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New species and new records of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from central South Africa.

Genus Phlegra Simon, 1976

Type species: Attus fasciatus Hahn, 1826.

The genus includes nearly 80 species distributed in the Old World (except a single Nearctic species), almost half of which occur in the Afrotropics (Proszynski 2009; Platnick 2010). They are small or medium sized ground living spiders, the majority of whom have dark colouration with a characteristic striped pattern (two longitudinal white streaks on carapace and three streaks on abdomen); some males have the abdomen covered with a delicate dorsal scutum. The species are easily recognizable: as a rule the males have two tibial apophyses and a compound embolus, which is partially hidden in the cymbial pocket behind the distal haematodocha; the females usually have a strongly sclerotized epigyne with the gonopores situated in large depressions, the seminal ducts forming many loops, and small rounded receptacles.

[FIGURES 134-145 OMITTED]

Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846)

Figs 134, 135

Salticus bresnieri: Lucas 1846: 154, pl. 7, fig. 8.

Phlegra bresnieri: Simon 1876: 124, pl. 11, fig. 11; Cantarella 1982: 248, fig. 23; Logunov 1996: 562, figs 4, 5, 74-79; Metzner 1999: 67, fig. 32; Proszynski 2003: 125; Logunov & Azarkina 2006: 728, figs 1-7; Wesolowska & van Harten 2007: 242, figs 149-156; Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz 2008: 40.

Wesolowska and van Harten (2007) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 134, 135.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., burnt site 1, 28[degrees]30.373'S: 26[degrees]48.437'E, pitfall traps, 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22636); 1? same data but 27.iii- 28.iv.2006, C. Haddad & R. Lyle (NMBA, 14116); 1[male] same locality, burnt site 2, 28[degrees]30.134'S:26[degrees]48.427'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22635); 2[male] same locality, unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S: 26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall traps, 22.x-22.xi.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22637); 1[male] same data but 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14117); 1[male] same locality, site 1, near trench, 28[degrees]28.892'S: 26[degrees]48.508'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 31.viii-1.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3637); 1[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3584); 2[male] same locality, site 8, Themeda grassland, 28[degrees]29.804'S:26[degrees]48.503'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii-1.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3654); 1[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S:27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 31.viii-1.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3634).

Distribution: Species widely distributed in the southern Palaearctic. In the Afrotropical Region known from Yemen, Tanzania and Ivory Coast, here for the first time recorded from South Africa (Fig. 160).

Habitat and biology: A generally rare ground-dwelling jumping spider collected mainly by pitfall trapping.

Remark: Ph. albostriata Simon, 1901, reported from South Africa and Mozambique, is possibly conspecific.

Phlegra etosha Logunov & Azarkina, 2006

Figs 136, 137, 146-150

Phlegra etosha: Logunov & Azarkina 2006: 730, figs 8-15.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 3.0/2.9, width 2.0/1.9, height 1.0/0.8. Abdomen: length 3.2/4.5, width 1.6/3.0. Eye field: length 1.1/1, anterior and posterior width 1.5/1.4.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 136. Small, slender, dark coloured spider. Carapace dark brown, darkening to margins. Eye field black, clothed in reddish hairs, anterior eyes surrounded with small scales that are reddish from above and white from below. White scales forming four lines on sides of carapace, below anterior lateral eyes (Fig. 146). Chelicerae and sternum dark, labium and endites with pale margins. Abdomen narrow, dark brown, with metallic shine, dorsum covered with delicate scutum (Fig. 136). Venter dark, spinnerets yellowish grey, with dark tips. Legs dark brown, first pair blackish. Leg hairs brown, spines long and dark. Single tibial apophysis (Fig. 148), embolus coiled on tegulum tip (Fig. 147).

[FIGURES 146-150 OMITTED]

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 137. Similar to male, carapace dark brown with black eye field, with some long brown bristles on ocular area, denser at anterior eyes (coloured scales absent). Mouthparts and sternum light brown. Abdomen larger than in male, without scutum, greyish beige, covered with colourless hairs, among them some brown bristles. Venter yellowish. Legs light brown with darker rings and spots. Palp with black spots on tibia and base of tarsus. Epigyne with large central pockets and gonopores situated laterally (Fig. 149). Seminal ducts wide, weakly sclerotized; receptacles compound, multi-chambered (Fig. 150). Internal structure of epigyne characteristic, unlike other Phlegra.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, active search, rocky hill, 14.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12688); 1[male] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, pitfalls, rocky hill, 14-17.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12538); 1[male] same locality, Camp, 30[degrees]30'S: 26[degrees]08'E, active searching, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12822); 1[male] same locality, rocky hill, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, 14.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12686); 1[female] same data (NMBA, 12690).

Distribution: Hitherto known only from Namibia, recorded from South Africa for the first time (Fig. 160).

Habitat and biology: This ground-dwelling species was considerably less common than congeners from central South Africa.

Remark: The female of the species is described here for the first time.

Phlegra karoo Wesolowska, 2006

Figs 138, 139, 151-159

Phlegra karoo: Wesolowska 2006: 250, figs 102-108.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 2.4-2.6/2.8-3.1, width 1.8-1.9/2.1-2.2, height 1.0-1.1/1.1-1.2. Abdomen: length 2.4-2.5/2.8-5.4, width 1.5-1.6/2.3-3.5. Eye field: length 0.8-0.9/0.9-1.0, anterior width 1.2-1.4/1.4-1.5, posterior width 1.3-1.5/1.5-1.7.

[FIGURES 151-155 OMITTED]

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 138. Carapace medium high, slightly broadened posteriorly, with short eye field. Carapace dark, brownish black, clothed in whitish grey hairs, with brown bristles near eyes. In one specimen white hairs forming indistinct streaks on carapace. Sternum, clypeus and labium brown, maxillae with whitish margins. Chelicerae dark yellow, unidentate. Abdomen ovoid, narrower posteriorly; dark brown, with traces of lighter median streak; dorsum with large scutum. Greyish and brown hairs cover abdomen. Sides of abdomen pale, venter greyish. Spinnerets dark. Legs light brown; spines numerous, leg hairs brown. Pedipalps light brown. Palpal femur with two dark spots on ventral surface, one medially and second apically. Tibia with ventral transverse ridge and two retrolateral apophyses (Figs 151, 152). Embolus coiled on bulb tip (Figs 153, 154). Apical part of embolus in Fig. 155.

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 139. Larger than male, similarly coloured. Chelicerae with two small teeth on promarginal edge and single tooth on retromarginal edge. Abdomen slightly swollen, without scutum, blackish brown, in some specimens with traces of lighter median streak, densely covered with different coloured long hairs (grey, fawn and brown). Legs brown with numerous dark patches. Epigyne with deep pocket at epigastric furrow and two rounded openings (Figs 156, 157). Initial part of seminal ducts tube-shaped, very weakly sclerotized, distal parts forming many loops, accessory glands long, receptacles small (Figs 158, 159).

