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New technology in hose reinforcing machines.

Our records and information indicate that braiding as reinforcement in hose manufacturing was introduced at the turn of the last century. At first, reinforcing was in the form of yarn braiding using vertical-type braiders. Wire reinforcing was introduced to the hose industry in the mid-1920s, and by 1929 horizontal-type machinery was being produced to manufacture wire hose on steel mandrels 15 to 18 meters in length. These early braiding machines were slow, employed the maypole principle and had carrier designs as used in the textile fields that produced such items as lace, corset cord, etc. The advent of automotive hydraulic brakes in the mid-1930s and more widespread use of hydraulics on machine tools, construction, mining and drilling equipment during the 1940s and 1950s rapidly expanded the hose market. Consequently, new and established hose manufacturers began demanding machinery that would be faster, more reliable and more economical to operate. Many hose braiding manufacturers, such as Magnatech International (formerly Rockwell Inter.Graphic & Systems Division), Mayer Industries, Wardwell, Spirka, Cartar and Panjin Rubber & Plastic Machinery Works have made many braiding machines and winding machines for rubber hose manufacturers. This article mainly introduces their current situation, development, applications in the rubber hose industry, as well as related components, as a reference for choosing suitable equipment for hose manufacturers.

Magnatech 225-II high speed braider

During the mid-1960s, design efforts were started on the first high-speed, large supply package hose reinforcing braider. The first efforts in improving hose reinforcing braiders came in the form of carrier design changes. The means for strand tensioning were improved, and braid strand supply package sizes were increased. The increase in package size, especially in the case of wire, approached the limitations of the conventional horn gear type maypole braider. The cast iron carrier feet, subjected to constantly changing angular acceleration force, were further plagued by 300 to 400 pounds (1,335 to 1,780 Newtons) of force exerted by the cantilevered supply packages. Carrier feet, deck plates and horn gears were being strained to their maximum limits. In order to meet the requirements of rubber hose manufacturers, Rockwell developed and produced the 225-II shuttle-type maypole braider (maypole working principle) with a braiding speed of 225 rpm. That means: 45 carrier rpm for the 20-carrier module, 37.5 carrier rpm for the 24-carrier module and 25 carrier rpm for the 36-carrier module. The wire capacity for every bobbin is 8.15 kg and the yarn package is 2,376 cu. cm. (145 cu. in.). Moving of the carrier core is controlled by a positive shuttle system. This module can be utilized to make a completed system for producing high pressure rubber hoses when combined with other modules such as RB-2 Braider, WSW-III precision wire spiral winder, haul off, spiral tape winder, wire helix server, let-offs and take-ups.

RB-2 rotary braider

During the 1970s, the engineers designing braiding machines began to develop other new braiding machines. The development of a unique modified four-bar linkage for guiding the outer-carrier braid strands over and under large inner carrier supply packages was the breakthrough that insured that their goal was achievable. The only forces this linkage had to withstand were braid strand tensions of 30 pounds (133.5 Newtons) and dynamic forces in the order of 150 pounds (668 Newtons). Five years of design, extensive laboratory development and field-testing resulted in the 1980 introduction of the Rockwell RB-2 rotary braider. This braider is one of the key rubber hose reinforcing braiders that emerged as carrier design changed, the means for strand tensioning was improved and braid strand supply package sizes were increased. The increase in package size (especially in the case of wire) approached the limitations of the conventional horn gear type maypole braider. This eliminated the speed limitations due to the dynamic reversal forces, the unbalancing with loads and the high cantilever forces that are associated with maypole up to 8.17 kg/bobbin. The machinery data of a Standard RB-2 rotary braider is as shown in table 1.

