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New species and new records of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from central South Africa.

INTRODUCTION

The spider fauna of the semi-arid and arid parts of central and western South Africa has long been neglected in terms of taxonomy and ecology. Only during the last two decades have the first ecological studies been undertaken in natural habitats and agroecosystems in the Grassland Biome (Lotz et al. 1991; Van den Berg & Dippenaar-Schoeman 1991; Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2002, 2006a, b; Haddad 2005; Fourie 2010) and Nama Karoo Biome (Haddad et al. 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008; Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2005) that dominate the Free State and Northern Cape provinces. Consequently, little is known about the association of spider species with these biomes, levels of endemism, conservation importance, and the factors affecting the distribution of the species occurring in each. A pattern that has emerged from these studies is that the Salticidae persist as one of the most species-rich spider families in most habitat strata in these biomes, a pattern that has been regularly observed in savannah (e.g. Whitmore et al. 2002; Haddad et al. 2006; Dippenaar et al. 2008; Foord et al. 2008; Dippenaar-Schoeman & Van den Berg 2010; Muelelwa et al. 2010), a structurally more complex vegetation type.

During sampling in these biomes over the last three decades, including studies forming part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA), several species of the Salticidae were sampled that were found to be new to science. This includes seven species of Heliophanus C. L. Koch, 1833, two Thyenula Simon, 1902, and one of each Rhene Thorell, 1869 and Nigorella Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz, 2008 that have already been described in previous papers (Wesolowska 2001, 2003, 2009a, b; Wesolowska & Haddad 2002). In the current contribution an additional 15 species are described, several species described from outside South Africa are recorded from the country for the first time, and new provincial records for the Free State, Northern Cape, North West and KwaZulu-Natal are presented. This includes range extensions for some of the species previously described in the papers listed above.

The Grassland Biome is presently considered to be one of the most seriously threatened vegetation types in South Africa, with 40 % irreversibly transformed and only 2.8 % formally conserved (O'Connor & Kuyler 2005). A large portion of the grassland habitat has been transformed by agriculture (cultivation and grazing), with additional threats coming from mining, urban expansion, industrialisation and associated pollution (Mentis & Huntley 1982). As such, the remaining untransformed grassland patches are highly irreplaceable (Egoh 2009). The absence of large protected areas within the Free State part of the Grassland Biome necessitates effective management and conservation of private land in order to protect the highly endemic fauna and flora of this biome (Wessels et al. 2003).

The Salticidae could serve as a potential surrogate taxon for environmental and conservation assessments in South Africa, as they are abundant, usually sampled throughout the year, show contrasting responses to climatic conditions, and are species rich (e.g. Wesolowska & Cumming 2008). Future consideration of their use in assessments and ecological studies requires that the species should be described, which would facilitate the identification of material and accurate presentation of their distribution and conservation importance. This paper thus aims to extend our knowledge of the Salticidae of the Grassland and Nama Karoo biomes and provide a platform for future biological and ecological research on the group.

MATERIAL & METHODS

Field work forming part of various student projects was undertaken between 2000 and 2009 at nine sites in central South Africa (Free State, Northern Cape and North West provinces), and several surveys as part of SANSA. Additionally, some accessioned museum material collected at various sites in the Free State, Northern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces was also included in this study. The majority of specimens examined were collected by pitfall trapping, leaf litter sifting or active searching at the base of grass tussocks, thus accounting primarily for ground-dwelling jumping spiders. Plant-dwelling species collected by beating, sweeping and from under bark are considerably less prominently represented in these collections. A few depositories were sampled in and around human habitation.

In assessing the distribution of the species presented here, all records from South Africa published in taxonomic papers were included to indicate the historical distribution and coverage of the material examined in the current study. Records from ecological papers and unpublished records in museum databases were not included as they may require confirmation. A total of 1456 specimens were examined.

Collected spiders were preserved in 70 % ethanol and examined in a dish with ethanol. Descriptions of colours and dorsal habitus photographs pertain to wet specimens. In some cases the male pedipalps and female epigynes were dissected from the specimens for study. Epigynes were macerated in 5 % hot KOH for a few minutes, dehydrated with 100 % ethanol, cleared in xylene and drawn in temporary mounts in eugenol. After examination, the genitalia were placed in micro-vials with ethanol and put into the vials containing the specimens from which they had been removed. Terminology is standard for spiders. All measurements are given in millimetres and were made with a binocular microscope (Nikon) equipped with an ocular micrometer scale.

Digital photos were taken of the dorsal habitus of each salticid species using a Nikon Coolpix 8400 camera mounted on a Nikon SMZ stereomicroscope. The extended focal range images were stacked using CombineZM image stacking software (http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk) to increase the depth of field. Measurements of each photographed specimen were taken using an ocular micrometer. Plates were prepared and scale bars added in CorelDraw X4.

Voucher material is deposited in the National Museum, Bloemfontein (NMBA), ARC--Plant Protection Research Institute, National Collection of Arachnida, Pretoria (NCA), KwaZulu-Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (NMSA) and Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria (TMSA), all in South Africa, the Natural History Museum at Wroclaw University in Poland (NHMWU), and the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium (MRAC).

TAXONOMY

Genus Baryphas Simon, 1902

Type species: Baryphas ahenus Simon, 1902.

The genus contains a few, probably unrelated species. The type species is similar to members of the genus Evarcha Simon, 1902.

Baryphas ahenus Simon, 1902

Figs 1, 2

Baryphas ahenus: Simon 1902: 42; 1903: 681, figs 807-809; Peckham & Peckham 1903: 207, pl. 24, fig. 2; Lessert 1925a: 349, fig. 13; Proszynski 1987: 5; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 169, figs 2-8; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 23.

Wesolowska and Cumming (2008) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 1, 2.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein, 29[degrees]08'S:26[degrees]10'E, in building, 12.iv.1989, L. Barkhuizen (NMBA, 2885); 2[female] Bloemfontein district, Deelhoek farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]07'E, 5.iii.2000, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Boshoff district, Boesmansrus farm, 28[degrees]32.543'S:25[degrees]09.929'E, base of grass tussocks, 11.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/300); 1[female] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.080'S:26[degrees]25.950'E, retreat in Rhus ciliata florescence, 3.iv.2010, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230324); 2[female] Clocolan district, Mpetsane Conservation Estate, 28[degrees]48.773'S:27[degrees]39.364'E, beating, 8.iii.2007, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/1666); 4[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., hilltop, 28[degrees]29.276'S:26[degrees]47.965'E, beats, R. ciliata shrubs, 24.ii.2006, R. Lyle (NCA, 2008/2791); 9 imm. 1^ 3C same locality, rocky ridge, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, beats, R. ciliata shrubs, 26.iv.2006, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/3670); 1[male] 1[female] Harrismith, Wilger Park, 28[degrees]17.232'S:29[degrees]06.719'E, on walls of house, iv.2010, J. van As (TMSA, 23815); 1[female] Qwa Qwa National Park, Avondrust-Suid, 28[degrees]29'S:28[degrees]42'E, sweeping, 25.x.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6665); 1[female] same locality, Eerstegeluk, 28[degrees]26'S:28[degrees]41'E, 3.iii.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6375); 1 imm. 1[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]13'E, beats, 23.x.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12986); 6 imm. 1[female] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, beats, rocky hillside, 16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12907).

[FIGURES 1-12 OMITTED]

Distribution: Species common in southern Africa, recorded here from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 23).

Habitat and biology: This species was occasionally collected by beating foliage of shrubs.

Genus Cembalea Wesolowska, 1993

Type species: Tularosaplumosa Lessert, 1925.

A small genus consisting of only three species distributed in the Afrotropical Region. The members of the genus have a high carapace; a characteristic feature of males is the long embolus and a ventral fringe of dark hairs on the first legs, which easily break off in preserved specimens and are sometimes missing as a result.

[FIGURES 13-17 OMITTED]

Cembalea triloris sp. n.

Figs 3, 14-17

Etymology: From Latin tri- (three-) and lorum (a thong, a strap), referring to the carapace markings of this species.

Diagnosis: This species is distinguished from congeners by the shape of the tibial apophysis, with an additional long spike on the terminal part dorsally.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.0-2.3, width 1.6-1.8, height 0.9-1.0. Abdomen: length 1.9-2.5, width 1.4-1.7. Eye field: length 1.0-1.1, anterior width 1.3-1.4, posterior width 1.4-1.6.

General appearance as in Figs 3, 13. Carapace high and convex, sloping posteriorly, dark brown, vicinity of eyes black. White hairs forming three wide stripes on thoracic part (Figs 3, 13). Eyes of anterior row surrounded by white hairs. Clypeus clothed in pale hairs. Chelicerae unidentati, dark brown, endites dark yellow, external margins of endites with triangular lobes. Labium brown, sternum yellow, with dark ring around edge. Abdomen light, yellowish white, with wide median brown streak (Fig. 3), venter tinged with grey, this colour extending to sides of abdomen. Dorsum of abdomen covered with adpressed hairs. Spinnerets long, dark. Legs light brown, tibiae, patellae and lateral surfaces of femora slightly darker. Femora III and IV clearly longer than anterior femora. Spines numerous, yellow. Leg spination: I: femur dorsally 0-0-1-1-3, patella pro- and retrolaterally 1, tibia pro- and retrolaterally 1-1, ventrally 2-2 apically, metatarsus pro- and retrolaterally 1; II: femur dorsally 0-0-2-2-4, patella as I, tibia dorsally 1-0-0, pro- and retrolaterally 1-1, ventrally 0-2, metatarsus as I; III: femur dorsally 0-1-0-1-3, prolaterally 0-0-0-1-1, patella dorsally, pro- and retrolaterally 1, tibia dorsally 1-1-0, prolaterally 1-1-1-1, ventrally 1, metatarsus dorsally 1-1, pro- and retrolaterally 1-1, ventrally 2-2 apically; IV: femur dorsally 0-1-0-1-3, patella pro- and retrolaterally 1, tibia and metatarsus as III. Pedipalps pale. Palpal tibia short, single apophysis with long additional terminal spike (Figs 14-17). Bulb with convex anterior haematodocha, embolus long (Fig. 14). Cymbium with tip curved towards retrolateral side.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]35.495'S:22[degrees]57.308'E, Nama Karoo grassland, pitfall traps, 28.ii-26.iii.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/200).

Paratypes: NAMIBIA: 4[male] Wildheim Ost, 26[degrees]28'S:19[degrees]33'E, under calcrete stones, 6.vii.1986, C. Pieterse (NMBA, 1511); 2[male] Noachabeb, 27[degrees]23'S: 18[degrees]30'E, under stones/red sand, 7-9.vii.1986, C. Pieterse (NMBA, 1554). SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: 1[male], together with 1 imm. Namaqualand, Groenriviersmond, 30[degrees]51'S:17[degrees]35'E, 14.ix.1994, J. Irish (NMBA, 8119).

Distribution: Known from arid western South Africa and southern Namibia (Fig. 23).

Habitat and biology: Apparently an exclusively ground-dwelling species.

Remark: The holotype male was misidentified by Haddad and Dippenaar-Schoeman (2006b) as Pellenes sp.

Genus Cosmophasis Simon, 1901

Type species: Plexippus thalassinus C.L. Koch, 1846.

A moderately large genus with more than 40 species distributed mainly in tropical Asia, with 10 species known from the Afrotropical Region. Some of the Afrotropical species described in Cosmophasis were recently transferred to Mexcala Peckham & Peckham, 1902 (Wesolowska 2009), but the relationships of the remaining 10 species are unclear and the Afrotropical fauna urgently needs revision.

Cosmophasis australis Simon, 1902

Figs 4, 18-22

Cosmophasis australis: Simon 1902: 25; 1910: 419; Clark 1974: 14, figs 6-9.

Almota quinii: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 194, pl. 20, fig. 1.

See Clark (1974) for description of female.

