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New technologies and old methodologies: Jewish Studies research in the digital age.

Rapidly changing information technologies and networking capabilities arc transforming scholarly research in Jewish Studies. Computer screens work alongside and even supplant the printed page as a research tool. The next generation of Jewish scholars and academics must be prepared for these changes or suffer the consequences of not keeping up with them. Jewish Studies librarians, as information specialists, can help train researchers in the use of electronic resources and searching techniques. Librarians and scholars need to work together to integrate these new resources into their research methodologies. Contemporary research methods courses may be the best place to introduce and forge innovative, collaborative teaching partnerships.


As we enter the twenty-first century, an increasing body of electronic resources is transforming the way traditional scholarly research is conducted. Rapidly changing information technologies and networking capabilities are modifying the practical means by which scholars look for information and disseminate their findings. The next generation of Jewish scholars and academics must be prepared for these changes or suffer the consequences of not keeping up with them. Given the increasingly important role that electronic and digital technologies will play in the lives of the next generation of scholars, Jewish Studies librarians also need to look at their role as information specialists and see how they can help today's graduate and even undergraduate students. Whereas once Jewish Studies faculty members taught students research methodologies, today it is often the academic librarian, not the Jewish Studies professor, who is best prepared to train researchers in the use of electronic resources and searching techn iques. Contemporary research methods courses in colleges and universities, currently taught by faculty, may offer the best places to forge innovative, collaborative teaching partnerships.

Ability of New Technologies to Improve Access to Judaica and Hebraica Collections

For Jewish Studies, as well as humanities and social science research in general, scholars have traditionally depended on printed or paper-based bibliographic tools.

These materials require their users to be able to handle a variety of languages and scripts, and to have an understanding of complex historical, social, economic, cultural, and religious traditions. With the advent of advanced information technologies such as the hypertext transfer protocol (better known to web suffers as http), digital imaging, creation of relational and other types of databases, multilingual computing, multimedia, text encoding, and other applications, the scope of Jewish Studies research can now expand.

When we think of computer-based research, tools, and output, we are talking about text, data, images, and sound, as well as electronic communication. In order to examine the impact of new technologies on Jewish Studies, scholars need to look at these developments in terms of the types of information involved.

The use of computers in Jewish Studies is most pronounced in the following areas: general library resources such as online catalogs, indexes, databases, and bibliographies; conversion of manuscript and print texts into electronic format and the accompanying avenues of content, stylistic, and linguistic analysis; and the creation of research tools such as image or sound archives. Some of theses resources are freely available over the web; (1) some are available only though paid, institutional subscriptions; some are distributed through commercially available CD-ROMs; others are in-house computer applications.

Judaica librarians have very often been at the forefront, helping to shape the evolution of these new technologies to meet the needs of their distinct constituencies. The first major development was the emergence of the vernacular Hebrew script capability in the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) in 1988. (2) This development allowed readers to locate library materials without depending on the unreliable and difficult task of romanization. Many American and European Jewish Studies librarians are deeply committed to the belief that library patrons should be able to search for and read catalog records for Hebrew script materials in the alphabet in which they were written. They are also devoting much time to working with library automation vendors to develop integrated library systems that are multilingual and multiscript. Now, vendors in the United States increasingly are developing library automation systems that offer Hebrew script capability. Today, patrons at the libraries of the Jewish Theologi cal Seminary, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati, Yeshiva University, University of Judaism, and Spertus College of Judaica are able to search their library catalogs in Hebrew script. Brandeis University Libraries and the New York Public Library are soon to follow.

In addition, electronic bibliographical tools such as retrospective and current periodical indexes are available on the web, on CD-ROM, and through online subscriptions. Library catalogs and databases in Israel and elsewhere abroad can now be accessed and searched in both Hebrew and Latin scripts via the Internet, bringing these resources much closer to overseas scholars. The Index of Articles in Jewish Studies, or RAMBI as it is often called, the Index to Hebrew Periodicals, Index to Yiddish Periodicals, the David Ben-Gurion Bibliography (emanating from the Ben-Gurion Research Center at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev), and many other databases are freely accessible and searchable, with an appropriate web browser.

Much of the work undertaken by Jewish Studies scholars is text-based, and electronic versions of our textual legacy are becoming increasingly important. The 1990s saw the emergence of digital literary collections, mostly on CD-ROM, that electronically reproduce our traditional texts. These include such major collections as Bar-Ilan's Judaic Library, Soncino Classics Collection, Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library, Henkind Talmud Text Databank, and so forth. In addition to digitized text, many of these databases include traditional and contemporary commentary and annotations.