According to the data in table 1, the RB-2 can be installed with 16 carriers, 20 carriers, 24 carriers or 36 carriers, decreasing change time of carriers. For example, a 24 carrier RB2 rotary braider using yarn in the carriers has a turn speed of 75 rpm. When we use this braider to produce 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) diameter yarn-reinforced hoses, the annual output of this hose will be 880,000 meters. If we use a 36 carrier braider to produce yarn reinforced hose, for example, the turn speed will be 50 rpm, the inner diameter of hose is 25.4 mm and the annual output would be 1,460,000 meters. If producing wire-reinforced rubber hoses, when its turn speed is 40 rpm, the annual output would be 1,160,000 meters. Whether 24 carrier or 36 carrier braider, the bobbin capacity for wire is still 11.3 kg (25 pounds) and the bobbin capacity for yarn is 3,606 cm (220 inches). The RB-2 braider is divided into two upper parts and two lower parts in the construction with advanced design. It has excellent machinery properties, such as fast braiding speed, large bobbin capacity and easy operating for operators, etc. Compared to a traditional braider, the RB-2 braider's productivity is increased up to 200%, the bobbin changing time is decreased up to 35% and it simplifies the process of threading yarn or wire. Also, the bobbin size for yarn is the same as the bobbin size for wire. The operators can operate this braider easily because of the following features:

* The power former can produce a uniform locked in braid;

* an automatic track oil system for the inner carriers;

* the exhausted (empty) bobbin has photoelectric stop motion;

* the deck speed is precisely controlled by change gears:

* patented motion provides positive control and a defined path for outer strands; and

* an on-demand let off and a simple path for strand tension reliability.

Very important is the MICS electronic control system installed in the RB-2 wire-yarn rotary braider, so the braider has excellent reliability and adaptability. The RB-2 yarn-wire rotary braider is made with standard components and design. According to the demands of rubber hose production, it can be combined with winding machines such as a WSW-III precision wire spiral winder, tape winder and haul off to manufacture high pressure rubber hoses with high quality. Thus, people have paid more attention to this braider, and many hose manufacturers continue to use this kind of braider to this day.

MR-11S braider

Mayer Industries introduced the MR-11S, a patented braiding system, in the 1970s in order to meet the requirements of rubber hose manufacturers. The MR-11S system is a maypole braider that produces a two-over, two-under braid pattern. It has been proven over the years for its high productivity, low maintenance and versatility in hose size and design. The shuttle and carrier of the MR-11S system accepts a variety of bobbins and bobbin configurations, including: single let-off wire (9 Kg/20 lbs.), single let-off yarn (4,097.5 cm./250 in.), super large yarn package (5,162.8 cm./315 in.) and double let-off wire (6.3 kg/36 lbs.). Because of its unique design, the MR-11S system is the only braider that can produce wire-reinforced hoses ranging in size from 4 mm to larger than 38 mm on the same deck. And no other braider has a package size large enough to produce a yarn-reinforced hydraulic hose exceeding 3,000 meters (100,000 ft.) in length. This kind of braider has superior braiding technology for superior quality and performance.

It has a positively controlled shuttle transfer. Since the MR-11S has no deck plates, the open junctions of conventional braiders are eliminated. The shuttle smoothly transfers from one rotor to the next by a cam track system that reduces shuttle movement.

The MR-11S eliminates angular acceleration. At any position during the inner or outer cycle, the MR-11S takes the outer or inner braid point from the carrier with a minimum of interference. This is achieved by planetary gears that compensate for the angular acceleration and align the payoff roller to the braid point. This maintains a consistent tension pattern, resulting in better quality of both yarn and wire braiding.

The MR-11S has a minimum tension cycle. The slack between the outer and inner cycle is stored on the compensator plates, thus minimizing the tension variation to less than 20% during the braiding cycle. This is a value not achieved by any other braiding system.