[FIGURES 18-22 OMITTED]

Redescription:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 1.8, width 1.3, height 0.7. Abdomen: length 1.9, width 1.0. Eye field: length 1.0, anterior width 1.2, posterior width 1.3.

General appearance as in Fig. 4. Small spider. Carapace high in cephalic part, with steep posterior slope beginning just behind eye field. Its colouration dark brown, near eyes blackish, covered with scarce small white scales, delicate brown bristles in vicinity of eyes. Anterior median eyes large (Fig. 18), all eyes of first row fringed with white scales, clypeus low, dark. Ocular area pitted. Labium, endites and sternum brown. Chelicerae unidentate, small additional lobe on prolateral edge between tooth and base of fang (Fig. 19). Abdomen thin, elongated, blackish with shine, delicate colourless hairs on its dorsum. Venter black. Spinnerets dark. Legs yellowish brown, first pair with dark lateral surfaces of femora and patellae. Tibia I with three pairs of spines ventrally, metatarsus with two pairs. Pedipalps dark, a few white scales on dorsal surface. Tibial apophysis robust, with elongated spike-like end (Figs 20-22), bulb partially divided by fissure, embolus short (Fig. 20).

Holotype (examined): [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Colony (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, USA).

Additional material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S: 26[degrees]11'E, leaf litter sifting, riverine forest, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12766).

Distribution: Described from the Cape Colony, most likely the present day Western Cape Province of South Africa. Recorded from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 23).

Habitat and biology: This species is apparently an ant mimic due to its elongate body and iridescent scales on the body. Only a single specimen was collected in leaf litter.

Remarks: The species is unrelated to the type species of the genus Cosmophasis and other members of the genus distributed in Australia and the Pacific Islands. Its inclusion in Cosmophasis is only tentative and will require revision after discovery of the female.

Genus Cyrba Simon, 1876

Type species: Salticus algerinus Lucas, 1846.

Cyrba is a small genus with 11 species distributed in the Afrotropical, Palaearctic and Australasian regions. The Afrotropical Region contains eight species, of which two have ranges extending into the Palaearctic. Species of this genus can be recognized by the posterior narrowing of the eye region, males by the large dark palpal cymbium, dorsal tibial apophysis with a row of elongate scales and elongate prolateral tegular process, and females by the epigyne with a paired posterior depression containing the copulatory openings, posterior margin of epigyne with paired lobes, and the simple internal structure of the spermathecae.

[FIGURE 23 OMITTED]

Cyrba nigrimana Simon, 1900

Figs 5, 6

Cyrba nigrimanus: Simon 1900: 389.

Cyrba nigrimana: Caporiacco 1947: 230; Wanless 1984: 465, figs 12a-g; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 27, figs 26-28; Azarkina & Logunov 2010: 168, figs 14-23.

Azarkina and Logunov (2010) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 5, 6.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1 imm. 1[female] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.080'S:26[degrees]25.950'E, under rocks, 24.v.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22665); 3 imm. 1[female] Clocolan district, Mpetsane Conservation Estate, 28[degrees]48'S:27[degrees]39'E, under rocks, 8.iii.2007, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/1668); 1[male] 2[famela] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]29.615'S:26[degrees]48.300'E, under rocks, hillside, 28.ii.2006, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/2807); 2[male] 4[female] Ladybrand district, De Luc farm, 29[degrees]18'S:27[degrees]24'E, under rocks, 5.xii.2008, C. Haddad (NMBA, 13049).

Distribution: Widespread in the eastern half of South Africa, although known only from a few scattered localities. Recorded from Free State for the first time (Fig. 23).

Habitat and biology: A ground-dwelling species usually collected from under logs and rocks.

Genus Dendryphantes C.L. Koch, 1837

Type species: Araneus hastatus Clerck, 1757.

A widely distributed genus, with more than 50 species occurring on all continents except Australia. Nine species are known from the Afrotropical Region. Members of the genus are small with a flattened body, and all are similar coloured. The eye field characteristically has silver patches of translucent guanine crystals, and the abdomen has a herring-bone pattern. The males have a short palpal tibia with a single short apophysis, and a short embolus usually with an accompanying tegular apophysis. The structure of the female genitalia is simple, with short seminal ducts and single-chambered receptacles.

Dendryphantes hararensis Wesolowska & Cumming, 2008

Figs 7, 8

Dendryphantes hararensis: Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 173, figs 16-21.

Wesolowska and Cumming (2008) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 7, 8.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Golden Gate National Park, Mt Pierre, 28[degrees]32'S:28[degrees]39'E, beating, 20.iv.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6529); 1[male] Qwa Qwa National Park, Zaphira, 28[degrees]29'S:28[degrees]40'E, beating, 27.x.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6699); 1[female] same data but 6.vii.1994 (NMBA, 6601).

Distribution: Recently described from Harare, Zimbabwe, recorded for the first time from South Africa (Fig. 36).

Habitat and biology: Consistent with other members of the genus, this species was collected from the foliage of shrubs. Within the area under study, this species was only collected in high altitude grasslands in the eastern Free State, but considering that the type locality is in the Savannah Biome in Zimbabwe this species may be very widespread.

Dendryphantes purcelli Peckham & Peckham, 1903

Figs 9, 10, 24-27

Dendryphantespurcellii: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 206, pl. 24, fig. 11.

Dendryphantes purcelli: Clark & Benoit 1977: 101, figs 44a-d.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 1.9/1.9, width 1.4/1.4, height 0.7/0.6. Abdomen: length 2.1/2.5, width 1.4/1.6. Eye field: length 0.8/0.7, anterior width 1.0/1.0, posterior width 1.1/1.1.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 9. Carapace oval, flat, brown, eye field covered with silver spots of translucent guanine crystals and pair of dark patches in centre, eyes surrounded by black rings. Carapace covered in delicate colourless hairs, with some white hairs on slopes and brown bristles near eyes. Sternum and mouthparts brown, external margins of endites extended to triangular lobe. Abdomen greyish beige, with traces of a brown herring bone pattern and pair of rounded brown spots at midpoint, brown hairs on dorsum. Venter yellow, tinged with grey. Spinnerets yellow. Legs brownish with darker femora. Tibia I with 1-2-2 spines ventrally, metatarsus with two pairs ventral spines. Pedipalps brownish, tibia with single hooked apophysis, tegulum with short process near short embolus (Figs 24, 25).

Female.

Habitus and body setae similar to male, abdomen slightly paler (Fig. 10). Epigyne with small notch at posterior edge. Gonopores situated anteriorly in narrow furrow (Fig. 26). Seminal ducts straight, receptacles elongate and strongly sclerotized (Fig. 27).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] 1[female] Golden Gate National Park, 28[degrees]30'S:28[degrees]50'E, beating, 19.iii.1986, L. Lotz (NMBA, 1319); 1 imm. 1[female] Qwa QwaNational Park, Bos-en-Dal, 28[degrees]27'S:28[degrees]32'E, beating, 5.vii.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6581); 2 imm. 1[male] 1[female] Vrede, Meulstroom, 27[degrees]48'S:29[degrees]38'E, beating, 6.xii.1992, L. Lotz (NMBA, 5886).

Distribution: Species known hitherto from the Western Cape Province (Cape Peninsula), also recorded from St Helena Island (Clark & Benoit 1977). Recorded here from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 36).

Habitat and biology: Collected from the foliage of shrubs. As for D. hararensis, this species was only collected in high altitude grasslands in the eastern Free State.

Genus Evarcha Simon, 1902

Type species: Araneus falcatus Clerck, 1757.

Evarcha is a very large genus comprising about 80 species distributed in the Old World, with the majority of them known from the Palaearctic Region, but also numerous species in the Afrotropical Region (Proszynski 2009; Platnick 2010). Members of this genus are primarily differentiated by morphological features. The males of most species have a palp with a single tibial apophysis, a rounded bulb with a small posterior lobe, and stiletto-like embolus bent towards the bulb. The females usually have strongly sclerotized multi-chambered receptacles. Despite reasonably stable morphology, genitalic structure suggests that the genus is paraphyletic, as demonstrated by the species presented below, and the relationships of the genus and its composite species need to be clarified on a global scale.

[FIGURES 24-27 OMITTED]

Evarcha brinki sp. n.

Figs 11, 28-32

Etymology: The species is named in honour of Andre Brink, famous South African novelist.

Diagnosis: The species is distinguished by the unique embolus shape, with an additional terminal apophysis; the shape of tibial apophysis is also characteristic.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.5, width 2.0, height 1.1. Abdomen: length 2.1, width 1.5. Eye field: length 1.1, anterior width 1.4, posterior width 1.5.

[FIGURES 28-32 OMITTED]

General appearance as in Figs 11, 28. Carapace high, sloping posteriorly, yellowish orange with darker patch composed of brown hairs on thoracic part. Eye field darker, vicinity of eyes almost black; white hairs forming pale area at posterior margin of eye field. Numerous long brown bristles near eyes; delicate short colourless hairs on thorax. Clypeus yellow with white hairs. Chelicerae unidentate, brown. Maxillae and labium brownish, sternum yellow. Abdomen ovoid, narrower than carapace; dorsum pale yellow with pattern composed of five large black spots (Figs 11, 28), clothed with hairs corresponding in colour with background; some longer brown bristles on dorsum. Venter pale with dark U-shaped patch. Anterior spinnerets yellowish, posterior spinnerets brown. Coxae and trochanters yellowish. Leg I dark brown, only base of femur and tarsus lighter; patellae and tibiae with long brown hairs. Legs II-IV yellow, only apical third of femora brown. Spines dark brown, leg hairs brown and whitish. Pedipalp yellow, but femur and bulb darker. Palpal tibia short and wide, tibial apophysis very strongly sclerotized, short and compact, bicuspidate (Figs 29-32). Embolus with accompanying terminal apophysis (Figs 29, 30).

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]34.924'S:22[degrees]54.376'E, base of grass tussocks, 28.i.2009, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14102).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 36).

Habitat and biology: The holotype was collected from the base of grass tussocks on the banks of the Orange River.

Remarks: The affinities of the species are unclear. The habitus is typical for Evarcha, but the structure of embolus differs from that of other African members of the genus. It is slightly similar to the Chinese species E. sichuanensis Peng, Xie & Kim, 1993 and E. orientalis (Song & Chai, 1992).

Evarcha flagellaris sp. n.

Figs 12, 33-35

Etymology: From Latinflagellum (a whip), referring to the whip-like embolus of the species.

Diagnosis: The male of this species is closely related to E. striolata Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009 from the KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa, from which it can be distinguished by the less convex carapace and presence of a dorsal abdominal scutum in males. The male palp of E. flagellaris sp. n. differs from that of E. striolata by the clearly shorter embolus and bulb with a large bulged central lobe. The female epigyne is very similar to that of the female described as E. elegans Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000 from Tanzania, Ethiopia and South Africa (sexes of the latter species are probably mismatched), which may in fact be the unknown female of E. striolata.

Description:

Male.

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 2.0-2.1/2.3-2.4, width 1.5-1.6/1.7-1.8, height 0.8/1.0-1.1. Abdomen: length 1.9-2.0/3.3-3.6, width 1.2/2.2-2.4. Eye field: length 0.8/0.9-1.0, anterior width 1.3/1.4-1.5, posterior width 1.4/1.5-1.6.

General appearance as in Figs 12, 33. Shape and colouration of carapace typical for Evarcha members, dorsum brown with traces of a light median streak on thoracic part, with dark patches composed of brown hairs lateral of this streak, vicinity of eyes black. Whitish hairs cover clypeus, anterior part of eye field and sloping sides. Chelicerae light brown, endites, labium and sternum yellow. Abdomen yellowish with four brown stripes, anterior third covered with orange scutum, with thick brown bristles laterally on this scutum (Fig. 33). Venter pale. Spinnerets grey. Legs yellow, brown hairs forming darker areas on dorsal surface of femora, except basal part. Dark stripe prolaterally along patellae, tibiae and metatarsi of legs I and II. Leg hairs brown. Spines numerous. Tibial apophysis of palp long and straight, bulb rounded with convex central lobe, embolus whip-like, thin and long, with curved end (Figs 34A, B).

