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New technology forums.

Monday, April 2

Polymers in Energy and Renewable Energy

8:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m.

Organizer: I. Sedat Gunes (3M) & Ranganath Shastri (CIATEQ)

8:00 a.m.

New 3M Film and Coating Technologies for PV Module Designs

Belma Erdogan-Haug, 3M Company

3M Films and coatings are critical components in ensuring photovoltaic (PV) modules meet efficiency and durability targets. 3M has various film solutions in the PV market with unique properties that have been developed in addition to core adhesive and tape products. Some of these PV products include backsheets, ultra barrier films, anti soiling coatings, anti reflective films and encapsulants. In this talk, the function of the above mentioned films and their technical developments will be discussed as well as their superior performances to increase PV module efficiency and lifetime durability with the emphasis given to encapsulants.

8:30 a.m.

Testing & Challenge of High-Performance Thermoplastics for Oil & Gas High-Pressure/High-Temperature Sealing Applications

Jason Ren, Biomerix Corporation

Thermoplastics, such as polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and their compounds have been successfully employed in the sealing components of various oil and gas applications over many years. Recently, demand has grown for materials that can withstand even higher temperatures and pressures in harsh down hole environments. Various grades of polyaryletherketone (PAEK) materials have been marketed for such demanding applications. Several grades of PAEK materials and their compounds were evaluated. The mechanical properties of these materials were determined in house and compared well with published literature. The thermal dynamic mechanical properties of these materials at high temperatures were measured by a dynamic mechanical analysis method. Several PAEK materials were aged in water at high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) conditions. The glass transition temperature and modulus of these materials after aging were analyzed and compared with the properties of corresponding materials before aging. In addition, several PAEK materials were aged in two control line fluids and two completion fluids at HP/HT for up to 28 days. It was found that the chemistry of the fluids and the chemical structure of PAEK polymers effected a change in the mechanical properties of the PAEK materials after aging. Many of these new high-performance materials were evaluated through a series of HP/HT backup ring tests to identify likely performance improvements in service. The results of these tests will be reviewed to determine if the new grades of PAEK materials can provide satisfactory performance at ever-increasing temperatures and pressures "down hole."

9:00 a.m.

Nanomaterials and Polymer Nanocomposites for Energy Sectors

Hung-Jue Sue, Texas A&M University

Demands for sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources and for energy conservation have propelled generation of vast numbers of new concepts and approaches to harvest clean energy, to safely explore hard to reach oil and gas reservoirs, and to improve efficiency in energy consumption. To deploy many of these attractive new ideas, such as wind energy, solar energy, and deep sea oil drilling, it is imperative that high performance polymeric materials be utilized to satisfy desired economy, environment, and safety requirements. One important enabling factor to realize the above opportunities is the utilization of well-dispersed and/or well-organized nanomaterials in the form of polymer nanocomposites or thin films as structural or device components in application. In this presentation, successful examples of nanomaterials/nanocomposites prepared using a novel approach will be given to illustrate how it is possible to manipulate nanoparticle dispersion and assembly in media of interest for energy sector applications.

9:30 a.m.

Low Cost, Continuous, and Ecological Surface Preparation Technique for Lithium Ion Batteries and Photovoltaics

Rory A. Wolf, Enercon Industries Corporation

This presentation exposes the enhanced surface properties of polymer-based separators for lithium ion batteries and polymer components of photovoltaic cells using atmospheric plasma technology. Specifically addressed is the creation of high-performance and cost-effective surface characteristics of separators using in-line, continuous atmospheric plasma technology for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified separator membranes utilizing the atmospheric plasma modification process showed significantly improved wettability and electrolyte retention. Plasma treatment of thin film PV polymer components such as backsheets, front sheets, encapsulation sheets and junction boxes leads to high surface tension and cleaning of surface contaminations to improve interfacial adhesions. This presentation suggests that significant cost-reductions in lithium-ion battery and PV cell fabrication can be achieved and performance enhanced by applying in-line, continuous atmospheric plasma surface modification techniques.

10:00 a.m.

Multi-functional Electroactive Polymers and Nanocomposites

Qiming M. Zhang, The Pennsylvania State University

The direct and efficient coupling between the electric signals and the elastic, thermal, magnetic, and optic signals in multifunctional electroactive polymers such as ferroelectric polymers and nanocomposites makes them attractive for exploiting a broad range of cross-coupling phenomena for energy related applications. This talk will present recent works in these multifunctional electroactive polymers for the electrocarloric cooling, high energy density energy storage devices, and energy harvesting. By properly controlling the polarization saturation in these polymers, an ultra-high energy density can be achieved. Moreover, combining these polymers with other dielectric materials and nano-inclusions can lead to novel dielectrics with high energy density and low loss, promising for energy storage devices in hybrid electric vehicles. We will show that by enhancing the polarization "randomness" in the ferroelectric polymers, a large electrocaloric effect (ECE) can be obtained in these polymers. These polymers are attractive because refrigeration based on ECE approach is more environmentally friendly and has the promise of achieving higher efficiency. The hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in the current vapor compression cycle cooling systems are strong greenhouse gases which contribute to about 25% of the total greenhouse gases emission. And an improvement in the refrigeration efficiency can lead to lowering of energy consumption.