While many of these collections come from private and public institutions, individual scholars are also turning to digital technology in a variety of formats to create new editions of classical texts. Dr. Charles H. Manekin of the University of Maryland is leading a project to create a digitized relational database based on Moritz Steinschneider's Die Hebraeischen Ubersetzungen des Mittelalters unter die Juden als Dolmetscher. This will include a "translation, a comprehensive list of extant manuscripts in the relevant areas with pictures of the first folios of each manuscript and links to further information." (3) Seth Jerchower, a doctoral candidate at the University of Freiburg, and the Public Services Librarian and Web Master at the Center for Judaic Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, is currently preparing a critical edition and linguistic analysis of a Judeo-Italian translation of the Prophets.

One needs to be aware that these electronic versions of traditional texts come from many different sources. Some provide comprehensive coverage, and others cover a particular corpus of texts. They vary greatly in format, accuracy, and type of coding. These editions are produced by scholars, librarians, and computing consultants in both the public and private sectors, and their critical scholarly value is not uniform.

Despite these disadvantages, there are advantages to using electronic versions of historical or modem text. Electronic texts offer powerful searching capabilities. Researchers can easily copy passages from electronic texts directly into word processing documents, or into a note-taking application such as Endnote. Electronic editions can be used in conjunction with textual analysis software. These programs allow scholars to produce lists of words and their frequency of occurrence, generate indices and concordances, and provide vocabulary analysis. The Academy of Hebrew Language, in their Historical Dictionary Project, aims to "present every Hebrew word in its morphological, semantical, and contextual development from its first appearance in written texts to the present." (4) Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is developing an online comprehensive Aramaic lexicon, which will cover all dialects and periods of ancient Aramaic.

Full-text, fully searchable journals are available online in English, Hebrew, and other languages. Project Muse, emanating from Johns Hopkins University, includes electronic editions of recent issues of American Jewish History, Shofar, Israel Studies, Jewish Social Studies, and Prooftexts. Snunit, a non-profit organization based at the Hebrew University that develops Internet-based learning applications, offers several full-text online journals in Hebrew that can be of interest to a researcher, including Katedrah, Helikon, and Teva va-A rets among others. In addition, access to other full-text journals in Jewish Studies such as Jewish Studies, an Intern et Journal, Journal of Kabbala Studies, American Jewish Archives Journal, Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, and Women in Judaism are available through their websites.

Digital technology is making visual and textual information more accessible and easier to work with. Digitized sound can also be created, manipulated, and analyzed by computer. The last few years have seen the emergence of software that allows institutions to manage, access, and use image, sound, and text collections over the Internet. These programs enable researchers to locate images and acoustical or textual items by a number of different methods including pointing and clicking with a mouse, or keyword and Boolean searching.

Universities, libraries, archives, museums, and other institutions in the United States, Israel, and Europe are digitizing their collections of Judaica-related materials and making them available on the Internet and on CD-ROM, with either proprietary or public access, depending on institution and collection. These include manuscripts, photographs, three-dimensional art and museum objects; newspaper, serial, and monograph collections, and more: in short both published and unpublished materials that document Jewish religious, cultural, literary, and social history. Examples include the

Jewish National and University Library's collection of Ketubbot, the National Sound Archives at JNUL, which contains over 7,000 hours of recorded music, the complete edition of the Palestine Post (1932-1950) which has been placed online by the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at Tel Aviv University,5 the National Photo Collection of the State of Israel, Jewish Theological Seminary's News About Jews which contains digitized images of 259 American newspapers from the Abraham and Deborah Karp Collection of Early American Judaica, and the. Menassah ben Israel Project at the Bibliotheca Rosenthalia in Amsterdam. The Judaica Division of the Universitatsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main is working on two projects of digitization: a collection of 1000 Yiddish and German-Jewish books in Hebrew characters, and German-language Jewish periodicals. The University of Pennsylvania Library, in collaboration with Cambridge University Library, is engaged in a pilot project to digitize and catal og fragments of medieval manuscripts from the Cairo Genizah.