Female.

Slightly larger than male. Carapace pale, thoracic part yellow, with black rings surrounding eyes, thoracic part light brown. Some brown bristles on carapace, whitish hairs near eyes. Clypeus low with few white hairs. Mouthparts and sternum dark yellow. Abdomen ovoid, its width equal to width of carapace, very light, yellowish white, with two longitudinal streaks composed of small beige patches, also with darker patches forming ill-defined streaks on sides; general pattern similar to colouration of male's abdomen, but less contrasted and scutum absent. Venter whitish with two lines of beige dots. Sparse brown bristles on abdomen. Spinnerets light, their tips grey. Legs yellowish to orange, with light brown spines and hairs. Epigyne with two rounded, widely separated grooves and very wide pocket at epigastric fold (Fig. 35A). Seminal ducts weakly sclerotized, very broad, forming broad loop medially; receptacles heavily sclerotized, composed of several lateral chambers (Fig. 35B).

[FIGURES 33-35 OMITTED]

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28[degrees]30.272'S: 26[degrees]47.527'E, pitfall traps, woodland, 28.x-4.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22703).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] together with holotype; 1[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S: 27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 29.x-5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22676). KwaZuluNatal: 1[male] Winterton, 28[degrees]47.669'S:29[degrees]34.635'E, sweep netting, grassland/weeds surrounding kenaf field, 13.ii.2007, V. Swart (TMSA, 23876). North West: 1[female] 5 km from Rustenburg, 25[degrees]41.904'S:27[degrees]14.925'E, long grass, 15.ii.1977, I.V. (NCA, 77/422); 1[female] Rustenburg Nat. Res., 25[degrees]42.785'S:27[degrees]11.086'E, sweep netting, 11.xii.1979, A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman (NCA, 94/155); 1[female] same locality, sweep netting, 16.x.1980, M. Stiller (NCA, 94/98).

Distribution: Known from the central Free State Province, southern North West and western KwaZulu-Natal provinces (Fig. 36).

Habitat and biology: All known specimens were collected by pitfall trapping or sweepnetting in grassland and woodland.

Remarks: The structure of the male palp in E. flagellaris (and the closely related E. striolata) differs from the pattern found in the majority of African Evarcha species. It is related to the Asian flavocincta group of species. The shape of the epigyne and its structure are related to the Asian E. flavocincta (C.L. Koch, 1846) and E. kochi Simon, 1902, but also to the common African E. dotata (Peckham & Peckham, 1903).

[FIGURE 36 OMITTED]

Evarchaprosimilis Wesolowska & Cumming, 2008

Figs 37, 38

Evarcha similis: Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 28, figs 45-48 (preocc. by Caporiacco 1941).

Evarcha prosimilis: Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 179, figs 33-37 (replacement name); Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 33, figs 42-46.

Wesolowska and Haddad (2009) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 37, 38.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Bloemfontein, Naval Hill, Southern plateau, 29[degrees]06'S: 26[degrees]14'E, ix.1990, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6341); 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]08'S:26[degrees]10'E, pitfall traps, top of koppie next to stone wall, N side, ix.2006, L. Lotz (NMBA, 10721); 3[male] same data but x.2006 (NMBA, 10894); 2[male] 1[female] same locality, pitfall traps, 8.xi.2006, R. Scholtz & S. Otto (NMBA, 11053); 2? same locality, 29[degrees]02'S:26[degrees]12'E, Cussonia paniculata litter, 14.iv.2009, V. Butler (NCA, 2009/3659); 1[male] same data but 22.vi.2009 (NCA, 2009/3658); 2S same locality, 29[degrees]02'S:26[degrees]12'E, Rhus lancea litter, 20.V.2009, V. Butler (NCA, 2009/3657); 1[male] same locality, 29[degrees]03.006'S:26[degrees]12.701'E, base of grass tussocks, 21.x.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22632); 1[male] 1[female] Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 5[male] same locality, leaf litter, 14.iv.2002, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, preservation traps, 23.xi-8.xii.1987, L. Lotz (NMBA, 3236); 1[male] same data but 23.ix-6.x.1988 (NMBA, 4670); 1[female] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]29.276'S:26[degrees]47.965'E, beats, Rhus ciliata, 24.ii.2006, A. Grobler (NCA, 2007/3673); 1[male] Golden Gate National Park, Alma, 28[degrees]29'S:28[degrees]41'E, in grass, 11.i.1992, L. Lotz (NMBA, 5535); 1[female] Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27[degrees]43.376'S:27[degrees]42.042'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3631); 10S[male] 1[female] same data but 29.x5.xii.2009 (NMSA, 22688); 1[female] Ladybrand district, De Luc farm, 29[degrees]18'S:27[degrees]24'E, base of grass tussocks, 5.xii.2008, C. Haddad (NMBA, 13051); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] 2[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]11'E, active searching under rocks, riverine forest edge, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12745); 1[female] same locality, 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]13'E, leaf litter sifting, 21.x.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12942); 3 imm. 1[male] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, leaf litter sifting, rocky hill, 16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12863); 2[male] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]11'E, pitfalls, riverine bush, 13-16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12578); 1[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S:27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3519); 2[male] same locality, 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix- 28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3524). North West: 1[male] 1[female] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.825'S:27[degrees]17.819'E, pitfall traps, woodland grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3618); 11[male] 3[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3544); 3[male] 1[female] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230319); 4[male] same locality, 26[degrees]51.828'S:27[degrees]17.805'E, pitfalls, Vaal R. bank, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3617); 9[male] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3554); 7S same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230321).

Distribution: The species has been recorded from northern Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), recorded here for the first time from the Free State and North West provinces. This is apparently a widespread species in semi-arid central and subtropical eastern and northern South Africa (Fig. 51).

Habitat and biology: This species was frequently collected at most sites in the Free State recently sampled by students and as part of SANSA surveys. It is one of the most common leaf litter dwelling salticids, was regularly collected in pitfalls, and occasionally sampled from the bases of grass tussocks and from under rocks. It has only been collected once by beating and appears to be closely associated with the soil surface and grasses.

Evarcha vittula sp. n.

Figs 39, 48-50

Etymology: From Latin vitta (a fillet, a band), referring to the presence of a stripe on the abdomen.

Diagnosis: The species is closely related to E. maculata Rollard & Wesolowska, 2002, known from Guinea and Ethiopia, but is distinguishable by the characteristic striped pattern (E. maculata has a spotted pattern typical for the majority of Evarcha species) and by the straight embolus (slightly curved in E. maculata).

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.4-3.2, width 1.8-2.2, height 1.0-1.2. Abdomen: length 2.5-3.6, width 1.5-1.7. Eye field: length 1.0-1.3, anterior and posterior width 1.4-1.7. General appearance as in Figs 39, 48. Carapace oval, dark brown; orange median streak on thoracic part, covered with white hairs; white hairs forming stripes on lateral slopes (Fig. 48). Vicinity of eyes black, anterior eyes encircled by fawn scales. Chelicerae blackish, labium brown, maxillae brown with light chewing margins, sternum light brown. Abdomen ovoid, slightly elongate, dark brown with wide median orange streak; hairs on the streak white, lateral hairs darker. Anterior third of dorsum covered by delicate scutum. Venter greyish with two narrow darker stripes. Spinnerets grey, posteriors with darker bases. Legs dark brown, only coxae and tarsi paler. Spines numerous, long, first tibia with 3 pairs of ventral spines, metatarsus with 2 pairs; leg hairs dense, dark. Sparse white scales on femora I and II. Pedipalps brown. Palpal tibia with single straight apophysis, wide at base (Fig. 50). Bulb rounded with distinct posterior lobe; embolus short (Fig. 49).

[FIGURES 37-47 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 48-50 OMITTED]

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, unburnt site 1, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14103).

Paratypes: SOUTHAFRICA: Free State: 1S Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]02.892'S:26[degrees]12.662'E, 27.x-16.xi.2009, pitfall traps, Rhus lancea woodland, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22600); 1[male] Bloemfontein district, Mountain View farm, 29[degrees]01.845'S:26[degrees]13.599'E, walking on rocks, 28.ix.2002, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22666); 2S Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, unburnt site 1, pitfall traps, 22.x-22.xi.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14104); 12[male] same locality, site 1, near trench, 28[degrees]29.892'S:26[degrees]48.508'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 28.x-4.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22693); 2[male] Oranjeville, Vaal Dam, 26[degrees]59.514'S:28[degrees]15.772'E, pitfall traps, overgrazed grassland, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3537); 2[male] same locality, 26[degrees]59.523'S:28[degrees]15.737'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3540); 2[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]07'E, active searching, grassland, 14.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12654).

Additional material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S: 27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 29.x-5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22677).

Distribution: Widespread in the Free State Province (Fig. 51) and most likely occurs in adjacent grassland areas of the Gauteng, Northern Cape and North West provinces.

Habitat and biology: This species was rarely collected when compared to other similarly widespread species dealt with in this paper. Most of the specimens were sampled by pitfall traps, with single records from rocks and the base of grass tussocks in grassland.

[FIGURE 51 OMITTED]

Remarks: The species is provisionally placed in Evarcha based on the body shape and dimensions, and structure of the male palp, particularly the short curved embolus originating prolaterally and the posterior lobe of the bulb. The striped colour pattern of this species differs from what is typical for the genus. The palpal structure somewhat resembles that of Plexippus C.L. Koch, 1846 species, but E. vitulla sp. n. lacks the sclerotized serrated keel on the prolateral edge of the bulb, typical of Plexippus. Due to conflicting characters, the taxonomic position of this species should be confirmed after discovery of the female. One paratype (NMBA, 14104) is smaller and slightly paler in colour.

Genus Festucula Simon, 1901

Type species: Festucula vermiformis Simon, 1901.

A small genus consisting of only three species, of which two are distributed in the Afrotropical Region and the third in the Afrotropical Region, Egypt and Israel. Members of the genus have characteristic proportions: their body is very slender, its length exceeding its width by 4-6 times. Both sexes have a stridulatory apparatus of the legcarapace type.

Festucula lawrencei Lessert, 1933

Fig. 40

Festucula lawrencei: Lessert 1933: 152, fig. 72; Wesolowska 1992: 50, figs 26-27; Wesolowska & RussellSmith 2000: 28, figs 49-51; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 35, figs 50-52.

Wesolowska and Russell-Smith (2000) described both sexes; general appearance of females in Fig. 40.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State Province: 1 imm. 2? Koppies Dam Nat. Res., 27[degrees]13'S: 27[degrees]42'E, sweeps, 27.ix.1993, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6242).

Distribution: Species recorded from Angola, Tanzania and South Africa (KwaZuluNatal), recorded from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 51).

Habitat and biology: The elongate body and cryptic colouration indicate adaptation to grass dwelling. Despite this, the species is apparently very rare in the Grassland Biome.

Genus Heliophanus C.L. Koch, 1833

Type species: Aranea cuprea Walckenaer, 1802.

This is a large genus that includes more than 100 species in the Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions, as well as a single Oriental species. Six of the seven species recorded below belong to the subgenus Helafricanus. Males in this subgenus are black with a metallic shine and white markings (Fig. 41), while females are often mottled brown and grey in colour, with a lighter median abdominal stripe (Fig. 42). The males in this subgenus have a large patellar apophysis and small femoral protuberance, while females have seminal ducts directed anteriorly and spermathecae that tend to be coiled (Wesolowska 1986). One of the seven species, H. transvaalicus Simon, 1901, belongs to the subgenus Heliophanus, males of which can be recognized by the large femoral apophysis and additional femoral protuberances, and females by the presence of a single large or two small copulatory openings (Wesolowska 1986). Members of this subgenus are not sexually dimorphic, and colouration is similar in both sexes (Figs 43, 44). A further seven Heliophanus species have been recorded from central South Africa (within the present study area) in recent papers (Wesolowska 1986, 2003, 2009; Wesolowska & Haddad 2002), but are not dealt with further here as no additional localities have been noted: H. (Heliocapensis) charlesi Wesolowska, 2003, H. (Heliocapensis) deserticola Simon, 1901, H. (Helafricanus) patellaris Simon, 1901, H. (Heliophanus) sororius Wesolowska, 2003, H. (Heliocapensis) termitophagus Wesolowska & Haddad, 2002, H. (Heliocapensis) thaleri Wesolowska, 2009 and H. (Helafricanus) trepidus Simon, 1910.