[FIGURES 156-159 OMITTED]

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Benfontein Nat. Res., 28[degrees]50.003'S:24[degrees]48.756'E, 14.x.2005- 4.i.2006, pitfalls, dry thorny savannah, R. Lyle (NCA, 2010/204); 1? Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]08'S:26[degrees]10'E, pitfall traps, iii.2006, R. Poller & S. Otto (NMBA, 11125); 3[male] same locality, 29[degrees]02.892'S:26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfalls, Rhus lancea woodland, 24.ix-8.x.2009, C. Haddad (NCA, 2009/3487); 4[male] same data but 8-27.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3506); 1[male] same data but 27.x-16.xi.2009 (NMSA, 22598); 2[male] same data but 16-21.xi.2009 (NMSA, 22606); 6[male] 2[female] same data but 9.xii.2009-4.i.2010 (MRAC, 230314); 1[female] same locality, 29[degrees]03.006'S:26[degrees]12.701'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 16-21.xi.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22622); 3[male] 2[female] same data but 21.xi-9.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230240); 1[female] Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Bloemfontein district, Krugersdrift Dam, 28[degrees]42'S:25[degrees]55'E, in canal, 22.viii.1985, Museum staff (NMBA, 857); 1[female] same data but 2.xii.1985 (NMBA, 1135); 1[male] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.080'S:26[degrees]25.950'E, under rocks, 3.iv.2010, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230323); 1[male] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]06'E, preservation traps, 23.xi-8.xii.1987, L. Lotz (NMBA, 3258); 1[male] same data but 23.xi-8.xii.1987 (NMBA, 3291); 1[male] same data but 8-21.xii.1987 (NMBA, 3410); 1[male] same data but 31.x-18.xi.1988 (NMBA, 4918); 1[female] same locality, preservation traps, xi.1983, Museum staff (NMBA, 423); 1[female] same data but xi.1985 (NMBA, 1129); 2[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall traps, 22.x-22.xi.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (MRAC, 230329); 1[female] same locality, site 1, near trench, 28[degrees]28.892'S:26[degrees]48.508'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3638); 2[male] 1[female] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3575); 4[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3640); 2[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3586); 3[male] 1[female] same locality, site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28[degrees]30.272'S:26[degrees]47.527'E, pitfall traps, woodland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3642); 9[male] 6[female] same locality, site 6, northern shore of dam, 28[degrees]29.738'S:26[degrees]48.272'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 31.viii-30. ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3649); 4[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3597); 1[male] same locality, site 8, Themeda grassland, 28[degrees]29.804'S:26[degrees]48.503'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii- 30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3653); 4[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3607); 1[male] Fauresmith district, Kalkfontein Dam, 29[degrees]31'S:25[degrees]16'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 7-10.iv.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11984); 1[male] 2[female] Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27[degrees]43.393'S:27[degrees]42.066'E, pitfall traps, base of hill, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3630); 8[male] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230317); 1[male] 1[female] same locality, 27[degrees]43.376'S:27[degrees]42.042'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3632); 3[male] 1[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3533); 2[male] 1[female] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230315); 6[male] 3[female] Oranjeville, Vaal Dam, 26[degrees]59.514'S:28[degrees]15.772'E, pitfall traps, overgrazed grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3626); 4[male] 1[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3535); 15[male] 8[female] same locality, 26[degrees]59.523'S:28[degrees]15.737'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3622); 5[male] 1[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3542); 5[male] 1[female] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]40'S:25[degrees]43'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 10- 13.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11637); 4[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 2- 30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3563); 1[male] 1[female] same data but 2.ix-2.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3616); 2[male] 1[female] same locality, 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2-30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3570); 4[male] 2[female] same data but 2.ix-2.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3612); 2[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., Aasvoelkop, 30[degrees]27'S:26[degrees]19'E, sweeping, 22.x.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12953); 1[male] same locality, Camp, 30[degrees]30'S:26[degrees]08'E, pitfalls, river floodplain, 13-17.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12526); 3[male] 1[female] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix- 28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3525). North West: 1[male] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.825'S:27[degrees]17.819'E, pitfall traps, woodland grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3620); 1[male] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3547); 1[male] same locality, 26[degrees]51.828'S:27[degrees]17.805'E, pitfalls, Vaal River bank, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3557). Northern Cape: 20[male] 3[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]33.993'S:22[degrees]55.005'E, pitfall traps, pistachio orchard no. 1, 26.vii-19.ix.2001, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/212); 2[male] 2[female] same locality, 29[degrees]34.904'S: 22[degrees]55.027'E, pitfall traps, pistachio orchard no. 19, 25.x-20.xi.2001, C. Haddad (NHMWU).

[FIGURE 160 OMITTED]

Distribution: Hitherto known from Namibia only, recorded for the first time from South Africa, where it is widespread in the drier parts of the Free State, Northern Cape and North West provinces (Fig. 160).

Habitat and biology: One of the most abundant and widespread ground-dwelling jumping spiders in central South Africa.

Remark: The female of the species is described here for the first time.

Genus Pignus Wesolowska, 1999

Type species: Euophrys simoni Peckham & Peckham, 1903.

This genus, related to the Palaearctic genus Philaeus Thorell, 1869, contains three species, all known only from males. The type species, P. simoni (Peckham & Peckham, 1903), is reported from South Africa and Zimbabwe; P. lautissimum Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000 is known from Tanzania; and P. pongola Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009 was recently described from the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The males of this genus are very similar in size, body shape and colouration, and have characteristically large diverging chelicerae with a long tooth on the retromarginal edge, near the base of fang.

Pignus simoni (Peckham & Peckham, 1903)

Figs 140, 161-165

Euophrys simoni: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 202, pl. 22, figs 4, 4a, 4b.

Pignus simoni: Wesolowska 1999b: 166, figs 60-66; Wesolowska & Cumming 2011: 99, figs 61-69, 98.

Redescription:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 3.3, width 2.5, height 1.3. Abdomen: length 3.7, width 2.5. Eye field: length 1.3, anterior width 1.9, posterior width 2.2.