These projects are just a beginning. Libraries and archives house unique collections of primary and secondary sources that scholars require for their research. This fact underscores the importance of communication between scholars and librarians, and of building alliances to identify the materials that deserve and receive top priority for conversion to electronic format. (6)

Multilingual Computing in Jewish Studies

Jewish Studies scholars have long experienced frustration when needing to work with different scripts in a single word-processing or other textual document, or who need to exchange documents electronically with colleagues. They have to contend with converting texts and e-mail written in non-roman scripts. Users have had to rely on self-contained solutions that often prove incompatible with other applications or operating systems. These programs are often archaic, contain bugs, and are extremely limited in the features and capabilities that they offer.

An application that includes multiscript support can accurately display texts in various scripts simultaneously. Such a program can accept textual input, display text, and print the scripts of different languages in the same document, regardless of a user's language preferences. If the application is not prepared to offer multiscript support, some of this text will most likely appear garbled.

Most academic users do not follow, or attempt to understand, the issues of international standards in multilingual computing. Yet these scholars may be left behind as colleagues, publishers, and academic institutions adopt more efficient standards for the exchange of multi-script data. The internationally recognized Unicode standard is a new system for coding character sets, or in laymen's terms, letters of the alphabet. It currently supports over 90,000 characters including Hebrew and Arabic scripts, as well as distinctive Yiddish characters. It also includes the International Phonetic Alphabet and special characters required for transliterating Hebrew, Yiddish, and other Semitic and Hebraic languages. ASCII, which is a 7 bit character set, only allows for 127 characters; ISO 8859 extended the size of the character set to 8 bits, which allows for a maximum of 260 characters. More and more software publishers are adopting the Unicode standard, and the multilingual needs of academic users are thereby being ad dressed. (7)

An example of how the Unicode standard can impact both the processing and dissemination of historic texts is the earlier mentioned work in progress of a critical edition of the Book of Prophets in Judeo-Italian. The text is that of a 15th-century manuscript, now at the Palatine Library of Parma [MS3068]. A significant portion of Mr. Jerchower's thesis is based on the methodology of using Unicode in order to facilitate multi-lingual and multi-character textual processing. For example, while the language of translation is Italo-Romance, the manuscript is written in Hebrew characters. The database will permit the retrieval of information pertinent to the original and its translation (e.g. lexical, phrasal, grammatical details), and integrate sources relative to the reason for a particular translation. In other words, thanks to Unicode, anyone will be able to access and manipulate the data from this database across platforms that are Unicode-compliant. This is what sets it apart from earlier computer application s involving classical (8 bit) multi-script texts. (8)

Another example of the application of the Unicode standard--one that has very broad utility--is the introduction of the vernacular Japanese, Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Persian, Hebrew, and Yiddish (or Jackphy as they are known) scripts to the web-based Eureka interface of the RLIN database. This development is particularly meaningful for those researchers whose own library catalogs don't offer vernacular script access. By translating the characters in bibliographic records into their Unicode equivalents, the Eureka interface offers search and display capabilities in both Latin and Hebrew scripts to scholars, students, and librarians who have the appropriate web browsers. Seeing only their romanized equivalents in Eureka at best frustrates researchers who can read the non-roman scripts.

Microsoft has implemented the Unicode standard into its latest operating systems (2000 and XP), thereby offering the easiest and most cost-efficient environments in which to do Hebrew, Yiddish, and Arabic computing. They include the ability to mix scripts in a single page and to exchange documents in various encoding formats, which makes texts readable. Office 2000 and its word processor, database, spreadsheet and presentation software, and e-mail programs allow the input of Hebrew characters. In Word 2000, the user can open and save documents in Hebrew script. The Bar Ilan Judaic Library, in its ninth edition, is being published in Unicode format. Thanks to Unicode, a scholar can cut and paste Hebrew text directly from the Bar Ilan database into a Word 2000 document. With the e-mail programs that are included with Office 2000 and Internet Explorer, colleagues can send Hebrew e-mail or mix scripts within their message, facilitating close cooperation between the Americas, Europe, and Israel. Users can send mu ltilingual text by using Unicode-enabled fonts in their e-mail messages, and/or by attaching Word 2000 documents to them.