Heliophanus (Helafricanus) debilis Simon, 1901

Heliophanus debilis: Simon 1901a: 59, fig. 12; Wesolowska 1986: 21, figs 148-162; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 182; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 43, figs 73-75.

Wesolowska (1986) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 4[male] Bloemfontein district, Deelhoek farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]07'E, on grass, 19.xi.2001, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 3[male] 1[female] Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]29.276'S:26[degrees]47.965'E, beats, Rhus ciliata, 24.ii.2006, R. Lyle (NCA, 2008/2788); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, in chimney of Odontotermes termite mound, 25.x.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU). Northern Cape: 1[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, pistachio orchard no. 19, 29[degrees]34.904'S:22[degrees]55.027'E, canopy fogging, 27.i.2001, C. Haddad (NHMWU).

Distribution: Widespread in central and southern Africa, recorded here from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 52).

Habitat and biology: This species occurs in all strata of the habitats it occupies but is generally rare.

[FIGURE 52 OMITTED]

Heliophanus (Helafricanus) hastatus Wesolowska, 1986

Heliophanushastatus: Wesolowska 1986: 24, figs 210-214; Wesolowska 2003: 263, figs 43-48.

Wesolowska (2003) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Oranjeville, Vaal Dam, 26[degrees]59.523'S:28[degrees]15.737'E, pitfalls, grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3624); 1[male] Platberg Nat. Res., Base of Donkey Pass, 28[degrees]16.836'S:29[degrees]11.992'E, base of grass tussocks, 27.v.2010, C. Haddad (TMSA, 23804). North West: 2[male] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.828'S:27[degrees]17.805'E, pitfalls, Vaal R. bank, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3558); 1[male] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (NMSA, 22681); 2[male] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230320); 6[male] same locality, 26[degrees]51.825'S:27[degrees]17.819'E, pitfalls, woodland grassland, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3549).

Distribution: Widespread in the eastern half of South Africa, although only known from a few scattered localities. Recorded here from the Free State and North West provinces for the first time (Fig. 52).

Habitat and biology: Apparently closely associated with the ground layer in grassland and woodlands.

Heliophanus (Helafricanus) modicus Peckham & Peckham, 1903

Figs 41, 42

Heliophanus modicus: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 193, pl. 20, fig. 2; Wesolowska 1986: 25, figs 215-225.

Wesolowska (1986) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 41, 42.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1 ? Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., Camp, 30[degrees]30'S:26[degrees]08'E, active search, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12824).

Distribution: Species known from Madagascar and the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa, recorded from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 52).

Habitat and biology: A rare species apparently associated with drier habitats in South Africa.

Heliophanus (Helafricanus) nanus Wesolowska, 2003

Heliophanus nanus: Wesolowska 2003: 274, figs 81-86.

Wesolowska (2003) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 3S 1? Bloemfontein, University of the Free State, West Campus, 29[degrees]06.240'S:26[degrees]10.307'E, sweeps, grassland, 9.viii.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/1957); 1 imm. 1[female] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., Woodland grassland, 28[degrees]30.243'S:26[degrees]47.500'E, sweeps, grassland, 22.xi.2005, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/3717); 1[female] same locality, 28[degrees]29.552'S:26[degrees]47.646'E, beats, Rhus lancea trees, 30.viii.2006, A. Grobler (NCA, 2007/3671); 1[female] Fauresmith district, Boschrand farm, 29[degrees]56'S:24[degrees]48'E, by hand, 21.iii.2005, L. Lotz (NMBA, 9995); 2[female] same data but 23.iii.2005 (NMBA, 10026); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 2[female] Soetdoring Nat. Res., 28[degrees]49.831'S: 26[degrees]02.645'E, sweeps, grassland, 27.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/480).

Distribution: Known only from the Free State Province, South Africa (Fig. 53).

Habitat and biology: A plant-dwelling species collected from grasses and shrubs in grassland.

Heliophanus (Helafricanus) pistaciae Wesolowska, 2003

Heliophanuspistaciae: Wesolowska 2003: 280, figs 101-107.

Wesolowska (2003) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Benfontein Nat. Res., 28[degrees]50.003'S:24[degrees]48.756'E, pitfalls, dry thorny savannah, 14.x.2005-4.i.2006, R. Lyle (NCA, 2010/201); 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]02.892'S:26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfalls, Rhus lancea woodland, 9.xii.2009-4.i.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/208); 1[female] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.080'S:26[degrees]25.950'E, base of grass tussocks, 3.iv.2010, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230325); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28[degrees]30.272'S:26[degrees]47.527'E, pitfall traps, woodland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3643); 1[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3588); 1[male] same locality, site 7, rocky hillside, 28[degrees]29.629'S:26[degrees]48.323'E, 30.ix-28.x.2009, pitfall traps, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3599); 2? same locality, Campsite, 28[degrees]30.243'S:26[degrees]47.500'E, beats, A. karroo trees, 28.v.2007, R. Fourie (NCA, 2007/3674); 4 imm. 2[female] same locality, uniform Themeda triandra grassland, 28[degrees]29.803'S:26[degrees]47.476'E, 22.xi.2005, sweeps, grassland, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/3714); 1[male] Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27[degrees]43.393'S:27[degrees]42.066'E, pitfall traps, base of hill, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3530); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]43.376'S:27[degrees]42.042'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 29.x-5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22691); 3 imm. 1[male] 2[female] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, in chimney of Odontotermes termite mound, 25.x.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3521). North West: 2[male] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.828'S:27[degrees]17.805'E, pitfalls, Vaal R. bank, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3555). Northern Cape: 1[female] Colesburg district, Vogelsfontein farm, 30[degrees]37'S:25[degrees]18'E, under stone, 23.iii.1995, L. Lotz (NMBA, 8135).

Distribution: Known from the Free State and Northern Cape provinces of South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Recorded from the North West Province for the first time (Fig. 53).

Habitat and biology: This species is an agrobiont spider in pistachio orchards at the type locality, Green Valley Nuts in the Prieska district, Northern Cape, dominating the arboreal fauna and common in ground covers (Haddad et al. 2004, 2005), but was rarely collected in pitfall traps (Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2006b). Most of the records presented here were collected by pitfall trapping or sweep-netting, suggesting fairly adaptable habits.

[FIGURE 53 OMITTED]

Heliophanus (Helafricanus) proszynskii Wesolowska, 2003

Heliophanus proszynskii: Wesolowska 2003: 282, figs 108-113.

Wesolowska (2003) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Clocolan district, Mpetsane Conservation Estate, 28[degrees]48.561'S:27[degrees]39.255'E, base of grass tussocks, 17.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/342); 1[male] same locality, 28[degrees]48.773'S:27[degrees]39.364'E, under Eucalyptus bark, 17.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/339); 7 imm. 3[female] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., 28[degrees]29.722'S:26[degrees]48.439'E, sweeps, weedy grassland, 22.xi.2005, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/3716); 1[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfalls, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3585); 3[male] 2[female] Kestell, 28[degrees]18.729'S:28[degrees]42.132'E, sweeps, grassland, 10.iii.2006, C. Haddad (NCA, 2006/681); 1[female] Vrede, Moreson, 27[degrees]31'S:29[degrees]06'E, under rocks, 9.iii.2006, L. Lotz (NMBA, 10126).

Distribution: Known from the Free State and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa (Fig. 54).

Habitat and biology: Apparently closely associated with grasses. Most of the specimens presented here and in the original description were collected by sweep-netting in grassland.

Heliophanus (Heliophanus) transvaalicus Simon, 1901

Figs 43, 44

Heliophanus transvaalicus: Simon 1901a: 55, fig. 7; 1901b: 541, 550, fig. 668; Wesolowska 1986: 33, figs 346-353.

Wesolowska (1986) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 43, 44.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1$ Boesmankop, 29[degrees]09'S:26[degrees]31'E, sweeping, 30.i.1986, Museum staff (NMBA, 1410); 2$ Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., hilltop, 28[degrees]29.276'S:26[degrees]47.965'E, beats, Rhus ciliata shrubs, 24.ii.2006, R. Lyle (NCA, 2008/2789); 1 imm. 5[male] 2[female] same locality, rocky ridge, 28[degrees]29.888'S: 26[degrees]48.488'E, beats, R. ciliata shrubs, 22.xi.2005, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/3672); 1[male] Harrismith, Wilger Park, 28[degrees]17.232'S:29[degrees]06.719'E, on walls of house, iv.2010, J. van As (TMSA, 23813).

[FIGURE 54 OMITTED]

Distribution: Previously recorded from the Gauteng, Limpopo and Northern Cape provinces, here from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 54).

Habitat and biology: An uncommon species apparently associated with the foliage of shrubs.

Genus Icius Simon, 1876

Type species: Marpissa hamata C.L. Koch, 1846.

A moderately large genus with 31 species, with 10 of them occurring in the Afrotropical Region. The males have long chelicerae, a palp with a single tibial apophysis, an elongate bulb with a posterior lobe, and a short embolus. The females have an epigyne with straight seminal ducts and rounded receptacles.

Icius insolidus (Wesolowska, 1999)

Figs 45, 46, 55, 56

Menemerus insolidus: Wesolowska 1999a: 299, figs 158-167.

Icius insolidus: Wesolowska 2006: 234, figs 43-52; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 192.

Wesolowska (2006) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 45, 46.

Redescription:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.2-2.3, width 1.7-1.8, height 1.1-1.2. Abdomen: length 2.2-2.4, width 1.5-1.6. Eye field: length 0.9-1.0, anterior width 1.4, posterior width 1.5.

General appearance as in Fig. 45. Carapace oval, almost black; white hairs forming median streak running from one third of eye field length to posterior edge of carapace; lateral sides also with white streaks. Sparse thin long black hairs covering dorsum, many reddish brown hairs in vicinity of eyes. Clypeus and dorsal surface of chelicerae dark brown with some white scales. Chelicerae long, unidentate, with large additional tooth at base (see fig. 44 in Wesolowska 2006). Sternum blackish. Abdomen ovoid, black with broad white median stripe (Fig. 45); dorsum with sparse long dark bristles. Sides of abdomen with some reddish hairs. Venter dark with four paler lines. Spinnerets dark. Legs blackish, but dorsal surfaces paler. Spines long, legs covered with thin long black hairs. Pedipalps brown. Palpal tibia with single long apophysis directed ventrally (Fig. 56). Bulb elongate with large posterior lobe; embolus thin and curved (Fig. 55).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[male] Bloemfontein district, Deelhoek farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]07'E, under rocks, 8.ix.2001, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22668); 1[male] Bloemfontein district, Mountain View farm, 29[degrees]01.845'S:26[degrees]13.599'E, walking on rocks, 28.ix.2002, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22667); 2[male] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.080'S:26[degrees]25.950'E, base of grass tussocks, 11.iv.2009, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14105); 1[male] 1[female] Fauresmith district, Boschrand farm, 29[degrees]56'S:24[degrees]48'E, by hand, 21.iii.2005, L. Lotz (NMBA, 9994); 1 imm. 1[female] same data but 23.iii.2005 (NMBA, 10027); 1[female] Fauresmith district, Kalkfontein Dam, 29[degrees]31'S:25[degrees]16'E, in webs and on ground, 9.iv.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12096); 1[female] Jagersfontein district, Klein Preezfontein farm, 29[degrees]49'S:25[degrees]25'E, under stones, 15.viii.1989, students (NMBA, 2924); 1[female] Philippolis district, Driekop, 30[degrees]29'S:25[degrees]26'E, by hand, 1.iii.2005, L. Lotz (NMBA, 9950); 1[female] Tussen-die- Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]14'E, under stacked rocks, 21.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12933); 1[male] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]07'E, active search, rocky hill, 14.x.2008, C. Haddad (NMBA, 12722); 1[female] Zastron district, Opnek farm, 30[degrees]16'S:27[degrees]12'E, 1627 m, by hand, 1.iii.2007, L. Lotz (NMBA, 10386). Northern Cape: 1$ Prieska district, Remhoogte farm, 29[degrees]32.016'S:23[degrees]00.182'E, active searching, experimental pistachio orchard, 27.iii.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/215).