General appearance as in Figs 140, 161. Medium sized spider. Carapace flat, oval; dark brown, with blackish eye field. Carapace clothed in dense dark hairs, with long brown bristles near eyes. White hairs forming light median streak on eye field, reaching the end of thoracic part; two white stripes running along lateral edges of carapace. Clypeus low, with mat of white hairs. Mouthparts and sternum brown; chelicerae large, with long fangs; two small teeth on promargin and additional large hooked tooth at base of fang (Fig. 162). Abdomen ovoid; greyish brown, with broad longitudinal median white stripe, also with whitish streak along anterior margin reaching to the sides. Brown and white hairs covering abdomen, hairs longer and denser at anterior edge. Venter dark. Spinnerets pale brown. Legs brown, distal parts of their segments darker. Leg hairs long, dense. First pair of legs longer and thicker than rest, with long dense black hairs on ventral surface of patellae, tibiae and metatarsi. Pedipalps brown, clothed in long dense brown hairs, mixed with white hairs on the tibia and base of cymbium. Tibial apophysis long, with notch at tip (Figs 163-165). Cymbium narrow; bulb rounded, with additional semicircular lobe at base of embolus; embolus thin, very long, encircling bulb four times (Fig. 163).

[FIGURES 161-165 OMITTED]

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein district, Glen, 28[degrees]58'S:26[degrees]20'E, caught by hand, 14.ix.1987, Entomology staff (NMBA, 1913); 4[male] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, preservative traps, x.1982, Museum Staff (NMBA, 261); 3[male] same data but x.1982 (NMBA, 729); 7[male] same data but xi.1982 (NMBA, 8826); 1[male] same data but ix. 1983 (NMBA, 445); 1[male] same data but viii.1985 (NMBA, 874); 1[male] Clocolan district, Mpetsane Conservation Estate, 28[degrees]48.561'S:27[degrees]39.255'E, in garden and around house, 2010, A. Jones (NCA, 2010/327); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., burnt site 2, 28[degrees]30.134'S:26[degrees]48.427'E, pitfall traps, 22.x-22.xi.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14118); 1[male] same locality, burnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.990'S:26[degrees]48.486'E, pitfall traps, 21.ix-22.x.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NCA, 2010/216).

Distribution: Described from the Western Cape Province, South Africa, also recorded from Zimbabwe. Recorded from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 171). Apparently widespread in southern Africa.

Habitat and biology: A rare ground-dwelling species usually collected by pitfall trapping.

Remark: The first description of the female of this species is given in Wesolowska and Cumming (2011).

Genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885

Type species: Aranea encarpata Walckenaer, 1802.

This large genus contains over 80 species widely distributed on all continents of the Eastern hemisphere, with 25 species described from the Afrotropical Region. Its members are characterised by the slender flattened body and the first pair of legs with swollen tibiae, which are clearly stouter than the others. The presence of a stridulatory apparatus of the leg-carapace type in both sexes is also a distinctive feature of Pseudicius. The male palp has a large tibial apophysis in the majority of species.

Pseudicius dependens sp. n.

Figs 141, 142, 166-170

Etymology: From Latin dependens (hanging down), referring to the pendant shape of the male palpal cymbium.

Diagnosis: A distinctive species, the male is easily separable from congeners in having a large distal cymbial lobe on the retrolateral side, and a serrate tibial apophysis. The female has an epigyne similar to P. africanas Peckham & Peckham, 1903, but the seminal ducts are very thin, with large, spherical accessory glands.

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 2.0/1.8-1.9, width 1.4-1.6/1.3-1.5, height 0.6-0.7/0.6. Abdomen: length 2.1-2.3/2.5-2.9, width 1.2-1.4/1.5. Eye field: length 0.9/0.8-0.9, anterior width 1.1-1.3/0.9-1.2, posterior width 1.2-1.4/1.1-1.4.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 141. Small spider with slender and flattened body. Carapace flat, oval, dark brown, with black eye field, covered with dense greyish hairs, and long brown bristles near eyes. Anterior median eyes encircled by small fawn scales. Stripe composed of white hairs extending along lateral margins of carapace, thin median white line on thoracic part. Stridulatory apparatus present. Clypeus low, clothed in white hairs. Mouthparts and sternum brown. Abdomen ovoid, dark greyish brown, with pattern composed of five pairs of transverse patches placed marginally and four pairs of smaller rounded spots medially. Venter pale. Spinnerets grey. First pair of legs long and robust, with slightly swollen tibiae, and only single short stout tibial spine. Other legs yellow, only lateral surfaces of their femora tinged with brown. Leg hairs and spines brown. Pedipalp brown, densely clothed in long dark hairs. Palpal tibia short, with single apophysis, its margin serrate (Figs 166-168). Tegulum small, embolus very long, with whip-shaped end. Shape of cymbium unique, its tip curved to retrolateral side, forming a distal lobe (Figs 166-168).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 142. Shape of carapace as in male, eye field black, thoracic part brown. Whole carapace densely covered with whitish grey hairs, with brown bristles in vicinity of eyes. Labium and gnathocoxae brown, with lighter tips, sternum brown. Abdomen dark brownish grey, with indistinct lighter pattern composed of three diagonal patches submarginally, three irregular patches placed medially and two chevrons in posterior part of abdomen. Venter pale. Legs yellow with brown rings and stains, lateral surfaces of first femora tinged with brown. Epigyne wider than long, with large shallow central depression (Fig. 169), sometimes plugged with waxy secretion. Internal structure as in Fig. 170, copulatory openings large; seminal ducts narrow, weakly sclerotized; accessory glands very large, spherical.

[FIGURES 166-170 OMITTED]

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, pistachio orchard no. 1, 29[degrees]33.993'S:22[degrees]55.005'E, canopy fogging, 28.i.2001, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14119).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]02'S:26[degrees]12'E, Olea europaea leaf litter, 8.i.2010, V. Butler (NCA, 2010/397); 1[female] Bloemfontein, University of the Free State campus, 29[degrees]06.623'S:26[degrees]11.104'E, on Celtis africana bark, 15.ii.2010, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22702); 1[male] Boshof district, Kromrant farm, 28[degrees]39'S:25[degrees]06'E, 27.xi.1985, Museum staff (NMBA, 1105); 1[female] Hoopstad district, Swartsrus farm, 32[degrees]45'S:25[degrees]30'E, 18.xi.1985, Museum staff (NMBA, 8821). Northern Cape: 1[male] Lime Acres district, Klein Papkuil farm, 28[degrees]28.943'S:23[degrees]42.994'E, beats, vaalbos, 14.i.2008, R. Lyle, R. Fourie, D. Du Plessis & J. Adendorff (NCA, 2009/4119); 2[female] same data as holotype, 28.i.2001 (NMBA, 14120); 1[female] same data as holotype, 31.i.2002 (NCA, 2010/219); 1[female] same data as holotype, 26.xi.2002 (NMSA, 22669); 1[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, pistachio orchard no. 19, 29[degrees]34.904'S:22[degrees]55.027'E, 26.v.2001, canopy fogging, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22670); 1[male] Prieska district, Remhoogte farm, 29[degrees]32.016'S:23[degrees]00.182'E, canopy fogging, experimental pistachio orchard, 18.xii.2001, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22671); 1[female] same data but 1.xi.2002 (NMSA, 22672).