Networking and Collaboration in Jewish Studies

The last decade has witnessed a rapid growth in innovation and cooperation among Jewish communal, educational, and regional groups to develop networks and portals for the exchange of specialized information. Organizations such as the Jewish Agency and World Zionist Organization (WZO) are working with academic institutions and educators to promote collaborative technology-based projects in the study of Hebrew language and literature, Judaism, Israeli history and regional studies, and the history of the Jewish people. WZO's Department for Jewish Zionist Education Pedagogic Center and the earlier-mentioned Snunit, a non-profit organization founded at the Hebrew University in 1994, are committed to improvement in teaching and learning in all levels of Jewish Studies. Both these groups offer curricular and other resources (multimedia and computing) to support research projects; the development of study skills; and platforms for teacher, student, and scholarly collaborations and interactions.

A new project to promote Jewish use of the Internet has been drafted by the Board of Governors of the Jewish Agency. This initiative aims at "developing Jewish networking infrastructures." Participants in this project will include authors, publishers, academics, educators, businesspeople, communal professionals, museum curators, librarians and archivists, and even government agencies. They will be responsible for coordinating the development of standards for content development, description, and archiving of digital materials, allocation of funding sources, and creation of forums and media for electronic communication. (9)

Information Literacy from the Traditional to the Electronic

The impact of information technology on Jewish Studies presents the academic community with many new challenges. However, our community is very strongly divided into "technogeeks" and "technophobes." Many Jewish Studies faculty and students view these technologies as a great and intimidating mystery. Given their trepidation and even outright aversion to these developments, it is unrealistic to think that they will become information literate or begin creating electronic source material themselves until they possess the requisite technical skills.

To address this problem, the Institute of Contemporary Jewry at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem is offering, for the first time this year, a full course designed exclusively to familiarize their students with basic computing techniques and "applications relating to various aspects of the multi-disciplinary study of contemporary Jewry: exposure to the computer as a research tool; developing skills in computerized bibliographical searching via the web; creating and managing databases for personal research; using and maintaining a spreadsheet; using a scanner to create digital files; and learning to use presentation programs." (10)

As these basic technical skills are mastered, graduate students and faculty need to think and learn about the uses of advanced computing in teaching and research in Jewish Studies.

Some Jewish Studies faculty have started integrating "high-tech toys" into the classroom. Dr. Dennis Klein at Kean University in New Jersey uses WebBoard technology in his upper division Jewish Studies courses. WebBoard is a web-based discussion or conferencing tool which enables teachers to "converse online, and to designate selected web-sites for easy one-click access to information." Students can create their own-guided syllabus and assemble an online reading list. Dr. Klein used this method to create a course and source reader on comparative diasporas. (11)

Departments might offer workshops such as an introduction to computer-assisted textual criticism and analysis; a look-at multimedia databases and publications, and current supporting software programs; and an overview of how computing technologies and electronic resources are integrated into other humanities and social science disciplines.

Computing for non-roman scripts, as noted earlier, is now at the fingertips of scholars working with these languages. Correspondingly, the need for competence in multi-lingual and multi-script computing has never been more crucial. There is an urgent need for librarians and information professionals with expertise in this area to make sure that their academic colleagues have the requisite computer hardware and software, and training in multi-lingual computer resources and applications to carry out advanced work in text editing and information retrieval. Very often it is precisely members of the Judaica library community who have experience using non-roman scripts in computer applications.

Teaching faculty and academic librarians are in general agreement about the information-gathering skills that are crucial for scholars and researchers. These are defining the topic(s), identifying and locating sources of information, examining the resources, recording the information, interpreting and evaluating the information, and presenting and disseminating the resultant work.

In an electronic environment other skills are needed as well, and both students and faculties should be current and up-to-speed in their application. Many universities' library and information services departments offer instructional programs that can be tailored to a department's specifics needs. An introduction to research tools in Jewish Studies might include new resources in electronic format such as directories of electronic resources, and electronic editions of classical and traditional texts. Students also need to be taught effective and efficient electronic searching skills for localized databases and web-based resources. The library's Judaica subject specialist should be able to assist in developing course content.

As librarians, of course, our own computer skills have to be up to speed. We have to make sure that there is no potential for technical problems in the classroom or instructional center. We should always have our hardware and software ready and tested before a teaching session, and have thoroughly reviewed any demonstrations to guarantee smooth classroom presentation.

A simple technique for encouraging students and even faculty to use electronic resources and technologies are the preparation and dissemination of detailed and clear instructions and handouts. These documents may appear simplistic or naive, and are often ignored or poorly utilized in an instructional environment. However, they are crucial in moving students and even faculty from traditional research methods into the new electronic environment.