[FIGURES 55-56 OMITTED]

Distribution: This species is known from Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa (Northern Cape). Recorded from the Free State Province for the first time (Fig. 63).

Habitat and biology: An uncommon ground-dwelling species that was sampled mainly by hand from rocks, from the base of grass tussocks and the soil surface.

Remark: The single female specimen from Remhoogte was misidentified by Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman (2006b) as Phlegra sp. (= P. karoo Wesolowska, 2006).

Icius pulchellus sp. n.

Figs 47, 57-62

Etymology: From Latin pulchellus (fair, neat, pretty).

Diagnosis: The species is related to I. minimus Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz, 2008 from Ethiopia, but the male is easily distinguished by the pattern of the abdomen and by the shape of the tibial apophysis, which is very short.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 2.0-2.5, width 1.5-2.0, height 0.8-0.9. Abdomen: length 2.0-2.4, width 1.4-1.8. Eye field: length 0.8-0.9, anterior width 1. 1-1.4, posterior width 1.3-1.7.

General appearance as in Figs 47, 57. Carapace oval, medium high, dark brown, with black eye field. White hairs forming wide median streak on carapace and two streaks along sides. Eyes of anterior row framed by reddish fawn hairs, ocular area with some brown bristles. Chelicerae dark brown, large, unidentate, with long thin fissure on dorsal surface (Fig. 58). Labium orange, endites with pale tips, sternum yellow, with dark peripheral ring. Abdomen ovoid, with median dentate brown streak, sides densely covered with white hairs mixed with yellow and fawn hairs (Fig. 47). Some sparse brown bristles on abdomen. Venter yellow tinged with brown. Spinnerets dark. Legs yellow to light brown, distal ends of segments darker. First leg slightly longer and stouter than others, dark brown, only dorsal surface lighter. Leg hairs brown and whitish, spines dark. Tibia and metatarsus of leg I each with two pairs of short ventral spines. Pedipalps dark brown, but dorsal surface covered with dense white hairs, beginning from top of femur. Tibial apophysis very short and wide, with additional ventral spike (Figs 59-62), bulb of irregular shape, embolus falciform (Fig. 59).

[FIGURES 57-62 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 63 OMITTED]

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2-30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3569).

Paratypes: 1[male] together with holotype; 1[male] same data as holotype but 2.ix-2.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3610).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 63).

Habitat and biology: All known specimens were collected by pitfall traps in grassland.

Genus Langona Simon, 1901

Type species: Attus redii Audouin, 1826.

The genus contains about 40 species distributed in the Old World. Morphologically all Langona species are very similar, dark coloured with a characteristic striped pattern. The males have a single tibial apophysis, usually accompanied by a tuft of long black setae, and embolus coiled on the tip of the tegulum. The females have an epigyne with a large central depression, the posterior edge of which is very strongly sclerotized. The internal structure of the epigyne is very complicated, with multi-chambered receptacles.

Langona hirsuta sp. n.

Figs 64, 65, 76-84

Etymology: From Latin hirsuta (hairy), referring to the very hairy pedipalps of the male.

Diagnosis: The male of this species is distinctive in having the pedipalps clothed in very dense long light hairs and by the presence of a single tibial apophysis. Slightly similar to L. bitumorata Prochniewicz & Hcciak, 1994 from Tanzania, but the palp lacks outgrowths on the tibia and femur. The female has an epigyne with characteristic narrow sickle-shaped hollows.

[FIGURES 64-75 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 76-81 OMITTED]

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Carapace: length 2.0-2.1/3.2-3.7, width 1.5-1.7/2.5-2.8, height 0.9-1.0/1.3-1.5. Abdomen: length 1.9-2.0/4.1-4.4, width 1.4-1.5/3.5-4.0. Eye field: length 0.7-0.9/1.2-1.3, anterior width 1.2-1.3/1.7-1.8, posterior width 1.3-1.4/1.6-1.7.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 64. Carapace oval, medium high; dark brown, clothed in dense greyish hairs. Eye field short; eyes surrounded by black rings, anterior median eyes encircled by white hairs; eye field with long brown bristles, among them some thicker rod-like bristles on anterior part (Fig. 76). Clypeus medium high, brown, with dark hairs. Chelicerae toothless, dorsal surface brown with dark hairs; ventral surface yellow. Labium and sternum brown, maxillae slightly paler. Abdomen oval; blackish brown, covered with dense greyish hairs, among them longer brown bristles. Venter pale. Posterior spinnerets blackish, anterior ones pale. Leg formula 3412. Legs yellow to brown, distal parts of their segments darker, femur I tinged with black ventrally. Spines numerous, light brown; leg hairs fine, long, greyish and brown. Tarsi with dark scopulae (Fig. 77). Spination of leg I: femur dorsally 1-1-4, patella prolaterally and retrolaterally 1, tibia prolaterally and retrolaterally 1-1-1, metatarsus prolaterally and retrolaterally 1-1 apically, ventrally 2-2 apically. Pedipalps brown, very hairy. Femur ventrally and all segments dorsally clothed in dense long yellowish fawn hairs. Cymbium with narrow process proximally at retrolateral margin; tibia with single long and thin apophysis (Figs 78-80). Bulb oval with triangular posterior lobe; embolus hidden between bulb and cymbium, coiled in bulb tip, thin and very long (Figs 78, 81).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 65. Clearly larger than male. Carapace pear-shaped, high, widest at coxae III, dark brown; eye field short, eyes surrounded by black rings. Whole carapace covered with short dense white hairs. Chelicerae toothless. Abdomen swollen, brownish fawn, clothed in short brown and orange hairs, among them scarce longer brown bristles. In fresh specimens not poorly defined pattern on abdomen; irregular lighter median streak, three pairs of whitish small rounded spots cling to it, dark diagonal patches on sides. Venter light. Legs orange with brown rings, anterior pairs short. Epigyne with two sickle-shaped hollows (Fig. 82). Seminal ducts wide, spirally coiled, receptacles large, numerous-chambered (Figs 83, 84).

[FIGURES 82-84 OMITTED]

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., site 4, gravel plain, 28[degrees]29.611 'S:26[degrees]47.995'E, pitfall traps, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3593).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] 1[female] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall trap, 22.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14106); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22634); 2 imm. 3[male] 1[female] same locality, site 4, gravel plain, 28[degrees]29.611'S:26[degrees]47.995'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii- 30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3645); 6[male] same locality, site 5, overgrazed grassland, 28[degrees]29.605'S:26[degrees]47.974'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3646); 4[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3595); 29[male] 3[female] same locality, site 7, rocky hillside, 28[degrees]29.629'S:26[degrees]48.323'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3650); 3[male] 1[female] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3600); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, on ground, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230339).

Additional material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]08'S:26[degrees]10'E, pitfall traps, 7.ix.2006, R. Scholtz & S. Otto (NMBA, 11057); 1[male] Bloemfontein, Naval Hill, Hangmanskloof North, 29[degrees]06'S:26[degrees]14'E, pitfall traps, ix.1990, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6314); 1 subad. [female] 1[male] Bloemfontein district, Krugersdrift Dam, 28[degrees]42'S:25[degrees]55'E, in canal, 22.viii.1985, Museum staff (NMBA, 857); 1 imm. 5[female] same data but 28.viii.1985 (NMBA, 890); 1[male] 1[female] same data but 2.xii.1985 (NMBA, 1135); 1[female] Boshof district, Kromrant farm, 28[degrees]39'S:25[degrees]06'E, 21.xi.1985, Museum staff (NMBA, 1103); 3 subad. [male] 3[male] Bothaville district, Deelfontein farm, 27[degrees]07'S:26[degrees]35'E, preservation traps, viii-x.1986, Museum staff (NMBA, 1678); 2 subad. [male]2 subad. [female] 1[male] 1[female] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:25[degrees]43'E, preservation traps, ix.1982, Museum staff (NMBA, 243); 1[male] same data but x.1982 (NMBA, 226); 1[female] same data but x.1983 (NMBA, 570); 1[female] same data but ix.1984 (NMBA, 531); 3? same data but x.1984 (NMBA, 217); 2[female] same data but xi.1984 (NMBA, 567); 1[male] same data but ix.1985 (NMBA, 950); 2[female] same data but 21.x.1985 (NMBA, 1030); 1[male] same data but i.1985 (NMBA, 658); 1[male] same data but xi.1985 (NMBA, 1129); 1[female] same data but viii.1985 (NMBA, 874); 1[male] same locality, preservative traps, 9-23.xi.1987, L. Lotz (NMBA, 3080), 3[male] (NMBA, 3139), 1[male] (NMBA, 3160); 1[male] same data but 23.xi-8.xii.1987 (NMBA, 3183), 1[male] (NMBA, 3268); 1[male] same data but 23.ix-6.x.1988 (NMBA, 4630), 1[male] (NMBA, 4625); 1[male] 2[female] Jacobsdal district, Jacobsdal-Kimberley road, 29[degrees]11'S:24[degrees]46'E, under rocks next to canal, 20.viii.1987, Entomology staff (NMBA, 1890); 1[female] same data but 11.xi.1987, Museum staff (NMBA, 2490); 4 imm. 1[female] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]40'S:25[degrees]43'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 10-13.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11825). Northern Cape: 1[female] Kimberley district, Langberg farm, 28[degrees]55'S:24[degrees]36'E, preservation traps, viii- xi.1987, Entomology staff (NMBA, 2611).

Distribution: Widespread throughout the semi-arid parts of the Free State Province, marginally entering the Northern Cape (Fig. 93).

Habitat and biology: A ground-dwelling species readily collected by pitfall traps.

Remarks: The inclusion of this species in the genus Langona is tentative and is based on the toothless chelicerae and the similarities of the male to members of this genus. However, the species differs in some details from all known Aelurillinae genera, and clarification of the species' relationships requires a revision of the subfamily.

Langona lotzi sp. n.

Figs 66, 67, 85-92

Etymology: The species is named in honour of Leon Lotz, collector of the species, specialist in Miturgidae spiders and curator of Arachnida at the NMBA.

Diagnosis: The male is distinguishable by the embolus that is shorter than in other species of the genus, and absence of thick setae usually accompanying the tibial apophysis. The female is distinctive in the unique shape of the epigyne, lacking a strongly sclerotized posterior edge of the epigynal depression.

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Carapace: length 2.1-2.3/2.3-2.8, width 1.5-1.6/1.6-1.8, height 0.9-1.0/1.0-1.1. Abdomen: length 2.0-2.1/2.5-2.9, width 1.4-1.5/1.9-2.3. Eye field: length 0.7-0.8/0.8-0.9, anterior width 1.1-1.2/1.2-1.3, posterior width 1.11.2/1.3-1.4.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 66. Medium sized spider, colouration typical for Langona. Carapace oval, low, with short eye field occupying third of carapace length. Eye field black, covered with long brown bristles, anterior eyes encircled by small fawn scales, thoracic part dark brown. White hairs form two thin stripes running from posterior median eyes to posterior edge of carapace. Clypeus dark, sternum brown, mouthparts light brown. Chelicerae unidentate, all teeth diminutive. Abdomen brownish black with three longitudinal white stripes. Anterior margin of abdomen with long dense dark bristles. Venter orange. Spinnerets dark. Legs light brown, sides of femora slightly darker, dark thin line along dorsal surface of femora. Leg hairs dark. Pedipalps brownish, femora with black ventral surface. Whitish long dense hairs on retrolateral surface of cymbium and palpal tibia. Tibial apophysis hooked (Figs 85-87). Embolus short, its basal part hidden in cymbial pocket (Figs 88, 89).

