theoretically best words for each row as calculated from a particular word list by Chris Long (WW93-100).
The values represent suitability. My overall winners were:

ESSENESSE Palindromicon II (Finnegan's Wake) found in 3% of squares
SEERESSES OED often last line (1.4%)
ENTERESSE OED interess, often last or penultimate line (1.2%)
ASSESSEST OED assess verb, often last line (1.0%)
SESSENEST W93-100 Murray Pearce list of words in 9-squares, often
 last or penultimate (1%)
NESESSEST W93-100 qv (0.9%)


The plurality of the letter S in most of these is obviously helpful as a last word, allowing plurals for many words. None of the next most popular words are especially familiar, except perhaps ASSESSEES.

Towards a heterogrammatic square

As good nine-squares (though not perfect ones) are easy to find, a further challenge, after diagonal squares, might be posed by looking for squares made of words in which each letter is different. From a vocabulary largely excluding place names, the best squares contained only five heterograms: the best two of the three found were:
MULECARTS mule-cart, OED mule
UNIPOLARE OED glioblastoma 1926q
LIPIDURIA Medical, occurs many times on Web,
 allegedly in Stedman
EPIDEMICS OED epidemic
CODELIGHT Web2 below line
ALUMINEOR Old French precursor of alluminor
RARIGENDE OED roar la, 1000q
TRICHODEA Usnea trichodea rubiginea, ITIS fungi
SEASTREAM sea-stream, OED
RHODESITE OED
HAMULUSES OED hamulus
OMINALEST superlative of OED ominal
DUNESCITY Dunes City, 43[degrees] 54'N 124[degrees]05'W,
 West Oregon
ELASTICUM OED pseudo-, many quotes near end
SULCINODA Leptogenys sulcinoda piceatus, ITISa
ISEICONIC Dorland Medical Dict, same as isoiconic
TESTUDINO OED, vault 2, 1440q
ESTYMACON OED estimation


An extended vocabulary (with placenames) of 750,000 words produces almost 69,000 heterograms, which compares to a support level of 62,000 from Chris Long's formula. Unfortunately, his program raises the support level to 139,000, and it does transpire that the closest to a heterogrammatic square are the following, which use heterograms for all bar the last row (which is not a word):
BLOWREACH blow-reach, OED blow 1871q
LATRONCHE Latronche, France, 45[degrees]18', 2[degrees] 14'
OTMICGRAD Otmic Grad, Croatia, 45[degrees]13 ', 15[degrees] 39'
WRINKLEDY Web2
ROCKNAMES rock-names, OED oceanite 1923q
ENGLAMORS Americanisation of englamours
 in OED en-, 1864q
ACREMONTS Bois des Acremonts, Belgium, 50[degrees] 24',
 4[degrees] 54'
CHADERTON Chaderton (place)*

* or 86881th family name in US Census

EASTBUNGO East Bungo, Thailand, 7[degrees] 45', 98[degrees] 37'
ARKHINGOL Arkhin Gol, Mongolia, 50[degrees] 11', 102[degrees] 10'
SKOUNDERI Skounderi, Greece, 38[degrees] 32', 23[degrees] 49'
THUNDERAX thunder as, Web2
BINDERUPA Binderup A, Denmark, 57[degrees] 01', 9[degrees] 40'
 (water)
UNDERTWIG Web2 undertwig, see "under"
NGERUWIKL Ngeruwikl, Palau, 7[degrees] 28, 134[degrees] 36'
GORAPIKET Gora Piket, Russia, 44[degrees] 20', 38[degrees] 55'
 ([dagger])

([dagger]) OR GORAPIKUY Gora Pikuy, Ukraine, 48[degrees] 50',
23 [degrees] 00'


The following abbreviations are used throughout the article: ITIS = Integrated Taxonomic Information System of the USDA; ITISa = ITIS animal; ITISp = ITIS plant; LPS = Lists of Pharmaceutical Substances which qualify for Duty-free Treatment, Official Journal of the European Communities; NIMA = (US) National Imagery and Mapping Agency; WWyy-pag = Word Ways year and page.

REX GOOCH

Letchworth Garden City, Herts, England

rexgooch@ntlworld.com
COPYRIGHT 2003 Jeremiah Farrell
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Gooch, Rex
Publication:Word Ways
Date:Aug 1, 2003
Words:3852
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