In conclusion, the evidence is compelling that developments in information technology have created strong opportunities for academic librarians to participate in the training of the next generation of scholars in Jewish Studies. We need to demonstrate to our colleagues among the teaching faculty that we can collaborate with them as information specialists in teaching classes in research methodologies; as well as in the identification of, creation of, delivery of, and usability of new electronic bibliographic and scholarly resources.


Selected Internet Resources for Jewish Studies

(Note: This list was compiled in February 2002. Due to the volatility of the Web, some of these links may no longer be valid).

Links to Full-Text Journals and Documents

English Full-Text Journals (Academic selected list)

American Jewish Archives Journal (

American Jewish History (Project Muse)

Ariel (

Israel Studies (Project Muse)

Jewish Studies, an Internet Journal (

Jewish Social Studies (Project Muse)

Journal of Kabbalah Studies (

Journal of Hebrew Scriptures (

Modern Judaism (Project Muse)

Prooftexts (Project Muse)

Shofar (Project Muse)

Women in Judaism (

Snunit (Links to Online Journals in Hebrew)

Hebrew (titles below available from Snunit)


Internet Editions of Hebrew Daily Newspapers




Full-Text American Rabbinics

Presents in PDF format, full-texts of Hebrew books written by American rabbis that are out of print and/or circulation and published between 1890 and 1965. The site includes Jewish works in English, Yiddish, and Hebrew and has six categories: Agadah, Hidushim, Derashot, Halakhah, Parshanut and Sheelot u-teshuvot.

Other Internet Resources

Jewish History Resource Center (Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History)

A well-organized and comprehensive repository of resources with links to databases, publishers, libraries and archives, conferences, bibliographies, maps and atlases, bibliographies, archaeology, timelines, publishers, Professor List, Centers and Institutes, Jewish History Societies, Museums and Exhibits, and more.

MALMAD -- Israel Center for Digital Information Services

Provides access to indexes and databases including RAMBI (Index of Articles on Jewish Studies), The Israel Union Catalog and the Israel Union List of Serials.

Index to Yiddish Periodicals

telnet:// (telnet toALEPH: To log in follow these directions: At username prompt, log in as aleph; for terminal selection type choose 11 (VT220); type LB/IYP

Emanates from the Hebrew University, was begun approximately five years ago under the directorship of Avraham Nowerzstern, and now includes over 50 Yiddish periodical titles.

Ben-Gurion Research Center


Independent academic unit of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev dedicated to pursuing historical research on the life of David Ben-Gurion.

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon

Cyber-site of an international project to produce a definitive, critical lexicon covering all ancient works in Aramaic dialects.

Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel

Includes Last Month's Indices, Census of Population and Housing, Monthly Bulletin of Prices, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, the Statistical Abstract, Economic and Financial indicators, and other selected data.

Governments on the WWW -- Israel

Includes links to general resources, national institutions, municipal institutions, Israeli representatives in foreign countries, political parties, and other types of government and political information.

Database/Index of Israeli Publishers

The Jewish National and University Library's Legal Deposit Department maintains an extensive listing of Israeli publishers, including many minor publishers who issue only a few books a year. Includes address, telephone, and fax number of each publisher.

Partial Lists of Library of Congress Subject Headings in Jewish Studies


The Library of Congress Subject Headings is a recognized thesaurus used not just by most library catalogs but also by some database producers. While not complete, this list gives an idea of how subject heading are assigned.

JOS Calendar Conversion

The JOS Calendar Converter can convert a civil (Gregorian calendar) date into the equivalent date on the Hebrew calendar, and vice versa. It can also display Yahrzeit dates for consecutive years.

Israel Archives Association

Provides links to many of Israel's leading archives. Some of these repositories have placed guides to their holdings on the web and provide a very useful tool for researchers looking for primary source material.

Department for Jewish Zionist Education (WZO), The Pedagogic Center

Offers resources in formal and informal Jewish education, and Internet educational support.


Education information system in Hebrew. Includes databases, full-text journals, encyclopedias, maps, dictionaries and more.

Library of Congress Transliteration Table for Hebrew and Yiddish

Digitalization Projects

Judaica Resources: Electronic Texts from Center for Judaic Studies

Provides links to a number of digitalization projects including electronic text and image collections.

Palestine Post (1932-1950)

Searchable, electronic edition of the Palestine Post (1932-1950) prepared by the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at Tel Aviv University.