[FIGURES 85-92 OMITTED]

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 67. Slightly larger than male, similarly coloured but slightly lighter, streaks on carapace indistinct. Abdomen greyish brown, without pattern. Legs yellowish with brown patches. Epigyne with shallow central depression, lateral margins of depression more strongly sclerotized, forming "wings" covering the gonopores (Fig. 90). Internal structure less complex than in congeners, receptacles with only few strongly sclerotized chambers (Figs 91, 92).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Golden Gate Highlands National Park, 28[degrees]30'S:28[degrees]50'E, preservation traps, viii.1985, L. Lotz (NMBA, 965).

Paratypes: 1[male] 1[female] together with holotype; 2[male] same data but 4.vi.1985 (NMBA, 882); 1[male] 1[female] same data but 16.ix.1985 (NMBA, 1028).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality in the eastern Free State Province, South Africa (Fig. 93).

Habitat and biology: This species was collected only by pitfall trapping in high altitude montane grassland at ca 1600-1800 m.

[FIGURE 93 OMITTED]

Langona warchalowskii Wesolowska, 2007

Figs 68, 69, 94-97

Langona warchalowskii: Wesolowska 2007: 783, figs 1-8.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Carapace: length 3.3/4.0, width 2.5/2.9, height 1.1/1.1. Abdomen: length 3.2/5.8, width 2.5/4.0. Eye field: length 1.4/1.5, anterior width 1.6/2.0, posterior width 1.7/2.1.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 68. Shape of body and colouration typical for Langona. Carapace low, dark brown or blackish, with two longitudinal white stripes on dorsum, eye field black. White streaks along lateral edges extending to clypeus. Chelicerae toothless. Abdomen oval, black, with three narrow parallel white stripes. Spinnerets dark. Whole body clothed in dense dark hairs. Legs short, light brown, distal segments darker, with scopulae on tarsi. Pedipalps brown, with some white hairs on dorsal surface of femora, patellae and tibiae. Palpal organ as in Figs 94-96; tibial apophysis characteristically short, blunt, with accompanying tuft of long thick hard setae.

[FIGURES 94-97 OMITTED]

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 69. Clearly larger than male, colouration slightly lighter. Abdomen greyish brown with light longitudinal streak bordered with blackish lane. Distal segments of first leg very short. Epigyne unlike that of Langona, with two small procurved posterior depressions, their rims forming shields above the gonopores (Fig. 97). The internal structure of the epigyne as in other congeners, but copulatory ducts short (see fig. 8 in Wesolowska 2007).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1$ Benfontein Nat. Res., 28[degrees]50.003'S:24[degrees]48.756'E, pitfalls, dry thorny savannah, 14.x.2005-4.i.2006, R. Lyle (NCA, 2010/202); 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]02.892'S:26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfalls, Rhus lancea woodland, 24.ix-8.x.2009, C. Haddad (NCA, 2009/3486); 1[male] 2[female] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, preservation traps, viii.1985, Museum staff (NMBA, 874); 10[male] 1[female] same data but ix.1982 (NMBA, 205); 1[male] same data but ix.1983 (NMBA, 428); 1[male] same data but x.1983 (NMBA, 571); 7[male] 1[female] same data but x.1985 (NMBA, 950); 1[female] same data but 23.xi-8. xii.1987 (NMBA, 3226); 1[male] same data but 30.viii-12.ix.1988 (NMBA, 4497); 1[male] same data but 30.viii-12. ix.1988 (NMBA, 4532); 1[male] same data but 23.ix-6.x.1988 (NMBA, 4653). Northern Cape: 1[male] Griquatown district, Bingap farm, 28[degrees]54'S:22[degrees]59'E, preservative traps, 4.x.1982, Museum staff (NMBA, 39).

Distribution: Species known only from the central karoo in South Africa. Apparently widespread in the arid and semi-arid parts of central and south-western South Africa. Recorded here from Free State and Northern Cape for the first time (Fig. 101).

Habitat and biology: An exclusively ground-dwelling spider collected primarily with pitfall traps, consistent with the habits of congeners.

Genus Menemerus Simon, 1868

Type species: Attus semilimbatus Hahn, 1829.

A large genus distributed worldwide, with over 40 species in Africa. The body is flattened and hairy and the carapace has pale lateral margins. The males have a characteristic very long tegular furrow and median protuberance on the palp. Females have strongly sclerotized entrance bowls in which the copulatory openings are hidden, and distinctive accessory glands.

Menemerus pilosus Wesolowska, 1999

Fig. 70

Menemerus pilosus: Wesolowska 1999a: 318, figs 225-231.

Wesolowska (1999a) described both sexes; general appearance of male in Fig. 70.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: 1 imm. 1$ Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]34.904'S:22[degrees]55.027'E, canopy fogging, pistachio orchard no. 19, 25.vii.2001, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/205).

Distribution: Previously known only from Namibia. Recorded from South Africa for the first time (Fig. 101).

Habitat and biology: This species is probably closely associated with bark due to its flat body and brown colour.

Menemerus transvaalicus Wesolowska, 1999

Figs 71, 72

Menemerus transvaalicus: Wesolowska 1999a: 339, figs 284-296.

Wesolowska (1999a) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 71, 72.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Benfontein Nat. Res., 28[degrees]49.259'S:24[degrees]50.155'E, under Eucalyptus bark, 9.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/299); 1[male] Bloemfontein, Bain's Vlei, 29[degrees]03.628'S: 26[degrees]09.280'E, on wall of house, 28.vii.2009, V. Butler (NCA, 2009/3497); 1[male] 1[female] Bloemfontein district, Maselspoort, 29[degrees]01.683'S:26[degrees]24.316'E, on wall of conference centre, 3.ii.2005, M. Cumming (NHMWU); 1[female] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.080'S:26[degrees]25.950'E, on wall of house, 3.iv.2010, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230322); 2[male] 7[female] Clocolan district, Mpetsane Conservation Estate, 28[degrees]48.773'S:27[degrees]39.364'E, under Eucalyptus bark, 17.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/338); 1[male] Harrismith, 28[degrees]17.233'S:29[degrees]06.720'E, by hand, 13.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/2564); 1[female] Koppies Dam Nat. Res., 27[degrees]13'S:27[degrees]42'E, in house, 20.ix.1993, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6239); 3[male] 2[female] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[female] same locality, in chimney of Odontotermes termite mound, 25.x.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU).

Distribution: Hitherto known only from the Gauteng and Eastern Cape provinces in South Africa. Widespread in the Free State Province, where it is recorded for the first time (Fig. 101).

Habitat and biology: A species common under bark of trees, especially exotic Eucalyptus, and regularly seen on the walls on buildings.

Genus Microbianor Logunov, 2000

Type species: Microbianor nigritarsis Logunov, 2006.

The genus was described from the Seychelles (Logunov 2000), and subsequently found also on Reunion (Ledoux 2007) and Madagascar (Logunov 2009). These spiders are morphologically similar to the genus Bianor Peckham & Peckham, 1885, but can be distinguished by their very small size. The males have a diminutive process at the external margins of the

maxillae, and a characteristically curved embolus tip. The females have distinctly shorter seminal ducts than in Bianor. M. globosus sp. n., described below, is the first species of the genus found in continental Africa.

Microbianor globosus sp. n.

Figs 73, 98-100

Etymology: From Latin globosus (globose), referring to the shape of the bulb.

Diagnosis: This species differs from others in the genus in having a clearly larger tibial apophysis.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: Carapace: length 1.1, width 1.0, height 0.5. Abdomen: length 1.2, width 0.9. Eye field: length 0.7, anterior width 0.8, posterior width 1.0.

General appearance as in Fig. 73. Very diminutive, stout spider. Carapace high, broad and short, with large trapezoid eye field; posterior slope of carapace steep, just behind eye field. Carapace dark brown, slightly darker in vicinity of eyes. Delicate dark hairs cover carapace, with white hairs on lateral slopes anteriorly; some long bristles on eye field, with a few white scales near eyes. Chelicerae unidentate, light brown. Maxillae straight along anterior margin, with small process on external margin (Fig. 98). Sternum dark. Abdomen oval, slightly flattened, covered with large scutum; dorsum brown, with delicate pattern composed of white hairs: thin median line not reaching end of abdomen, and three pairs of small patches on lateral sides (last pair, placed at spinnerets, largest). Venter dark. Spinnerets brown. First legs slightly larger, brown, with lighter metatarsi and tarsi; tibiae only slightly swollen, covered with long black spatulate hairs, denser on dorsal surface. Legs II-IV dark yellow, with single distal spine on dorsal surface of femora. Palp brown. Palpal tibia short, with very large curved apophysis (Figs 99, 100). Bulb rounded, tegulum with prolateral protuberance. Embolus long, surrounding bulb, its tip thin and colourless, curved (Fig. 99).

[FIGURES 98-100 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 101 OMITTED]

Female. Unknown.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]34.924'S:22[degrees]54.376'E, base of grass tussocks, 28.i.2009, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14107).

Distribution: Only known from the type locality (Fig. 101).

Habitat and biology: Collected from the base of grass tussocks on the banks of the Orange River.

Remarks: This is the first species from the genus reported from continental Africa; all previously known species are distributed on Indian Ocean islands (Logunov 2000, 2009; Ledoux 2007). The description of the new species provides an alternative biogeographical hypothesis to that of Logunov (2009), who suggested that the distribution of the genus may reflect a faunal affinity with the Oriental Region. It could alternatively be proposed that the genus originated in Africa and speciated on the Indian Ocean islands following their geological separation from the African mainland. Further studies of the Oriental Harmochireae are necessary to more thoroughly assess the biogeography of Microbianor.

Genus Natta Karsch, 1879

Type species: Natta horizontalis Karsch, 1879.

This African genus includes only two species. The body is dark with a blue metallic shine and a few pairs of glaring orange patches on the abdomen. Copulatory organs of both sexes resemble those of Phintella species.

Natta chionogaster (Simon, 1901)

Figs 74, 75

Cyllobelus chionogaster: Simon 1901c: 151; 1901b: 541, 549, fig. 665; Peckham & Peckham 1903: 195, pl. 21, fig. 1.

Cyllobelus australis: Peckham & Peckham 1902: 334; 1903: 194, pl. 21, fig. 2.

Natta chionogastra: Proszynski 1984: 87; 1985: 80, figs 39-41, 45, 47; Wesolowska 1993: 18, figs 1-16.

Wesolowska (1993) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 74, 75.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Krugersdrift Dam, 28[degrees]42'S:25[degrees]55'E, in canal, 18.i.1991, S. Louw & A. Wels (NMBA, 5364); 2[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., Camp, 30[degrees]30'S:26[degrees]08'E, active searching, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12828). Northern Cape: 1[male] 1[female] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]34.924'S: 22[degrees]54.376'E, leaf litter, Orange R. bank, 1.iii.2002, C. Haddad (NHMWU).

Distribution: Known from South Africa (Fig. 114), D.R. Congo and Namibia.

Habitat and biology: This species is usually found in the vicinity of foraging ants, especially Anoplolepis custodiens F. Smith, which it mimics in its movements and metallic scales on the body. In central South Africa it is clearly less common than N. horizontalis Karsch, 1879.

Natta horizontalis Karsch, 1879

Figs 102, 103

Natta horizontalis: Karsch 1879: 362; Proszynski 1985: 78; figs 32-37; Prochniewicz 1989: 218, figs 33-38; Wesolowska 1993: 25, figs 17-41; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 201, figs 107-109; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 65.