10:30 a.m.

Design Freedom for the Next Generation Miniaturized Photovoltaic Systems

Robert van de Grampel, Lexan Copolymers, SABIC Innovative Plastics

The photovoltaic (PV) market is one of the most dynamic global sectors with compounded annual growth rates above 20 percent and significant attention as a viable and growing mainstream alternative energy source. SABIC Innovative Plastics offers its PV customers a combination of high-performance resin technology and application design and development support. This paper will highlight multiple examples of our capabilities. Recently a new, high-performance Lexan* EXL copolymer resin was developed that addresses the fast-moving trend toward miniaturization of PV connectors and junction boxes. With innovative filler technology the enhanced electrical performance surpasses traditional materials as demonstrated by a comparative tracking index (CTI) Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) standard with PLC-2 rating. The flame-retardant performance of the material also complies with the UL94 V0 standard at 0.8mm. In addition, this new material provides exceptional low- and high-temperature impact resistance (from -40 C to 70 C) and corrosion resistance for good long-term performance and weatherability in a range of demanding outdoor environments. These combined properties enable designers to miniaturize the entire system by creating thin-wall parts, moving conductors closer together and integrating junction box systems--helping to drive down solar energy costs and increase efficiency. This new grade is part of SABIC's portfolio of high-performance, versatile materials for the PV industry. They include Noryl* resin, which provides low density, dimensional stability over a wide temperature range (-40 C to 140 C), low warpage, excellent long-term weathering, damp heat performance, and outstanding electrical and thermal performance. These properties make it suitable for use in PV junction boxes and structural mounting systems. Noryl* resin also meets the industry's critical need for a long-lasting, outdoor-resistant material.

Tuesday, April 3

Polymer Applications in Health

Joint Forum with Medical Plastics Division

8:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m.

Organizers: Sadhan C. Jana, Prithu Mukhopadhyay, and Len Czuba

This symposium is devoted to polymer applications in health research highlighting materials and processes that are far from commercialization, but rich in science and novel concepts. This symposium especially focuses on drug delivery, resorbable materials, orthopedics, implants, devices, and tissue engineering for grafting and implants.

8:00 a.m.

Multifunctional Polymer Networks and Their Application Potential in Medicine

Dr. Andreas Lendlein, Professor, Materials in Life Sciences, University Potsdam and Professor of Chemistry, FU Berlin

Biomedical applications are demanding materials with specific combinations of properties and functionalities. Inspired by the complex and diverse requirements of these applications, fundamental research is aiming at multifunctional polymer networks, combining several different functions such as shape-memory capabilities, histocompatibility and biodegradability. Polymer-based multifunctional materials can be realized as multimaterial systems being hybrid structure (e.g., composites, multifibers, or multilayer constructs) of several distinct material components, each contributing a different but necessary function. Different functions can also be integrated in single material systems (e.g. multiphased polymers). The challenge for the development of multifunctional polymer networks for biomedical applications is the integration of biological principles in the material design. Therefore a knowledge-based system approach is required, which is based on a fundamental understanding of the interaction between materials and biological environments.

8:30 a.m.

A Family of Novel Reticulated Elastomeric Biostable and Biodegradable Polyurethane Biomaterials--Achieving Biointegration for Tissue Ingrowth and Enhanced Healing

Arindam Datta, Biomerix Corporation

The Biomerix Biomaterial[TM] is a family of flexible biostable biointegrative scaffolds that have been shown to support tissue ingrowth and remodeling in a variety of neurovascular, peripheral vascular and soft tissue preclinical model systems. The macroporous biostable 3-D scaffold is a cross-linked, segmented polycarbonate-polyurethaneurea matrix and is elastomeric and highly resilient and can be tailored to meet the biomechanical requirements for a wide range of applications. The average cell size ranges from 250 to 500 um and the average pore size ranges from 100 to 250 um. It is biostable, resisting hydrolytic, enzymatic and oxidative degradation. An unfettered access to the high void content and the associated high surface areas together with a biocompatible composition permits cell attachment, proliferation and migration throughout the scaffold matrix, leading to stable tissue ingrowth, formation of extracellular matrix, and excellent biointegration with the host tissue. It is made by a novel process that involves an in situ foaming step to form a porous structure followed by a controlled high temperature thermal reticulation step to remove the cell membranes formed during the foaming process.