Additional material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S: 26[degrees]07'E, beating, rocky hill, 16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12905).

Distribution: Widespread in central South Africa (Fig. 171).

Habitat and biology: This species is uncommon and was primarily collected from foliage by beating shrubs, and in pistachio orchards specimens were collected by canopy fogging (Haddad et al. 2005).

[FIGURE 171 OMITTED]

Pseudicius gracilis sp. n.

Figs 143, 144, 172-178

Etymology: From Latin gracilis (slender), referring to the shape of the spider's body.

Diagnosis: The species is closely related to P. elegans Wesolowska & Cumming, 2008 from Zimbabwe. The male is easy to recognize by the presence of two tibial apophyses (single in P. elegans). Also similar to P. karinae sp. n., but has a clearly longer dorsal tibial apophysis. The female may be distinguished by the position of the epigynal pockets, in front of the copulatory openings (at the lateral edges of the epigyne in P. elegans).

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 1.9/1.9-2.2, width 1.2/1.2, height 0.4/0.5. Abdomen: length 2.6/2.7-3.0, width 1.4/1.5-1.7. Eye field: length 0.8/0.8-1.0, anterior width 1.0/0.9, posterior width 1.1/1.1.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 143. Small, elongate spider with flattened body. Carapace oval, very flat, dark brown, eye field reticulated. Carapace covered in thin colourless hairs, with a few long bristles near anterior row of eyes. Stridulatory apparatus present, composed of row of stiff setae placed anteriorly on lateral surfaces of carapace and a few similar bristles on mesal surface of first femora. Mouthparts and sternum brown. Abdomen ovoid, brown, with three pairs of whitish transverse patches marginally and pair of small rounded spots posteriorly, pattern on abdomen formed by white hairs (Fig. 172). Venter brownish. Spinnerets dark. First leg brown, larger than others, stout, with swollen tibia; single short spine on prolateral surface of tibia, two pairs of very short ventral spines on metatarsus. Legs II-IV light brown. Leg hairs sparse, very long, thin, brown. Pedipalp brown. Palpal tibia short, with two apophyses, dorsal one short and straight, ventral apophysis long, bent dorsally at tip; bulb ovoid, with large posterior lobe and small process in centre (Figs 173-175).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 144. Shape of body as in male, but first leg of normal size. Carapace dark brown, eye field black. Carapace covered in greyish hairs, with a few brown setae on rims of anterior eyes. Stridulatory apparatus as in male. Abdomen brown, with pattern composed of white patches similar to male but more contrasted. Epigyne oval, wider than long, with two round gonopores and pockets placed in front of them (Fig. 176). Seminal ducts long, twisted; large accessory glands enter laterally into seminal ducts, receptacles narrow, long, medially placed (Figs 177, 178).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14121).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 3[female] same data as holotype (NMBA, 14122); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]30.243'S:26[degrees]47.500'E, beats, Acacia karroo, 24.xi.2006, R. Fourie (NCA, 2007/3675); 1[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3527).

Distribution: So far only known from three localities in the Free State Province (Fig. 202).

Habitat and biology: The holotype and corresponding paratypes were collected from silk retreats constructed in thorns of Acacia erioloba. The interaction between arthropods in these thorns is interesting. When branches of these trees die off then Crematogaster ants establish nests in the branches and thorns, which are later hollowed out by ant foraging activity. The emergence holes of the ants in these dead thorns provide access points for other arthropods. Apart from the four P. gracilis sp. n. specimens, several Thaumastochilus termitomimus Jocque, 1991 (Araneae: Zodariidae) were also collected from these thorns.

[FIGURES 172-178 OMITTED]

Pseudicius karinae sp. n.

Figs 145, 179-181

Etymology: The species is named after Karin Haddad, late mother of the first author, who lived for many years at the type locality.

Diagnosis: The species is most closely related to P. elegans Wesolowska & Cumming, 2008, but is easily separable from it by the presence of a dorsal tibial apophysis, which is short and blunt.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.1, width 1.4, height 0.5. Abdomen: length 2.7, width 1.5. Eye field: length 0.8, anterior width 1.0, posterior width 1.2.

General appearance as in Fig. 145. Medium sized spider with flattened, elongate body. Carapace very flat, brown, darker towards edges, eye field almost black; delicate brown hairs cover carapace, with longer bristles at first row of eyes. Stridulatory apparatus present (the carapace-leg type, typical for the genus). Mouthparts and sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, blackish brown, with indistinct traces of four pairs of white spots. Venter yellowish grey. Spinnerets dark. First pair of legs thicker and longer than others, brown, tibia slightly swollen, with single short spine on prolateral side, metatarsus with two pairs of spines on ventral surface. Other legs slightly lighter. All legs bearing long thin hairs. Pedipalps pale brown. Retrolateral tibial apophysis very long, with curved tip, dorsal apophysis short, blunt (Figs 179-181), embolus long (Fig. 179).

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, under Eucalyptus bark, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14123).

[FIGURES 179-181 OMITTED]

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 202).

Habitat and biology: The only known specimen was collected from under bark of exotic Eucalyptus trees.

Remarks: The male of P. karinae is closely related to P. alter Wesolowska, 1999, P. elegans and P. venustulus Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009, so we anticipate that its female will have an epigyne similar to the females described for P. alter and P. venustulus. It was considered that P. karinae sp. n. could possibly have been the unknown male of P. solitarius sp. n., which is only known from the female, as the known localities of the two species fall within the same degree-square grid. However, the epigyne structure of P. solitarius sp. n. is very different to that of P. alter and P. venustulus and the species are therefore unlikely to be a match. Considering the relatively small distribution ranges of some of the Pseudicius described in this paper it would be considered safest to treat them as separate species until their matching sexes can be collected at the same locality and confirmed as conspecifics.

Pseudicius maculatus sp. n.

Figs 182,183, 193-198

Etymology: From Latin maculatus (spotted, speckled), referring to the pattern of the abdomen.

Diagnosis: The species is closely related to P. marshi (Peckham & Peckham, 1903), but the male differs in the shape of the tibial apophysis, which is clearly wider in P. maculatus sp. n. The female has the epigyne with a deep oval central depression, similar to that of P. africanus Peckham & Peckham, 1903, but the internal structure of the epigyne of these two species differs, as well as their colouration.