Cyllobelus rufopictus: Simon 1901b: 549; 1910: 420; Berland & Millot 1941: 320, fig. 22; Lawrence 1942: 187, fig. 32.

Cyllobelus tristellatus: Simon 1906: 1171; Lessert 1936: 289, fig. 84.

Natta tristellata: Proszynski 1984: 87; 1985: 83, figs 42-44.

Natta rufopicta: Proszynski 1984: 88; 1985: 82, figs 46, 48.

Wesolowska (1993) described both sexes; general appearance as in Figs 102, 103.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[male] Bloemfontein district, Deelhoek farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]07'E, 17.xi.2001, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 2[male] 1[female] Bloemfontein district, Hopefield farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, under rocks, 28.ix.2000, C. Haddad (NCA, 2005/936); 1$ Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.983'E, pitfalls, grassland and shrubs, 30.x-6.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22683); 1[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., Camp, 30[degrees]30'S:26[degrees]08'E, night collecting, 13-17.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12594); 1 subad. [female] 1[male] same locality, Brakfontein, 30[degrees]31'S:26[degrees]17'E, leaf litter sifting, 20.x.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12926); 2 imm. 1[male] 1[female] same locality, 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]11'E, active searching under rocks, riverine forest edge, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12744). Northern Cape: 2[male] Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29[degrees]34.924'S:22[degrees]54.376'E, 1.iii.2002, leaf litter, Orange R. bank, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1 imm. 2[male] 3[female] same locality, 29[degrees]33.993'S:22[degrees]55.005'E, active searching, pistachio orchard no. 1, 28.ii.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/214); 2[male] Prieska district, Remhoogte farm, 29[degrees]32.016'S:23[degrees]00.182'E, active searching, experimental pistachio orchard, 22.xi.2001, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/213).

[FIGURES 102-113 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 114 OMITTED]

Distribution: Widespread in the Afrotropical Region. In South Africa known from the Gauteng, Mpumulanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, recorded here from the Free State and Northern Cape provinces for the first time (Fig. 114).

Habitat and biology: As for N. chionogaster above.

Genus Nigorella Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz, 2008

Type species: Nigorella aethiopica Wesoiowska & Tomasiewicz, 2008.

A small Afrotropical genus, only containing four poorly known species. Its members are medium to large in size, with dark colouration; the males have a characteristic embolus enveloped by a terminal apophysis; the gonopores in the female's epigyne are hidden in strongly sclerotized "cups".

Nigorella hirsuta Wesolowska, 2009

Figs 104, 105

Nigorella hirsuta: Wesolowska 2009a: 521, figs 16-25, 31, 33.

Wesolowska (2009a) described both sexes; general appearance as in Figs 104, 105.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]08'S: 26[degrees]10'E, pitfall traps, 8.xi.2006, R. Scholtz & S. Otto (NMBA, 11052); 1[male] same locality, 29[degrees]02.892'S: 26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfall traps, Rhus lancea woodland, 16-21.xi.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22605); 1[male] same locality, 29[degrees]03.006'S:26[degrees]12.701'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 16-21.xi.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22619); 1[female] same locality, base of grass tussocks, 21.xi.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22633); 2[male] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, preservative traps, 31.x-18.xi.1988, L. Lotz (NMBA, 4872); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., burnt site 1, 28[degrees]30.373'S:26[degrees]48.437'E, pitfall traps, 21.ix-22.x.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22638); 1[male] same locality, burnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.990'S:26[degrees]48.486'E, pitfall traps, 21.ix-22.x.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14108); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall traps, 22.x-22.xi.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22639); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22640); 1[male] same locality, site 1, near trench, 28[degrees]28.892'S:26[degrees]48.508'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3576); 1[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3582); 2[female] Ladybrand district, De Luc farm, 29[degrees]18'S:27[degrees]24'E, base of grass tussocks, 5.xii.2008, C. Haddad (NMBA, 13052); 1[male] Oranjeville, Vaal Dam, 26[degrees]59.523'S:28[degrees]15.737'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3541); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, 22.ix.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[female] same locality, active search, ground and under rocks, 19.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11937); 2[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.043'S: 25[degrees]45.805'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 2-30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3568); 2[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S:27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 29.x-5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22678). North West: 1[male] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.825'S:27[degrees]17.819'E, pitfall traps, woodland grassland, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3546); 2[male] same locality, 26[degrees]51.828'S:27[degrees]17.805'E, pitfalls, Vaal R. bank, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3556).

Distribution: Known from South Africa and Zimbabwe. Recorded by Wesolowska (2009a) from Harrismith, Hopefield farm and Sandveld Nat. Res. in the Free State province, but clearly this species is very widespread in central and eastern South Africa. Recorded from the North West Province for the first time (Fig. 115).

Habitat and biology: A ground-dwelling species usually collected by pitfall trapping or searching at the base of grass tussocks. Although widespread, it was uncommon compared to other salticids in long-term pitfall trapping surveys.

[FIGURE 115 OMITTED]

Genus Pellenes Simon, 1900

Type species: Aranea tripunctata Walckenaer, 1802.

This large genus contains about eighty species distributed mainly in the Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions, with only a few species occurring in the Nearctic and a single species in Australia (Zabka 2006; Proszynski 2009; Platnick 2010). The Afrotropical species of the genus have been poorly studied and their distribution is poorly known. The species are difficult to identify: in some species the males can only be recognized by minute differences in the structure of the embolus tip; the females are often unrecognizable. Many species have white scales on the femora. All of the species treated in the present paper belong to the subgenus Pelmutus (Logunov et al. 1999).

Pellenes (Pelmutus) bulawayoensis Wesolowska, 1999

Figs 106, 107, 116-122

Pellenes bulawayoensis: Wesolowska 1999b: 163, figs 52-56; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 202, figs 110-112; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 68, figs 221, 222.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace: length 2.4-2.7/3.0, width 2.0-2.2/2.5, height 1.3/1.3. Abdomen: length 2.4-2.5/3.0, width 1.9/2.3. Eye field: length 1.1-1.2/1.5, anterior width 1.5-1.7/1.8, posterior width 1.7-1.9/2.3.

Male.

General appearance as in Figs 106, 116. Carapace oval, dark brown, vicinity of eyes black. Eye field dark, clothed in dense white hairs, with long brown bristles near eyes. Thoracic part brownish, darker medially; lateral slopes with pale stripes formed by white hairs. Clypeus high, with characteristic contrasting white-black pattern of "face" (Fig. 117). Chelicerae black with rows of white hairs. Mouthparts and sternum blackish. Abdomen brownish, with white pattern composed of two transverse streaks in anterior half (second of them interrupted in centre), chains of few median triangular spots, and two pairs of small lateral round patches in posterior part (Fig. 116). Venter pale with large grey patch. Posterior spinnerets dark, anterior spinnerets whitish. First legs longer and slightly thicker than others, black. Legs II-IV yellow. Pedipalps pale, cymbium slightly darker. Bulb rounded, embolus needle-shaped, with closely adherent accompanying terminal apophysis (Fig. 118). Tibial apophysis large, strongly sclerotized, adpressed in shallow groove along margin of cymbium (Fig. 119); cymbium with small retrolateral process (Fig. 118).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 107. Slightly larger than male. General colouration similar to male, abdominal pattern more distinct. Clypeus with white hairs; lateral sides of carapace and eye field clothed in very dense white hairs and scales, so spider's "face" is white; only surroundings of eyes blackish (Fig. 120). First leg shorter than in male, base of femur light brown, distal segments blackish. Femora of remaining pairs of legs brown; distal segments orange, with brown rings. Epigyne with narrow median septum (Fig. 121). Internal structure as in Fig. 122.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Benfontein Nat. Res., 28[degrees]50.003'S:24[degrees]48.756'E, pitfalls, dry thorny savannah, 14.x.2005-4.i.2006, R. Lyle (NCA, 2010/203); 1[female] same locality, 28[degrees]49.259'S: 24[degrees]50.155'E, base of grass tussocks, 9.iii.2010, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/294); 2[male] 1[female] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]02.892'S:26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfalls, Rhus lancea woodland, 24.ix-8.x.2009, C. Haddad (NCA, 2009/3489); 10[male] 1[female] same data but 8-27.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3507); 7[male] same data but 27.x-16.xi.2009 (NMSA, 22599); 4[male] 1[female] same data but 16-21.xi.2009 (NMSA, 22604); 4[male] 3[female] same data but 9.xii.2009-4.i.2010 (MRAC, 230331); 2[male] same locality, 29[degrees]03.006'S:26[degrees]12.701'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 16-21.xi.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22620); 2[male] same data but 21.xi-9.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230330); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., burnt site 1, 28[degrees]30.373'S:26[degrees]48.437'E, pitfall traps, 21.ix- 22.x.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22646); 1[male] same data but 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006 (NMSA, 22647); 2[male] same locality, burnt site 2, 28[degrees]30.134'S:26[degrees]48.427'E, pitfall trap, 22.x-22.xi.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14109); 1[male] same data but 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006 (NMSA, 22648); 1[male] 1[female] same locality, burnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.990'S:26[degrees]48.486'E, pitfall trap, 22.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14110); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 2, 28[degrees]29.706'S:26[degrees]48.281'E, pitfall traps, 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22649); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22650); 2[male] same locality, site 1, near trench, 28[degrees]28.892'S:26[degrees]48.508'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3635); 3$ same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3577); 4[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3639); 4$ same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3581); 10[male] 1[female] same locality, site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28[degrees]30.272'S:26[degrees]47.527'E, pitfall traps, woodland, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3641); 16[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3589); 1[male] same locality, site 4, gravel plain, 28[degrees]29.611'S:26[degrees]47.995'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3644); 1[male] same locality, site 6, northern shore of dam, 28[degrees]29.738'S:26[degrees]48.272'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3596); 1[male] same locality, site 7, rocky hillside, 28[degrees]29.629'S:26[degrees]48.323'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3652); 1[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3601); 2[male] Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27[degrees]43.393'S:27[degrees]42.066'E, pitfall traps, base of hill, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3629); 3[male] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3532); 13[male] 4[female] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230333); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]43.376'S:27[degrees]42.042'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3633); 2[male] 1[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3534); 10[male] same data but 29.x-5.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230332); 19[male] 5[female] Oranjeville, Vaal Dam, 26[degrees]59.514'S:28[degrees]15.772'E, pitfall traps, overgrazed grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3627); 31[male] 2[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3536); 31[male] 8[female] same locality, 26[degrees]59.523'S:28[degrees]15.737'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3623); 51[male] 5[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3543); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, active searching, by hand, 18-20.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11910); 21[male] 2[female] same locality, 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 2.ix-2.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3614); 12[male] same data but 2-30.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3567); 3[male] 2[female] same data but 30.x-4.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230334); 27[male] 1[female] same locality, 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2.ix-2.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3608); 21[male] same data but 2-30.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3574); 2[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S:27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3517); 4[male] 1[female] same locality, 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3522). North West: 4[male] Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.825'S:27[degrees]17.819'E, pitfall traps, woodland grassland, 1.ix-1.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3621); 7[male] 1[female] same data but 1-29.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3548); 1[male] same locality, 26[degrees]51.828'S:27[degrees]17.805'E, pitfalls, Vaal R. Bank, 29.x- 5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (MRAC, 230335).

[FIGURES 116-122 OMITTED]

Distribution: Species known from Zimbabwe and South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal). Recorded from the Free State and North-West provinces for the first time (Fig. 127).

Habitat and biology: This species is one of the most common and widespread grounddwelling jumping spiders in central South Africa, and was very abundant in pitfall trapping surveys.

Remarks: The first description of the female of the species is given here.

Pellenes (Pelmutus) geniculatus (Simon, 1868)

Figs 108, 109, 123-126

Attus geniculatus: Simon 1868: 49.

Pellenes geniculatus: Simon 1876: 97; Logunov et al. 1999: 126, figs 5, 131-153; Metzner 1999: 128, fig. 94; Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 79, figs 210-213; Wesolowska & van Harten 2007: 239, figs 139-144; 2010: 43, pls 13-16, figs 44-51; Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz 2008: 37.