9:00 a.m.

Drug Release from Biomimetic Shape Memory Elastomeric Composites (SMEC)

I.U. Onyejekwe and RT. Mather, Syracuse Biomaterials Institute and Biomedical and Chemical Engineering Department, Syracuse University

Previously we reported on a new approach to elastomeric shape memory polymers prepared using a composite design. In particular, we achieved the combination of shape memory and shape fixing through interpenetrating phases of elastomer matrix and semicrystalline microfibers, respectively. In the present study, we have incorporated drugs into the composite for controlled release needed in cardiovascular applications, wherein the rate-limiting step for drug release is water permeation through the elastomer, water playing a key role in reacting with a drug-releasing donor molecule. In this presentation, materials design, drug synthesis, composite processing, and application-specific testing will be discussed.

9:30 a.m.

Application of Polymers to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

Vipul Dave, Advanced Engineering and Technology, Medical Devices & Diagnostics Sector, Johnson & Johnson

Polymers have been playing an important role in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac catheterization has been among the few innovations that have profoundly influenced the future of medicine. The technology of balloon catheters and ancillary delivery systems is rapidly evolving to meet clinical challenges. Drug eluting stents (DES) are another innovation that has transformed the practice of interventional cardiology and are the treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous intervention. This presentation will provide an overview of the historical evolution of catheters, key technologies and products that were enabled by leveraging the structure, property and processing relationships of polymeric materials. The presentation will also summarize the key requirements for polymers used in the DES, including physical properties, stability, compatibility with drugs, biocompatibility with vascular tissue and control of drug release. A brief overview will also be provided of the next generation DES being developed using bioabsorbable polymers.

10:00 a.m.

Advances in PEEK Biomaterials for Implant Applications

Steve Kurtz, Exponent

Developed in the 1980s, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a relatively new structural biomaterial that is gaining increased acceptance for use in orthopedic, trauma, spine, and dental implants. With over a decade of clinical experience, PEEK composites can be tailored with elastic moduli ranging from titanium alloy, at the high end, to cortical and cancellous bone, at the low end of the spectrum. Used initially in spinal cages due to its MRI-compatibility, recent PEEK implant development has focused on isoelastic hip stems, thin orthopedic bearings, bioactive composites, and dental materials. This talk provides an overview of recent developments in the applications for PEEK biomaterials as well as and recent advances in metal and hydroxyapatite coatings, plasma treatment, porous PEEK, silver-PEEK composites for anti-infection, and bioactive PEEK composites.

10:30 a.m.

Medical Devices & Biomaterials: An FDA Perspective

Dinesh V. Patwardhan, Division of Chemistry & Material Science, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, CDRH/FDA

Both novel and traditional materials can provide unique opportunities, as well as unique challenges, when used in medical devices. In the presentation, we will explore this dichotomy through examples of materials used in cardiovascular devices. Specifically, we will focus on bioabsorbable, and nano-scale. In this context, we will also attempt to clarify the often-used misnomer of an "FDA approved material", as FDA approves medical devices based on a specific indication and not the materials comprising the device, which is a critical distinction. When using a traditional material with a history of successful use there may be a perception or expectation that an easier approval pathway exists, which may not be the case. For example, although some bioabsorbable materials have a long history of use, however utilizing these materials in new applications (indications) creates new challenges. Similarly, the chemical entity of specific nano-materials may be established, but the uniqueness of the size-scale also raises new concerns. In some cases, the individual material components have been used previously, so the systemic toxicity has been established. However, the local biocompatibility for this new indication may pose an unknown risk. Through discussion of these topics, our objective is to clarify some of the considerations that should be accounted for in the design of novel materials, or application of traditional ones, in medical devices.

Wednesday, April 4

Emerging Green Technologies

1:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m.

Organizers: Stephane Costeux and Maggie Baumann

Sustainable growth is one of the major challenges for the 21st century. Academia, industry and policy makers are joining forces to support and sustain the increasing energy consumption necessary for countries development and population growth, while reducing the needs for fossil fuels and the emissions of carbon dioxide. Plastics will play a central role in enabling the numerous sustainable ("green") technologies essential to this endeavor, e.g.:

* lightweight structures engineered for transportation or wind energy harvesting

* nano-structured polymers for electronic applications and safe energy storage

* selective membranes or chemically active polymer for C[O.sub.2] separation and sequestration

* thermochromic or reflective films to reduce cooling loads in buildings and transportation

* advanced insulation foams reducing energy losses in buildings

* emerging energy efficient illumination technologies

This new technology forum will help promote exchange between industry leaders and academic experts, who will share their vision and needs for success and present current developments in these fields.