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 2.7/2.5, width 2.0/1.7, height 0.8/0.6. Abdomen: length 2.7/2.5, width 1.9/1.6. Eye field: length 1.0, anterior and posterior width 1.4/1.3.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 182. Carapace slightly pear-shaped, flattened, chocolate brown, with black eye field. White hairs covering carapace, brown bristles near eyes and on eye field anteriorly. Small patches of fawn scales between anterior eyes. Clypeus clothed in white hairs. Chelicerae large. Endites, labium and sternum dark brown. Stridulatory apparatus present (carapace-leg type). Abdomen oval, greyish brown, with faint lighter patches. Brown and white hairs covering dorsum of abdomen. Venter and spinnerets dark. Legs brown, distal ends of their segments slightly paler. First pair considerably stouter and longer than others. Leg hairs long, brown and pale. Pedipalps pale brown. Tibial apophysis massive, very broad (Figs 193-195). Embolus curved towards retrolateral margin of cymbium (Fig. 193). Palpal femur with elevated dorsal surface.

Female.

General appearance as in Figs 183, 196. Carapace similar to male, but white hairs less numerous. Small path composed of light hairs on eye field anteriorly. Sternum and mouthparts brownish, only chewing margins of endites yellow. Abdomen black with yellow patches (Fig. 196), venter pale. Legs yellow with greyish basal part of segments. Epigyne with large oval depression in centre, leading to a deep pocket with gonopores along posterior margin (Figs 197, 198). Receptacles strongly sclerotized, single-chambered (Fig. 198).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Bethlehem district, Zaphira, 28[degrees]29'S:28[degrees]40'E, 1.ii.1995, L. Lotz & J. Irish (NMBA, 6714). Paratype: 1[female] together with holotype.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 202).

Habitat and biology: Unknown, but presumably collected by beating shrubs.

[FIGURES 182-192 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 193-198 OMITTED]

Pseudicius solitarius sp. n.

Figs 184, 199-201

Etymology: From Latin solitarius (alone, solitary), referring to the fact that the male of this species remains unknown.

Diagnosis: The female of this species has a similar epigyne to P. adustus Wesolowska, 2006, but its receptacles are clearly larger and the seminal ducts longer, with additional small spherical reservoirs.

[FIGURES 199-201 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.0, width 1.4, height 0.6. Abdomen: length 4.2, width 2.0. Eye field: length 0.7, anterior width 1.0, posterior width 1.2.

General appearance as in Fig. 184. Shape of body typical for the genus, elongate and flat. Carapace oval, strongly flattened, brown, with black rings around eyes. White scales surround anterior median eyes, dense whitish hairs cover whole carapace, brown bristles near eyes and on eye field anteriorly. Chelicerae and sternum brown, labium and endites with whitish tips. Abdomen elongate, greyish beige, with traces of three pairs of diagonal stripes in posterior half laterally. A few brown bristles on abdominal dorsum. Venter beige with two paler stripes. Spinnerets brown. First pair of legs brown, femora paler with lateral surfaces dark, with single short spine retrolaterally on tibia near base of the segment. Second pair of legs yellow, with lateral surfaces of femora, patellae and tibiae brown. Legs II-IV yellow, with darker rings. Epigyne oval with two openings situated laterally, further apart (Fig. 199). Internal structure of epigyne and course of seminal ducts in Figs 200, 201.

Male. Unknown.

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Bloemfontein district, Glen, 28[degrees]58'S:26[degrees]20'E, beating, 3.xi.1987, Museum staff (NMBA, 2472).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 202).

Habitat and biology: Collected by beating foliage.

Genus Rhene Thorell, 1869

Type species: Rhanisflavigera C.L. Koch, 1846.

Rhene is a large genus with 54 described species, with 16 being known from the Afrotropical Region. These are small or medium sized spiders with a broad, robust, flattened body. The carapace is short with a large, clear trapezoid eye field. The males have a palp with a short tibial apophysis and a short embolus. The females have large accessory glands entering into the initial part of the seminal ducts.

[FIGURE 202 OMITTED]

Rhene konradi Wesolowska, 2009

Figs 185, 186, 203-206

Rhene konradi: Wesolowska 2009&: 1411, figs 6-8.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Carapace: length 2.1/2.2, width 2.0/2.4, height 1.0/0.9. Abdomen: length 2.8/3.1, width 2.0/2.7. Eye field: length 1.5/1.4 anterior width 1.2/1.3, posterior width 2.0/2.4.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 185. Robust, flattened spider, with trapezoid eye field, eyes of last row placed on protuberances. Carapace dark, almost black, eye field pitted, clothed in dense colourless hairs, anterior eyes surrounded with white scales, white hairs forming small patches in front of posterior lateral eyes and median stripe on thoracic part. Chelicerae dark brown, their bases covered with long dense white hairs. Sternum brownish, labium and endites with narrow pale line along tips. Abdomen brownish, lighter than carapace, with dense colourless hairs adpressed to surface, venter greyish beige. Spinnerets brown. First legs stouter and longer than others, dark brown, with dense hairs, ventral surface of femora with long white hairs. Other legs light brown. Pedipalps dark, tibial apophysis curved (Figs 203, 204), bulb dark brown, anterior haematodocha clearly separated, embolus short (Fig. 203).

[FIGURES 203-206 OMITTED]

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 186. Carapace dark brown, eye field pitted, its entire surface clothed in white hairs, especially dense lateral of eye field. Clypeus and base of chelicerae also covered with similar hairs. Mouthparts as in male. Abdomen light brown, with three pairs of sigilla, covered with short white hairs, longer and denser at anterior edge, brown bristles among hairs. Venter beige, booklung covers strongly sclerotized. Legs brownish, first pair slightly darker. Epigyne with large notch in posterior edge (Fig. 205). Depressions hiding gonopores plugged with waxy secretion. Internal structure as in Fig. 206, accessory glands enter into copulatory ducts in their initial parts.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, sweep-netting, Eragrostis grassland, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22673); 1[male] Hoopstad district, Nooitgedacht farm, 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]29'E, by hand, 28.ix.1990, D. de Swart (NMBA, 5324); 1[female] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]42'S:25[degrees]44'E, sweeping grass, 12.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11709); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.219'S: 25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2.ix-2.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3611); 3 imm. 2[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]07'E, sweeping grass, 14.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12682).

Distribution: Known only from the Free State Province in South Africa (Fig. 215).

Habitat and biology: Specimens were collected by sweep-netting and pitfall traps in grassland.

Remarks: The male of the species is described here for the first time.

Rhene lingularis sp. n.

Figs 187, 207-209

Etymology: From Latin lingula (tongue), referring to the tongue-shaped embolus.