Salticus simoni: Pickard-Cambridge 1872: 329.

Pellenes simoni: Proszynski 2003: 119: figs 463-468, 487, 488, 492-494, 498-500.

Wesolowska and van Harten (2007) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 108, 109. Abdomen of male (Fig. 123) and male retrolateral tibial apophysis (Fig. 124) distinctly different to South African congeners. Epigyne typical for the genus, with shallow central pocket and sclerotized internal structures (Figs 125, 126).

[FIGURES 123-126 OMITTED]

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]03.006'S: 26[degrees]12.701'E, pitfalls, grassland, 21.xi-9.xii.2009, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230239); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., burnt site 1, 28[degrees]30.373'S:26[degrees]48.437'E, pitfall traps, 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22641); 2[male] same locality, burnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.990'S:26[degrees]48.486'E, pitfall traps 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22642); 1[female] same locality, unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall traps, 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22643); 1[male] same data but 27.iii-28.iv.2006, C. Haddad & R. Lyle (NMSA, 22644); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14112); 1[male] same data but 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14113); 1[male] same data but 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22645); 1[male] same locality, site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28[degrees]30.272'S:26[degrees]47.527'E, pitfall traps, woodland, 28.x-4. xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22694); 2[male] same locality, site 6, northern shore of dam, 28[degrees]29.738'S:26[degrees]48.272'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 31.viii-30.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3647); 5[male] same data but 30.ix-28.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3598); 1[male] same locality, site 7, rocky hillside, 28[degrees]29.629'S:26[degrees]48.323'E, pitfall traps, 31.viii-1.ix.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3651); 1[female] Fauresmith district, Kalkfontein Dam, 29[degrees]31'S:25[degrees]16'E, sweeping grass, L. Lotz, 8.iv.2008 (NMBA, 12054); 1[male] Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27[degrees]43.376'S:27[degrees]42.042'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 29.x- 5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22687); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]40'S:25[degrees]43'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 10-13.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11824); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 2-30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3564); 2[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2-30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3572); 2[male] same data but 30.x-6.xii.2009 (NMSA, 22686); 1[male] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]29'S:26[degrees]11'E, pitfalls, riverine bush, 13-16.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12576); 1[male] same locality, Camp, 30[degrees]30'S:26[degrees]08'E, pitfalls, river floodplain, 13-17.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12527); 1[male] same locality, Camp, 30[degrees]30'S: 26[degrees]08'E, active search, 15.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12823); 1[female] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3528).

[FIGURE 127 OMITTED]

Distribution: Species widely distributed in the southern part of the Palaearctic Region; also recorded from Yemen, and in continental Africa known from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Recorded from South Africa for the first time (Fig. 127).

Habitat and biology: This species was widespread and regularly collected in long-term pitfall surveys but was not abundant.

Remarks: The majority of specimens collected in South Africa are dark coloured, sometimes with only traces of the white chevrons posteriorly on abdomen.

Pellenes (Pelmutus) modicus Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000

Figs 110, 111, 128-132

Pellenes modicus: Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 81, figs 215, 216.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Carapace: length 2.6-3.1/2.7, width 1.9-2.6/2.0, height 1.1-1.2/1.0. Abdomen: length 2.4-3.4/3.3, width 1.8-2.3/2.2. Eye field: length 1.3-1.6/1.3, anterior width 1.6-2.0/1.6, posterior width 1.7-2.1/1.9.

[FIGURES 128-132 OMITTED]

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 110. Medium sized spider. Carapace oval, moderately high; brown, darker in vicinity of eyes, with black line along margins. Dense white hairs covering carapace, with long brown bristles near eyes; anterior eyes surrounded by fawn scales. Clypeus high, clothed in white hairs. Chelicerae long, dark brown, with three white lines on their dorsal surface. Labium dark brown, endites with paler mesial margins; sternum brown, with darker edges. Abdomen oval; dorsum brownish grey, with lighter longitudinal median streak composed of chevron patches. Abdomen covered with dense hairs. Sides of abdomen covered with small diagonal dark patches; venter dark. Spinnerets grey. Legs light brown with darker rings and patches. First pair of legs clearly longer and thicker than others; dark brown, bearing long brown and white hairs, especially dense ventrally on tibiae. Prolateral surface of femur I black. On first tibia 1-1-1-1 spines prolaterally; two pairs on metatarsus ventrally. All legs with sparse white scales. Pedipalps light brown, only tegulum and base of femur darker. Tibial apophysis strongly sclerotized, long, adpressed in groove along posterolateral margin of the cymbium (Figs 128-130); depth of the groove variable. Bulb oval, embolus needleshaped, with accompanying large truncate terminal apophysis (Fig. 128). Prolateral side of palpal tibia with row of long bristles (Fig. 128).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 111. Shape of body similar to male, anterior legs less robust than in male. Carapace almost black, clothed in light hairs, near eyes brown setae. Labium and endites brown with light tips, sternum brown. Abdomen very dark with median belt composed of yellowish chevrons. Dense colourless hairs cover abdomen. Abdominal sides mottled, venter yellowish with three darker stripes. Spinnerets dark. Legs greyish brown, only median part of femora II-IV light yellow and lateral sides of femora I black. Epigyne typical for the genus, with large central pocket (Fig. 131). Internal structure of epigyne characteristic, gonopores placed in narrow fissures, their vicinity strongly sclerotized, receptacles three-chambered, accessory glands clearly visible (Fig. 132).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[male] Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]02.892'S: 26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfalls, Rhus lancea woodland, 9.xii.2009-4.i.2010, C. Haddad (MRAC, 230241); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14111); 2[male] same locality, site 4, gravel plain, 28[degrees]29.611'S:26[degrees]47.995'E, pitfall traps, 28.x- 4.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22699); 1[male] same locality, site 5, overgrazed grassland, 28[degrees]29.605'S:26[degrees]47.974'E, pitfall traps, 28.x-4.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22700); 1[female] Fauresmith district, Kalkfontein Dam, 29[degrees]31'S:25[degrees]16'E, sweeping grass, 8.iv.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 12054); 4 imm. 1[female] same data (NMBA, 12055); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.983'E, pitfalls, grassland and shrubs, 30.x- 6.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NMSA, 22684); 2 imm. 1[female] same locality, 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, by hand, active search, 18-20.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11905); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.219'S:25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2-30.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3571); 2 imm. 1[female] Tussen-die-Riviere Nat. Res., 30[degrees]28'S:26[degrees]07'E, sweeps, grass, 14.x.2008, L. Lotz & C. Haddad (NMBA, 12681).

Distribution: Hitherto known only from Tanzania, recorded from South Africa for the first time, where it is widespread in the Free State Province (Fig. 133).

Habitat and biology: This species was the least common Pellenes species collected by pitfall traps in central South Africa.

Remarks: The female is described for the first time. The association of the female with the male is uncertain and the two sexes presented here have yet to be collected together, but their similarly large size and markings suggests they are conspecific.

Pellenes (Pelmutus) tharinae Wesolowska, 2006

Figs 112, 113

Pellenes tharinae: Wesolowska 2006: 248, figs 93-101; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 69.

Pellenespulcher: Wesolowska 1999b: 165, figs 57-59 (nec Logunov 1995).

Wesolowska (2006) described both sexes; general appearance of both sexes in Figs 112, 113.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1? Bloemfontein, National Botanical Gardens, 29[degrees]08'S: 26[degrees]10'E, pitfall traps, on top of koppie next to stone wall, SW side, xii.2006, L. Lotz (NMBA, 10964); 1[female] same data but xii.2006-i.2007 (NMBA, 10856); 1[male] same locality, 29[degrees]02.892'S:26[degrees]12.662'E, pitfalls, Rhus lancea woodland, 8-27.x.2009, C. Haddad (NCA, 2009/3505); 27[male] 3[female] same data but 9.xii-4.i.2010 (MRAC, 230242); 1[male] same locality, 29[degrees]03.006'S:26[degrees]12.701'E, pitfalls, grassland, 16-21.xi.2009, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22621); 1[female] Brandfort district, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, preservative traps, 23.xi- 8.xii.1987, L. Lotz (NMBA, 3242); 1[female] same data but 6-31.x.1988 (NMBA, 4802); 1[male] Erfenis Dam Nat. Res., burnt site 1, 28[degrees]30.373'S:26[degrees]48.437'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22651); 1[male] same locality, burnt site 2, 28[degrees]30.134'S:26[degrees]48.427'E, pitfall traps, 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22652); 6[male] same data but 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22653); 2[male] same data but 27.iii-28.iv.2006, C. Haddad & R. Lyle (NMSA, 22654); 1[male] same locality, burnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.990'S:26[degrees]48.486'E, pitfall traps, 21.ix-22.x.2005, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22655); 1[male] same locality, unburnt site 1, 28[degrees]29.888'S:26[degrees]48.488'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMSA, 22656); 3[male] same data but 27.iii-28.iv.2006, C. Haddad & R. Lyle (NMSA, 22657); 2[male] same locality, unburnt site 2, 28[degrees]29.706'S:26[degrees]48.281'E, pitfall traps, 27.iii-28.iv.2006, C. Haddad & R. Lyle (NMSA, 22658); 3[male] same locality, unburnt site 3, 28[degrees]29.741'S:26[degrees]48.065'E, pitfall traps, 22.xi-23.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA, 14114); 1[male] 1[female] same data but 23.xii.2005-23.i.2006, C. Haddad, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMBA, 14115); 1[male] same data but 23.i-24.ii.2006, C. Haddad & R. Lyle (NMSA, 22659); 2[male] same data but 24.ii-27.iii.2006, S. Otto & R. Poller (NMSA, 22660); 1[male] same locality, site 2, eastern fence, 28[degrees]30.011'S:26[degrees]48.479'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3583); 1[male] same locality, site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28[degrees]30.272'S:26[degrees]47.527'E, pitfall traps, woodland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3587); 2[male] same locality, site 4, gravel plain, 28[degrees]29.611'S:26[degrees]47.995'E, pitfall traps, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3592); 2[male] same locality, site 7, rocky hillside, 28[degrees]29.629'S:26[degrees]48.323'E, pitfall traps, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3602); 1[male] Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27[degrees]43.393'S:27[degrees]42.066'E, pitfall traps, base of hill, 1-29.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3531); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]43.376'S:27[degrees]42.042'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 29. x-5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (MRAC, 230316); 1[male] Sandveld Nat. Res., 27[degrees]40'S:25[degrees]43'E, pitfalls, grassland, 10-13.iii.2008, L. Lotz (NMBA, 11638), 1[male] (NMBA, 11823); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.219'S: 25[degrees]45.893'E, pitfall traps, grassland and shrubs, 2.ix-2.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3609); 11[male] same data but 2-30.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3573); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]44.043'S:25[degrees]45.805'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 2.ix-2.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3615); 16[male] 2[female] same data but 2-30.x.2009 (NCA, 2009/3565); 16[male] 2[female] same data but 30.x-4.xii.2009 (MRAC, 230318); 1[male] same locality, 27[degrees]41'S:25[degrees]41'E, in chimney of Odontotermes termite mound, 25.x.2003, C. Haddad (NHMWU); 1[male] Willem Pretorius Nat. Res., 28[degrees]16.696'S:27[degrees]12.083'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3516); 1[male] same locality, 28[degrees]16.660'S:27[degrees]12.207'E, pitfall traps, near water level, 30.ix-28.x.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler (NCA, 2009/3529).

Distribution: Species known from Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), recorded for the first time from the Free State Province (Fig. 133).

[FIGURE 133 OMITTED]

Habitat and biology: A widespread species in central South Africa. Often collected in pitfall trapping surveys but usually less abundant than P. bulawayoensis.
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Title Annotation:Part 1
Author:Haddad, Charles R.; Wesolowska, Wanda
Publication:African Invertebrates
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6SOUT
Date:Jun 1, 2011
Words:17482
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