Talk 1

Delivering a Sustainable Future Through Innovation

Dr. Theresa Kotanchek, Vice President--Sustainable Technologies and Innovation Sourcing, The Dow Chemical Company (USA)

Energy is the single most powerful engine of growth and prosperity in our society. Its production and use need to increase dramatically over the next few decades, both to serve the needs of the industrialized world and even more so to meet the rising demand of the developing world. The future of energy is connected to innovative technologies and materials from chemistry--from energy-saving products to solar shingles and batteries for next-generation hybrid vehicles. In particular, numerous opportunities exist to design and use plastics in emerging applications or to optimize efficiency or sustainability.

No one has more at stake in the solution or more of an ability to have an impact on the overlapping issues of feedstock supply, energy efficiency and climate protection than Dow Chemical. In this seminar, we will highlight Dow's most innovative programs, our future priorities and how we are investing in collaborative research to accelerate our delivery of tomorrow's technologies.

Talk 2

White Roofs, Cool Planet

Dr. Ronnen Levinson, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (USA)

White roofs that stay cool in the sun do more than reduce the need for air conditioning--by increasing the fraction of sunlight reflected into space, they cool both the air in our cities and the Earth's atmosphere. Developing the next generation of white roofing products that stay clean and highly reflective over time presents new

challenges to material scientists and engineers, but could boost cool-roof benefits by over 50%. We recommend a low- to no-cost upgrade program in which cool roofs are selected for new construction and for end-of-service-life roof replacement. Upgrading 80% of U.S. commercial buildings with high-performance white roofs could over 20 years save 1.5 quadrillion BTU of net primary energy with a present value of $7.8B. It could also reduce C[O.sub.2] emissions by 65 Mt through energy conservation, and provide a one-time C[O.sub.2] offset of 280 Mt via negative radiative forcing ("global cooling").

Talk 3

Nanostructured Polymer Materials made by Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization as Solid Polymer Electrolytes and Nanoporous Membranes

Dr. Didier Gigmes, Research Director at CNRS, Universit6 de Provence, Marseille (France)

The design of solid polymer electrolyte for lithium metal battery technology requires engineering a polymer phase with very controlled morphology. Controlled Radical Polymerization (CRP) techniques revolutionized the field of material science in the past 25 years and provided a convenient way to produce a broad range of polymer architectures and compositions exhibiting unprecedented properties. Among these materials, block copolymers represent a unique class of materials allowing the combination of different properties in a single material. The main advantage of the block copolymers is based on the covalent attachment of two different polymers, thus avoiding the unwanted macrophase separation when the blocks are immiscible. In addition, depending on the nature/ratio of each block, and the experimental conditions for the film preparation, block copolymers are able to self-assemble to produce nanostructured morphology films with tunable properties. In this presentation we will demonstrate the potential of the Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization technique to efficiently prepare block copolymers fulfilling the specific criteria of solid polymer electrolytes films, and also nanoporous membranes for filtration applications.

Talk 4

The Development of Thermally Conductive Polycarbonate Composites for LED Heat Sink Applications

Dr. Xiangyang Li, Bayer MaterialScience (USA)

Bayer MaterialScience has introduced different Makrolon polycarbonate products to the market place for LED lens applications. In this presentation, we will introduce our newest product development for LED thermal management. A heat sink is critical to the performance of an LED. Heat at the junction shortens an LED's lifetime, decreases its lumen output, and changes its color attributes. Polycarbonate composites with thermal conductivity as high as over 50 W/m-K have been developed, two orders of magnitude higher than a typical polymer material, but still much lower than 240 W/m-K, the thermal conductivity for aluminum. We will attempt to answer the question whether a polymer composite can replace aluminum as heat sink material. Physical properties, processibility, thermal conductivity characterization, as well as the performance of LED luminaire prototypes will be presented.

Talk 5

Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Composites

Dale Brosius, President, Quickstep Composites (USA)

The most recognized benefit of composites is the reduction of weight versus traditional metals and the corresponding reduction in fuel consumption in aircraft, ships and ground vehicles.

Yet the composites industry today is increasingly focused on processes and materials that enhance sustainability though the reduction in manufacturing process energy, lower scrap rates, and reduced emissions. Some of these initiatives will be presented, including prepregs that deliver structural performance without the high pressures and energy consumption of an autoclave, processing techniques that reduce emissions of styrene vapors and alternative diluents that have lower inherent vapor pressure, automated tape and fiber placement that reduces cutting scrap and landfill waste, thermoplastic prepregs and consolidation technologies. The needs for new materials to further improve performance and decrease cure times will be discussed.
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Title Annotation:ANTEC 2012
Publication:Plastics Engineering
Date:Feb 1, 2012
Words:3370
Previous Article:Fundamentals & Fellows Forum.
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