Diagnosis: The male of the species is easily distinguished by the tongue-shaped embolus.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 1.9, width 2.2, height 1.1. Abdomen: length 2.6, width 2.2. Eye field: length 1.5 anterior width 1.2, posterior width 2.2.

General appearance as in Figs 187, 207. Shape of body typical for the genus. Eyes of second row very close to first row, eye field occupying most of carapace dorsum. Carapace brown, vicinity of eyes black, eye field pitted. Numerous light hairs on carapace, longer at sides, whitish hairs forming median belt in posterior part of carapace. Abdomen covered with large scutum, dark brown, clothed in white hairs, which form ill defined pattern comprising two pairs of longitudinal lines and diagonal lines on abdominal sides. Spinnerets dark. First pair of legs robust, covered with long dense hairs, especially on ventral surfaces of patellae and tibiae; tibia with pair and metatarsus with two pairs of ventral spines. Other legs shorter, brown. Pedipalps dark, tibial apophysis wide at base, short, with pointed tip (Figs 208, 209). Bulb oval, distal haematodocha separated, embolus longer than in congeners, linguiform (Fig. 208).

[FIGURES 207-209 OMITTED]

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, sweeping, 12.ii.1986, Museum staff (NMBA, 1280).

Paratype: 1[male] together with holotype; Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein, 29[degrees]08'S:26[degrees]10'E, sweeping, 5.ii.1992, L. Lotz (NMBA, 5670).

Distribution: Known only from the central Free State Province (Fig. 215).

Habitat and biology: Collected by sweep-netting in grassland.

Genus Tanzania Kocak & Kemal, 2008

Type species: Lilliput mkomaziensis Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000.

The genus Lilliput was described by Wesolowska and Russell-Smith (2000). It contains three species of very small ground-living jumping spiders from eastern Tanzania. As the generic name was preoccupied, Kocak and Kemal (2008) proposed a replacement name, Tanzania, for the genus. The genus, closely related to Euophrys C.L. Koch, 1834 and Talavera Peckham & Peckham, 1909, includes very small Euophryinae with a characteristic curved long bristle on the clypeus. All previously known species were reported only from the type localities. These species are probably more widely distributed, but due to their tiny size and inconspicuous colouration they could be overlooked in collected materials or treated as undeterminable immature specimens. Below we present the description of a new species of Tanzania, recorded far south from the previously known distribution of the genus, as well as the first record of the type species from South Africa.

Tanzania meridionalis sp. n.

Figs 188, 210-214

Etymology: From Latin meridionalis (southern), referring to the southern distribution of the species relative to that of the previously described congeners.

Diagnosis: This species is related to T. mkomaziensis, and may be distinguished from congeners by the embolus, which is the shortest in the genus.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 0.8-0.9, width 0.6, height 0.2-0.3. Abdomen: length 0.8-0.9, width 0.6-0.7. Eye field: length 0.3, anterior width 0.5, posterior width 0.6.

General appearance as in Figs 188, 210. Very small spider, with medium high carapace (Fig. 211); eye field short, occupying one third of carapace length. Carapace light brown, with darker median stripe and two lateral streaks on thoracic part; dorsum covered with delicate colourless hairs. Eye field black, anteriorly with sparse white hairs. Clypeus very low, centrally with single long seta (Fig. 211). Mouthparts yellowish, sternum yellow with slightly darker edges. Abdomen ovoid, with pattern composed of a few transverse brownish streaks (Fig. 210). Spinnerets yellowish. Dorsal surface of abdomen covered with fine long, brown and whitish hairs, longer and thicker at anterior edge. Venter pale. Legs dark yellow with brown rings, first pair slightly darker. Leg hairs long, brown. Pedipalps large in relation to body size, orange, without apophysis (Fig. 213). Bulb oval, with large posterior lobe, seminal duct meandering (Fig. 212). Anterior haematodocha clearly separated, embolus coiled, short (Figs 212, 214).

[FIGURES 210-214 OMITTED]

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA, 13258).

Paratype: 1[male] Free State: Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14124).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 215). An immature specimen collected by pitfall trapping in the Qwa Qwa National Park in the eastern Free State (NMBA, 6588) has the same markings as the type specimens and is likely conspecific, but adults will need to be collected to confirm this.

Habitat and biology: The two specimens reported here were collected during spring by pitfall trapping in grassland.

Tanzania mkomaziensis (Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000)

Fig. 189

Lilliput mkomaziensis: Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 63, figs 163-170; Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz 2008: 24, figs 92-94.

Tanzania mkomaziensis: Kocak & Kemal 2008: 3.

Wesolowska and Russell-Smith (2000) described both sexes; general appearance of male in Fig. 189.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 2.ix-2.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3613).

Distribution: Species known from Tanzania and Ethiopia, recorded from South Africa for the first time (Fig. 215). Based on current knowledge, this is the most widespread species in the genus.

Habitat and biology: Collected by pitfalls in grassland.

[FIGURE 215 OMITTED]

Genus Thyene Simon, 1885

Type species: Attus imperialis Rossi, 1846.

This genus includes over 40 species, the majority of them being distributed in the Afrotropical Region. Members of Thyene are characterized by the presence of tufts of long black hairs near the posterior median eyes. The genital organs are very similar; the male palp has a rounded bulb and embolus encircling it few times; the epigyne is very weakly sclerotized, with a central window, seminal ducts forming a few loops, and very long accessory glands. Thyene species may be more easily distinguished by their colouration than by genitalic structures.

Thyene inflata (Gerstacker, 1873)

Figs 190, 191

Phidippus inflatus: Gerstacker 1873: 476.

Thyene squamulata: Simon 1886: 347.

Thyene inflata: Simon 1886: 348; Strand 1908: 197; Lessert 1925O: 480, figs 66, 67, 69, 71; Berland & Millot 1941: 374, figs 72c, 74; Prochniewicz 1989: 222, figs 45-47; Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 105, figs 293-299; Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz 2008: 188, figs 118-120; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 85, figs 228, 229.

Wesolowska and Russell-Smith (2000) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 190, 191.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Boshoff district, Boesmansrus farm, 28[degrees]32.543'S: 25[degrees]09.929'E, base of grass tussocks, 11.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/301); 2[female] Soetdoring Nat. Res., 28[degrees]49.831'S:26[degrees]02.645'E, sweeps, grass, 27.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NCA, 2005/1020); 1[female] same data (NCA, 2008/481); 1[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]13'E, beats, 23.x.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12985); 2[male] same locality, 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]13'E, beats, riverine bush, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12796); 6 imm. 2[male] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, beating, rocky hill, 16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12906). Northern Cape: 2[male] 3[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]33.993'S:22[degrees]55.005'E, canopy fogging, pistachio orchard no. 1, 2.v.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/209); 1[male] 1[female] same locality, 29[degrees]34.904'S: 22[degrees]55.027'E, canopy fogging, pistachio orchard no. 19, 27.iii.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/211); 2[male] 2[female] Prieska district, Remhoogte farm, 29[degrees]32.016'S:23[degrees]00.182'E, canopy fogging, experimental pistachio orchard, 27.iii.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/210).