Also, the machine uses ultrasonic sensors to maximize productivity. Exclusive on the MR-11S are ultrasonic sensors that constantly measure the diameter of the yarn/wire bobbins on the deck in order to maximize the speeds according to the bobbin weight. The MR-11S operates on the principle that as the bobbin weight decreases, the machine speeds up, thereby increasing productivity. Measuring the bobbin diameter and correlating the product on the MR-11S, the ultrasonic sensors calculate the proper rotor rpm for the largest rotor. The rpm is then adjusted and will be corrected accordingly on a continual basis throughout the production process. The MR-11S features a microprocessing system to assist in operating and monitoring the machine for the ultimate in cost saving efficiency and quality control. This system has additional capabilities such as:

* Providing data for statistical process control;

* automatically operating and monitoring its performance;

* recording production in meters or feet;

* indicating maintenance schedules;

* informing the operator of all operations/malfunctions at all times:

* recording machine stops and displaying the reason for the stop, such as broken braid, broken wire, low oil pressure, empty bobbin, bobbin change, etc.; and

* it can display the running efficiency of the machine.

For a complementary braiding system, add the MC-2 caterpillar haul off. Whether it is a wire or yarn braided product, there is less pressure with the MC-2 caterpillar haul off. It is the ideal solution for flexible, rigid and mandrel-less operations. Pressure on the hose is distributed better than on competitive systems because of the long track length, 812 mm (32 in.). The MC-2 also features front mounting pads, available in a variety of materials to match required specifications. These can be removed from the chain while still on the machine for easy maintenance. Other features include a hose guide at each end; a timing belt shell drive for quiet, long-life operation; change gears for easy speed settings (same gears as MR-11S); an optional P.I.V. drive: a tension scale allowing repeatable pressure setting; permanently lubricated sealed gear boxes, etc. (table 2).

WSW-III precision wire spiral winder

In order to meet the requirements for making high or super-high pressure hose, many hose manufacturers need a WSW wire spiral winder to meet requirements such as in SAE J517, for making four spiral wire, four spiral heavy wire hose (100R10) and six spiral heavy wire hoses (100R12). Rockwell designed and produced the WSW-III precision wire spiral winder early in the 1980s. Many hose manufacturers have paid more attention to this wire spiral winder because of its super properties, such as a very high productivity of its turntable up to 75 rpm, a wire carrying capacity of up to 1,400 lbs. per turntable, preforming of wire immediately prior to laying wire onto the hose tube and a choice of bobbin assemblies to suit the production demands.

The WSW-III offers new capabilities of wire reinforcing for broad ranges of hose constructions, such as making super pressure hose with diameters from 6 mm to 51 mm--90, 120, 150 or 180 ends per turntable.

Bobbins are mounted on needle bearings and equipped with a disc brake to prevent bobbin overrun. Only one external adjustment is necessary for all bobbins within a group (dividing 3 group, 4 group, 5 group or 6 group). Turntable speed is accomplished by utilizing only one change gear, enabling greater control of the helix angle. Self-centered preforming insures wire-to-wire uniformity in both tension and preform. It is possible to adopt a longitudinal or spiral interlayer stock method. A fully enclosed change gear precisely controls turntable speed (each turntable's spiral angle will be 54[degrees], 44' or other spiral angle, as shown in table 3).

Pneumatic braking of the turntable was adopted to prevent unwinding of spiral lays when the machine stopped. This winder can be utilized with a bobbin winder, such as the BW-6a-1. Constant bobbin speed is 1,000 rpm. The wire capacity for one bobbin can be used for a whole group of bobbin assemblies, because the pre-determined length (feet or meters), reset counter and totalizer, and wire breakage stop system are installed in this module. Thus, the wire length of every bobbin is correctly the same.

A precision wire spiral winder with excellent properties should wind high performance rubber hose to meet related standards or specifications, and should have high productivity (that means the winder should have large wire carrying capacity and shorter time of changing bobbin wire). This kind of winder has great advantages in these areas. The number of bobbins in a turntable depends on the hose size. More bobbins enable a greater hose size range, but the capacity of each is relatively small. So the engineers design four sets of bobbin groups, including: 3/group, 4/group. 5/group and 6/group. Adopting the 6/group allows 180 ends per turntable for producing rubber hoses that are from 6 to 51 mm diameter (table 4). Using table 4, if we adopt 4/group, the wire capacity is large (more than 6/group by about 50%) and productivity is higher (more than 70%).