News about Jews

News About Jews contains digitized images of 259 American newspapers from the Abraham and Deborah Karp Collection of Early American Judaica. These newspapers span the years 1782-1898.

Princeton Geniza Project

"The Computer Geniza Project of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University seeks to extend the methodologies available to Hebrew and Arabic scholars working with the documents found in the Geniza chamber of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo in the late 19th century. The project is dedicated to transcribing documents from film copies to computer files, creating a full text retrieval text-base of transcribed documents, developing new tools such as dictionaries, semantic categories, and morphological aids to further the study of Geniza texts."

Ketubbot Digitalization Project

The whole collection of the Jewish National and University Library 1200 Ketubbot is now available online and is searchable in Hebrew and English for country, city, year, etc.

Digitization of Jewish Periodicals in the German Language

Project providing Internet access to the major Jewish periodicals in the German language including Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, Altneuland, Der Jude, Der Freistatt, Die Welt, Esra, Jahrbuch fur judische Geschichte und Literatur, Mitteilungen des Gesamtarchivs, Der deutschen Juden, Ost und West, Palastina.

Israel Sound Archives Digitalization Project

The National Sound Archives at the JNUL contain more than 7000 hours of recorded music representing all Jewish and Israeli communities. The entire archive is now being systematically digitized which will insure both preservation of the materials and better access for researchers.

Menasseh Ben Israel Project ary.html

A digital project from the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, University of Amsterdam that aims to make their whole collection of 17th century printed editions of books by Menasseh Ben Israel and several manuscripts available electronically.

National Photo Collection of the Israel Government Press Office

A searchable collection of thousands of photos covering a variety of subjects including politics, economics, society, industry, settlement, immigration, the I.D.F., wars, Israeli leaders, summit meetings, peace talks, transportation, sports, hobbies, religion, law, scenery, etc. Low-resolution photos can be downloaded for personal non-commercial use.


I would like to thank Michael Terry, Dorot Chief Librarian, Dorot Jewish Division, New York Public Library for encouraging me to disseminate this paper. I would also like to thank the following for reading a draft of this paper and providing helpful comments: Zachary Baker (Reinhard Family Curator of Judaica and Hebraica Collections, Stanford University Libraries), Arthur Kiron (Curator of Judaica Collections, University of Pennsylvania Libraries), and Seth Jerchower (Public Services Librarian, Center for Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania).

(1.) For an annotated list of select Internet resources mentioned in this paper, and useful to Jewish Studies scholars, see appendix.

(2.) For a fuller profile of the implementation and use of the vernacular Hebrew script enhancement on RLIN, see: Joan Aliprand, "Hebrew on RLIN," Judaica Librarianship 3:1-2(1986-1987): 5-16, "Hebraica on RLIN: an update," Judaica Librarianship 5:1 (1989-1990): 12-20.

(3.) Dr. Charles Manekin, Assoc. Professor of Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, e-mail correspondence with author, Sept. 6, 2001.

(4.) The Academy of the Hebrew Language, The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language. [Online]: [Feb. 9, 2002].

(5.) For a description of the Palestine Post project see: Dr. Ronald W. Zweig, "From Newsprint to Screen: Lessons from the Palestine Post Project," Literary and Linguistic Computing 13:2 (1998): 89-95. [Available online]: [Feb. 9, 2001].

(6.) For an introduction to document preservation and archives in the electronic era see: Susan S. Lazinger, Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory and Practice (Englewood, Colo., Libraries Unlimited, 2001).

(7.) For a complete overview of the Unicode Standard, see the Unicode website [Online]: [Feb. 9, 2002].

(8.) Seth Jerchower, Public Services Librarian, Center for Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, e-mail correspondence with author, Sept. 2001.

(9.) The working site for the Jewish Agency's "Initiative for Developing Jewish Networking Infrastructures" is [online]:[Feb. 9, 2002].

(10.) Mira Levine, Director, Center for Computerized Research Services, Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, e-mail correspondence with author, Sept. 2, 2001.

(11.) DR. Dennis B. Klein, Director, Program in Jewish Studies and World Affairs, Professor of European History, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, e-mail correspondence with the author, Sept. 7, 2001.

Heidi G. Lerner is the Hebraica/Judaica Cataloger at the Stanford University Libraries. She has a M.L.S. from the Graduate School of Library and Archive Studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and has been active in Judaica librarianship for over a decade.
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Date:Jun 22, 2002
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