Distribution: Widespread in the Afrotropical Region, recorded for the first time from the Free State and Northern Cape Provinces in South Africa (Fig. 224).

Habitat and biology: A species typically associated with foliage of broad-leaved shrubs and trees in savannah and forests, although generally uncommon. In pistachio orchards in the Northern Cape, T. inflata comprised 3.77 % of the spiders collected by canopy fogging (Haddad et al. 2005).

Thyene natalii Peckham & Peckham, 1903

Fig. 192

Thyene natalii: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 227, pl. 25, fig. 4; Lessert 1936: 294, figs 92, 93; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 85, figs 230, 231.

Thyene strandi: Caporiacco 1939: 376, fig. 25: Proszynski 1987: 109, 113.

Thyene natali: Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 216, figs 171-177.

Wesolowska and Cumming (2008) described both sexes; general appearance of female in Fig. 192.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State Province: 1 ? Bloemfontein, Langenhoven Park, 29[degrees]06'S: 26[degrees]09'E, on arum lily in garden, feeding on fly, 6.i.2010, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14717).

Distribution: Widespread in southern and eastern Africa. In South Africa it is known only from KwaZulu-Natal, and is recorded here from the Free State for the first time (Fig. 224).

Habitat and biology: This species is often collected from foliage in savannah habitats in KwaZulu-Natal. Immature Thyene specimens with the characteristic transverse abdominal markings of this species have been collected by beating foliage and sifting leaf litter in the Free State before, and the female specimen presented here represents the first confirmed record of the species in the province.

Thyene thyenioides (Lessert, 1925)

Figs 216, 217, 222, 223

Paramodunda thyenioides: Lessert 1925b: 471, figs 55-57; Proszynski 1984: 168.

Paramodunda thyeniformis: Caporiacco 1947: 243.

Thyene thyenioides: Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 218, figs 178-180.

Wesolowska and Cumming (2008) described the male; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 216, 217.

[FIGURES 216-221 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 222, 223 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Measurements: Cephalothorax: length 2.3, width 1.5, height 0.7. Abdomen: length 3.6, width 1.4. Eye field: length 0.9, anterior width 1.1, posterior width 1.2.

Slender spider with elongate body. Carapace oval, eye field yellowish, with dark rings surrounding eyes; tufts of black long setae forming "horns" near posterior median eyes. Light scales encircling anterior eyes. Thoracic part dark brown, lighter medially. Mouthparts and sternum yellow. Abdomen elongate, with long brown bristles on anterior edge of abdomen; anterior part yellow, with median longitudinal brown line and several diagonal lines laterally; posterior half olive-brownish, with median silver streak (Fig. 217). Venter pale, with silver spots formed by translucent guanine crystals. Spinnerets long, yellowish. Legs yellowish brown. Epigyne typical for the genus, very weakly sclerotized, with central depression (Fig. 222). Internal structures as in Fig. 223, seminal ducts very weakly sclerotized, membranous, visible when stained in Chlorazol Black E, forming two large loops; receptacles composed of few chambers, accessory glands very long and thin.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[female] Bloemfontein district, Deelhoek farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]07'E, sweep-netting, Themeda triandra grassland, 20.i.2001, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230327); 3[male] 2[female] same data but 19.xi.2001 (MRAC, 230328); 1[male] same data but 18.iii.2001 (MRAC, 230326); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., site 1, near trench, 28[degrees]29.892'S:26[degrees]48.508'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 28.x-4.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22692); 1[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3580); 1[male] same locality, site 8, Themeda grassland, 28[degrees]29.804'S:26[degrees]48.503'E, pitfall traps, 28.x-4.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22701); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.983'E, pitfalls, grassland and shrubs, 30.x-6.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22685); 2[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S:27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3518); 1[male] same locality, 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3523). North West: 1[male] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.825'S:27[degrees]17.819'E, pitfall traps, woodland grassland, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3545). Northern Cape: 1[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]35.495'S:22[degrees]57.308'E, sweeps, Nama Karoo grassland, 19.xi.2001, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14125); 1[male] Reivilo district, Kees farm, 27[degrees]44.171'S:24[degrees]03.026'E, sweeping grasses, iv.2007, N. Shaw (NCA, 2010/207).

[FIGURE 224 OMITTED]

Distribution: Unclear; probably widespread in the Afrotropical Region, recently recorded from Zimbabwe. Recorded here from South Africa for the first time, where it is widespread in central South Africa (Fig. 224).

Habitat and biology: A rare, predominantly grass-dwelling species collected by pitfall trapping and sweeping. The elongate body and cryptic colouration of females and immatures suggest a strong association with grasses.

Remarks: The size, shape of body, colouration and palpal structure of the male specimens is identical to the male of T. thyenioides from Zimbabwe (Wesolowska & Cumming 2008), so we recognise the females collected together with males at Deelhoek as conspecifics. Therefore, the first description of the female of T. thyenioides is given here.

Genus Thyenula Simon, 1902

Type species: Thyenula juvenca Simon, 1902.

A small genus with only 10 species, all but one known from southern Africa.

Thyenula oranjensis Wesolowska, 2001

Figs 218, 219

Thyenula oranjensis: Wesolowska 2001: 262, figs 7-9, 12-14.

Wesolowska (2001) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 218, 219.

[FIGURE 225 OMITTED]

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1[male] 2[female] Bergville, Royal Natal National Park, 28[degrees]41'S: 28[degrees]56'E, beating, 18-22.iii.2006, D. Herbert (NMBA, 14081).

Distribution: The species was known only from the type locality (Golden Gate National Park) in the eastern Free State Province. It is recorded here from KwaZulu-Natal for the first time (Fig. 225).

Habitat and biology: This species has mainly been collected by beating, with only one specimen recorded from a trap (Wesolowska 2001). The two localities from which this species is known are both situated in montane grassland at altitudes approximately 1500-1900 m.

Genus Tusitala Peckham & Peckham, 1902

Type species: Tusitala barbata Peckham & Peckham, 1902.

The genus includes nine species, all distributed in the Afrotropical Region. The males can be distinguished by the long fissidentate chelicerae with very long and dense bristles forming a "basket" on their dorsal surface. The females have spirally coiled seminal ducts and characteristic receptacles composed of two chambers joined by a thin canal.