Specifications for a WSW-III include: Size Of 2.180 mm x 1,632 mm, weight of 3,030 kg; haul off size of 2,121 mm x 1,156 mm and weight of 2,562 kg.

Karg rotary vertical braiding machine

Karg is another braiding machine manufacturing that designs and produces some rotary vertical braiding machines, such as Model 36-V and Model 24/24H. The machinery is the same in principle. The Model 36-V machine has a rotary braiding deck consisting of 36 carriers in a circular path: 18 rotate clockwise and 18 rotate counterclockwise. This braiding machine is designed to produce a two over two braiding pattern with suitable braiding materials. The minimum practical tension level for most types of yarn used on this machine in hose construction is 2.5 lbs (1.13 kg); while the carriers and braiding mechanism have been designed to operate from a tension level of 1.0 to 10 lbs. (0.45 to 4.5 kg). Through testing, we have found that 2.5 lbs. (1.13 kg) is the practical lower tension limit at 64 rpm. The minimum tension level for braiding at 64 rpm is dependent on several factors, such as the weight per unit length of yarn, the surface characteristics of the yarn and the uniformity of winding of multiple ends of yarn. The machine capacity for braided hose is 2" (50.8 mm) diameter maximum, as measured over the completed braid. The braid pitch is adjustable, via change gears, from 0.86" (21.8 mm) to 21.6" (548 mm). The maximum operating speed is 64 carrier revolutions per minute, and the minimum is 40 carrier revolutions per minute. The braiding machine is equipped with an automatic lubricator for the track assembly. The machine is also equipped with a solid-state yarn depletion detection device, which can automatically turn off the machine in the event of yarn depletion or yarn breakage. The machine is equipped with a 40" (1,016 mm) capstan haul off designed for a maximum pull-off force of 400 lbs. (181.1 kg) and will accept a braiding diameter up to 2.0" (50.8 mm). The overall dimensions of the Model 36-V are 73.25 inches wide x 87.5 inches deep x 96.25 inches high (1,860.5 mm x 2,222.5 mm x 2,444.7 mm). It is equipped with four change gears, two braiding point dies, a complete set of carrier tension springs and a capstan pressure roll. The weight for this braiding machine is 3,500 lbs. (1,591 kg). The braiding machine can be equipped with an auxiliary overhead haul off, a precision braider former, as well as a cam heater system for running treated yarns.

BW-5L bobbin wire winder

The Magnatech BW-5L bobbin winder is a supplementary machine lot the RB-2 rotary braider, 225-II shuttle type winder and WSW-III precision wire spiral winder. Because these machines can run at high speed with advanced design, high productivity, uniform wire stress and tensile, its advantages include the capability of winding up to 12 ends (24 ends with optional let-off fixtures) and three constant bobbin spindle speeds of 670, 1,000 or 1,250 rpm. It incorporates a positive infinitely-variable drive system, operator safety guards with electrical interlock, a recessed and completely enclosed control panel, a pre-determined feet or meter reset control and totalizer, wire breakage stop motion, double wheel equalizing/measuring system, an attachment for lubricating the wire, a positive wire guide (to point of lay or on the bobbin) and an electrical full bobbin safety stop motion. The standard winder can install 12 reel let-off fixtures, with each accommodating supply reels holding approximately 65 pounds of steel wire. The specifications for some other bobbin winders are listed in table 5.

The braiding machines' other properties and related data are seen in table 6.


Most of the rubber hose reinforcing machines have been reviewed, such as yarn and wire rotary braiders, wire-spiral winders, as well as related equipment, including bobbin winders made by Rockwell, Magnatech, Mayer Industrial, Karg, etc. Their development, history, machinery properties, features, advantages and their applications in the rubber hose industry were reviewed. The technology will be further improved as computer control, other advanced technologies and more advanced materials are applied in this field. They will have a good future as the rubber hose industry grows in the new century.
Table 1--RB-2 rotary braider

No. of carriers 16 20 24 36
Carrier rpm
 Yarn 100 90 75 50
 Wire 90 80 69 45
[m.sup.2] floor space
 Deck 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
 Haul off 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
kg gross wt.
 Deck 3,061 3,198 3,352 4,205
 Haul off 1,497 1,497 1,497 1,497
Bobbin capacity
 Yarn, [cm.sup.3] 3,606 3,606 3,606 3,606
 Wire, kg 11.34 11.34 11.34 11.34
Carrier tension
 Yarn 1.8 kg to 5.44 kg
 Up to 13.60 kg

Table 2--MR-11S maypole braiding machine

Deck 16 20 24 36
 carrier carrier carrier carrier

Length (mm) 910 910 910 1,016
Width (mm) 1,496 1,496 1,496 2,166
Height (mm) 2,017 2,017 2,017 2,858
Weight (kg) 2,200 2,300 2,400 5,000
Centerline (mm) 1,264 1,264 1,264 1,575

 Package size 1,600 cu. cm. (98 cu. in.)
 Weight 9.1 kg (20 lbs.)
 Speed (rpm) 235-275 rotor
 58.7-68.7 carrier/47-55 carrier/
 39.1-45.8 carrier/26-30.5 carrier
 Package size 3,800 cu. cm (233 cu. in.)
 Weight 2.15 kg (4.75 lbs.)
 Speed (rpm) 245-260 rotor
 61-65 carrier/49-52 carrier/
 40.8-43.3 carrier/27-28.8 carrier

Super pack size 4,900 cu. cm (300 cu. in.)
 Super pack weight 4.5 kg (10 lbs.)
 Speed (rpm) 235-250 rotor
 58.7-62 carrier/47-50 carrier/
 39.1-41.6 carrier/26-28 carrier

Carrier tension 19.6 to 133.4N (4.4-30 lbs.)
Electrical 230/460 volt, 60/50 Hz [+ or -] 10%
Enclosure (mm)
 Single deck 2,135 x 1,933 x 2,977 2,135 x 1,933 x 2,977
 2,135 x 1,933 x 2,977 2,686 x 2,616 x 3,417
 Double deck 4,103 x 1,933 x 2,977 4,103 x 1,933 x
 4,103 x 1,933 x 2,977 4,976 x 2,616 x 3,417
 Triple deck 6,236 x 1,933 x 2,977 6,236 x 1,933 x 2,977

Table 3--spiral angles of wire spiral hose for some hose manufacturers

Spiral U.K France Italy
ply BTR Kleber Pirelli
No. Diameter Diameter Diameter
 25 mm x 4S 19 mm x 4S 19 mm x 4S

1 56[degrees] 52[degrees]50' 54[degrees]44'
2 56[degrees]30' 54[degrees]44' 54[degrees]44'
3 57[degrees] 54[degrees]44' 57[degrees]
4 57[degrees]30' 55[degrees]10' 57[degrees]

Spiral Japan China
ply Togawa Tokai S.R.D.R.P.
No. Diameter Diameter Diameter
 25 mm x 6S 51 mm x 6S 19 mm x 4S

1 51[degrees]30' 52[degrees] 52[degrees]50'
2 52[degrees] 52[degrees]50' 54[degrees]44'
3 54[degrees]30' 54[degrees]40' 54[degrees]44'
4 54[degrees]30' 56[degrees]20' 55[degrees]20'
5 56[degrees] 56[degrees]40'
6 57[degrees]30' 57[degrees]30'

Table 4--group type and wire capacity for
WSW-III precision wire spiral winder

Bobbin assemblies Wire capacity Ends for every
 group type for a bobbin turntable
 3/group 7.0 kg 90
 4/group 5.0 kg 120
 5/group 3.7 kg 150

Table 5--specifications for some bobbin winders

 Spindle speed Ends for
 rpm winding up

BW-6a-1 1,200 6
 Bobbin winder
BW-5L wire 670,1,000,1,250 Up to 12 or 24
 Bobbin winder with optional let
YBW-1 yarn 150 to 1,800 Up to 8
 Bobbin winder
BW-7 wire 520 meter/m 3 to 36 ends of
 Bobbin winder 2,500 0.2-0.6 mm