Tusitala barbata Peckham & Peckham, 1902

Figs 220, 221

Tusitala barbata: Peckham & Peckham 1902: 330; 1903: 243, pl. 28, fig. 2; Proszynski 1984: 149; Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 110, figs 307-309; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 222, figs 192-195; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 92, figs 203, 204.

Monclova brauni: Peckham & Peckham 1902: 331.

Tusitala emertoni: Lessert 1925b: 514, figs 98-100.

Wesolowska and Cumming (2008) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 220, 221.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[female] Boshof district, Boesmansrus farm, 28[degrees]32.543'S: 25[degrees]09.929'E, base of grass tussocks, 11.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/302); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, under Eucalyptus bark, 14.x.2003, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14126); 1[female] Soetdoring Nat. Res., 28[degrees]49.831'S:26[degrees]02.645'E, under rocks in grassland, 27.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/474); 1[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]11'E, pitfalls, riverine bush, 13-16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12985); 4 imm. 1[male] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]11'E, beating, riverine bush, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12792). Northern Cape: 2[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, pistachio orchard no. 19, 29[degrees]34.904'S:22[degrees]55.027'E, canopy fogging, 26.v.2001, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14127); 3[female] Prieska district, Remhoogte farm, experimental pistachio orchard, 29[degrees]32.016'S:23[degrees]00.182'E, canopy fogging, 24.iv.2001, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22674); 1[male] same data but 28.i.2001 (NCA, 2010/206).

Distribution: Species widely distributed in eastern and southern Africa, recorded from the Free State and Northern Cape Provinces for the first time (Fig. 225).

Habitat and biology: This species had previously been recorded mainly from savannah and forest habitats, usually from the foliage stratum. The records presented here from semi-arid grassland and arid Nama Karoo indicates more flexible habitat preferences than initially suspected.

DISCUSSION

A total of 51 jumping spider species have been treated in the present paper, of which 15 are described as new. Of the 3 6 previously described species, only eight were recorded from central South Africa in earlier taxonomic publications. The large proportion of new species described here (29.4 %<>) is indicative of the minimal attention that central South Africa has received in past Salticidae research, particularly revisionary studies. In fact, only five of the genera treated in this paper have been subject to thorough revision in the Afrotropical Region, namely Cyrba (Wanless 1984), Heliophanus (Wesolowska 1986, 2003),Menemerus (Wesolowska 1999a), Natta (Wesolowska 1993) and Nigorella (Wesolowska 2009). Of the 13 species from these genera treated in the present paper, one is recorded from South Africa for the first time, six from the Free State and three from the North West Province for the first time. This study has thus greatly improved our knowledge of the Salticidae biodiversity in the Grassland and Nama Karoo biomes and contributed to a better understanding of the biogeography of South African Salticidae through revised distribution maps. The rich diversity of Salticidae in these two biomes prompts a brief discussion on their ecology and representation in spider communities.

The Grassland Biome is generally dominated by open grass plains, with shrubs and trees only occurring sporadically within this landscape or associated with hills. In a survey of the spider communities associated with three tree/shrub species in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve (Rhus lancea, R. ciliata and Acacia karroo), Fourie (2010) recorded only 11 species of Salticidae (20.8 %> of the total), while she recorded 13 Salticidae species (15.7 %> of the total) in a comparative study of spider communities in four contrasting grasslands. A year-long pitfall survey at six sites in the reserve yielded 11 Salticidae species (9.1 %> of the total) (Fourie 2010). Other published studies from the Grassland Biome yielded seven species (7.5 %) from abandoned Trinervitermes trinervoides termitaria (Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2002, 2006a) and five species (8.8 %>) from Themeda triandra grassland (Haddad 2005).

The more arid Nama Karoo Biome is nearly devoid of trees, except near rivers and on hillsides, and is dominated by short thorny bushes. Grass only occurs in patches on sandy soils. Studies on spider ecology in the Nama Karoo Biome are largely restricted to pistachio orchards, where Salticidae were the most species rich family in ground covers (8 spp., 14.5 % of the total) and tree canopies (15 spp., 18.8 %), but were only moderately species rich on the ground (7 spp., 8.6 % of total) (Haddad et al. 2004, 2005; Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2006b). In the only study in a natural habitat in central South African Nama Karoo, two species of Salticidae (3.6 % of the total) were collected in a stand of undisturbed Nama Karoo grassland at the same locality (Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2005).

Thus, in the Grassland and Nama Karoo biomes there are similar numbers of Salticidae species occurring in each habitat stratum. However, when the species richness of other families is taken into account, Salticidae form a relatively higher proportion of species in trees and shrubs, while being less prominent in grasses (Araneidae, Thomisidae, Theridiidae and Linyphiidae are richer) and on the ground (richness dominated by Gnaphosidae and Lycosidae). Additional ecological studies in central South Africa are necessary to give an indication of how persistent this pattern is, and the current study provides a taxonomic base for further investigations into the ecology, distribution and conservation importance of the family in this area.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Sonnika Otto and Riana Poller, formerly of the National Museum in Bloemfontein, for assistance with field work at the Erfenis Dam Nat. Res. Rene Fourie and Anel Grobler (University of the Free State) kindly provided recently collected material for examination, while Leon Lotz (NMBA) made available the NMBA Salticidae collection for study. Audrey Ndaba (NMSA), Rudy Jocque (MRAC), Robin Lyle (TMSA), Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman (NCA) and Leon Lotz are thanked for their prompt processing of the voucher material. Free State Nature Conservation kindly provided permits for collecting spiders in Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., Sandveld Nat. Res., Soetdoring Nat. Res., Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res. and Willem Pretorius Nat. Res. The two reviewers, Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman and Dmitri Logunov, are thanked for their comments and suggestions that helped improve the manuscript.

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WESSELS, K.J., REYERS, B., VAN JAARSVELD, A.S. & RUTHERFORD, M.C. 2003. Identification of potential conflict areas between land transformation and biodiversity conservation in north-eastern South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 95: 157-178.

WHITMORE, C., SLOTOW, R., CROUCH, T.E. & DIPPENAAR-SCHOEMAN, A.S. 2002. Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a savannah reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30: 344-356.

ZABKA, M. 2006. Salticidae (Arachnida: Araneae) from Oriental, Australian and Pacific regions. XIX. Genus Pellenes Simon, 1876 in Australia. Annales zoologici 56: 567-573.

Charles R. Haddad (1) * and Wanda Wesolowska (2)

(1) Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 South Africa; haddadcr@ufs.ac.za

(2) Institute of Zoology, Wroclaw University, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wroclaw, Poland; tomwes@biol.uni.wroc.pl

* Author for correspondence
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Title Annotation:Part 2
Publication:African Invertebrates
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6SOUT
Date:Jun 1, 2011
Words:11695
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