 Floor space Weight
 mm kg

BW-6a-1 851 x 1,549 662
 Bobbin winder
BW-5L wire 1,676 x 1,397 1,406
 Bobbin winder
YBW-1 yarn 1,321 x 495 263
 Bobbin winder
BW-7 wire 1,400 x 1,400 315
 Bobbin winder x 1,890

Table 6--braiding machines' properties and related data for some
braiding machine manufacturers

Company Karg Mayer Wardwell

 Vertical Horizontal Vertical
 rotary maypole rotary
 braider braider braider
Carrier 24,36 16,20,24,36 12,16,24
Size for hose 1/16 to 1 16C: 12C: 3/16 to
(1/D) inch 3/16 to 3/8 5/416,
 20C: 3/16 16C:
 to 3/8 24C: 3/16 to 3/8,
 3/16 to 1/2
Productivity/ 1.5 to 1 million 1.5 to
year 2 million 2.5 million
Speed for 24C:70 16C: 56 12C: 150-
carrier 36C:55 20C: 45 200
rpm 24C: 37.5 16C: 95-160,
 24C: 70-110
Tension for 1 to 10 Yarn: Upper
carrier 3.5 to 30 carrier: 4
pounds Wire: 3-5 to Lower
 12-35 carrier: 6
Advantage High High speed, big High speed,
 speed capacity, fewer lower price
 More More More
 mainte- preparation preparation
 nance time time

Company Magnatech Magnatech Spirka
 225-II RB-2 Germany
 U.S. U.S.

 Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal
 rotary rotary rotary
 braider braider braider
Carrier 20,24,36 24,36 16,20,24,32
Size for hose 20C: 24C: Hole diam:
(1/D) inch 3/16 to 3/8, 3/16 to 3/4 16, 20, 24:
 24C: 36C: 3/16 70 mm
 3/16 to 3/4, to 1/4 32,36:
 36C: 75 mm
 3/16 to 1/4
Productivity/ 1 million 2 million (feet/hour)
year 16C: 2,600,
 20, 24C
Feet 1,530
Speed for 20C: 45 24C: 60 16C: 120
carrier 24C: 37.5 36C: 40 20,24C: 70
rpm 36C: 25 32,36C: 40
 40,48C: 30
Tension for Wire: 5 to Wire: 1.5 to 4.0
carrier 35 10 to 30
pounds Yarn: 3 to Yarn:
 10 4 to 12
Advantage High High High speed
 speed, big speed, big
 capacity, capacity
 both for
 yarn and
Defect wire
 More spare Expensive Small
 parts, high capacity for
 technical bobbin

Company Carter Panjin
 U.K. China

 Horizontal Horizontal
 maypole maypole
 braider braider
Carrier 16,20,24,32 24,36
Size for hose 24C: 10 to
(1/D) inch 31 mm,
 36C: 15 to
 45 mm
Productivity/ 0.66 0.5 to
year million 1 million
Speed for 24C: 25 24C: 16
carrier 36C: 16.7 36C: 10
rpm 46C: 12.5
Tension for Up to 28 Wire: 2.5-17
carrier kg
pounds Yarn:
 1.5-6.0 kg
Advantage Many sizes Lower price,
 for carrier easy operat-
 Small High noise
 capacity for


(1.) Taiwan Rubber Industry 1997, No. 12, pp. 39-46.

(2.) Magnatech Co. equipment manual 1996.

(3.) Rockwell Co. equipment manual 1986.

(4.) Mayer Industrial Co. products equipment manual 1988, 2000.

(5.) BTR Co. product manual 1990.

(6.) Kleber Co. product manual 1990.

(7.) Pirelli Co. product manual 1988.

(8.) Tokai Co. product manual 1990.

(9.) Karg Co. equipment manual 1988.

(10.) Panjin Rubber & Plastic Machinery Plant, product manual 1988, 1998.
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Author:Xiang, Wang Wei
Publication:Rubber World
Date:Jul 1, 2003
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