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New records of vespertilionid bats in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico.

The state of Hidalgo is located in central Mexico where the physiographic provinces of Sierra Madre Oriental, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and the Mexican Plateau converge (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica, 1996). Hidalgo is located in the transition zone of the Nearctic and Neotropical biogeographic regions (Challenger, 1998). The environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem diversity of the state is influenced by a complex geological history. Therefore, a huge diversity of species with affinity to both the Nearctic and Neotropical zones inhabits this region (Morrone and Mdrquez, 2008).

Fifty-nine species of bats have been registered in Hidalgo, Mexico (Cervantes et al., 2004; Mejenes-Lopez et al., 2010; Cornejo-Latorre et al., 2011; Aguilar-Lopez et al., 2012). Recently, significant efforts have been made in order to have a better knowledge about the biological diversity of the state. However, species inventories of bats are still far from being complete. For example, there are only a few studies in xeric shrublands which occupy more than 60% of the state (Rzedowski, 1978), increasing the chance of new records of bat species in the state of Hidalgo.

Regarding conservation, it is important to update and increase our biological knowledge in order to make decisions about the use and management of natural resources in a specific area. In this study, we document a first and a third record of two vespertilionids bats in the state of Hidalgo.

Fieldwork was carried out from March 2010-September 2012 in different localities in the state of Hidalgo. Collected specimens were preserved in skin, skull, and parts of skeleton and they were deposited at the Coleccion Mastozoologica of the Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. For each captured specimen we provide locality, date, age, sex, reproductive condition, and external and cranial measurements in millimeters (Table 1; Hall, 1981; RomeroAlmaraz et al., 2007).

Four specimens of Rhogeessa alleni (Thomas, 1892) were examined. At the municipality of Tecozautla, 1.2 km NW El Rayon, 1,949 m, 20[degrees]26'53.65"N, 99[degrees]45'50.24"W (Fig. 1), we captured an adult male (HGO-MAM-1162) with inguinal testes (3 by 2) as well as a poslactanting adult female (HGO-MAM-1162). Both specimens were captured on 21 February 2011 in a mist net (12 m long x 2.6 m high) set above a temporary river in

tropical xeric shrublands. At the municipality of Zimapan, 0.1 km N, 0.5 km E of Puente Tasquillo, 1,593 m, 20[degrees]34'35.88"N, 99[degrees]20'13.82"W (Fig. 1), we captured an adult male (HGO-MAM-1164) on 11 March 2011 in a mist net (12 m long x 2.6 m high) set near Tula River in a gallery forest surrounded by tropical xeric shrubland. At the municipality of Ixmiquilpan, Parque EcoAlberto, 1,770 m, 20[degrees]26'07"N, 99[degrees]13'57.75"W (Fig. 1), we captured a postlactating adult female (HGO-MAM-2011) on 8 September 2012. It was captured just before sunset in a mist net (12 m long x 2.6 m high) set at ground level and near some willows trees (Salix species), close to a canyon through which Tula River flows. The surrounding vegetation was tropical xeric shrubland.

These records provide the first documentation of R. alleni in the state of Hidalgo, and the locality of Puente Tasquillo is 180 km SE of the nearest cited locality, 10 km S of Santa Maria del Rio, 1,667 m, San Luis Potosi (Polaco et al., 1992). The longest distance among localities where we recorded the species was 56 km. Rhogeessa alleni is endemic to Mexico and its distribution includes the states of Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, and Zacatecas (Polaco et al., 1992; Sanchez et al., 1993; Arroyo-Cabrales and Baker, 2005; Vargas-Miranda et al., 2008). The occurrence of R. alleni in Hidalgo was considered as potential (Ceballos et al., 2006), and these records confirm the distribution of the species, adding the state of Hidalgo to the states where the species has been recorded.


The identification was made based on morphological characteristics and size of the specimens. Rhogeessa alleni is the largest species of the genus with greatest length of skull >14.5 mm (LaVal, 1973). Dorsal hairs are tricolor with dresden brown points, buffy medial and gray in the base, while ventral hairs are bicolor with light ochraceous buff and gray blackish basally (Hall, 1981). It has a long, slender, and unicuspid upper incisor in each side and six lower incisors; the four median are broad tricuspids, the outer ones are unicuspid, exceedingly minute (Thomas, 1892), less than 1/20th as large as first or second incisors, nearly concealed beneath cingulum of canine (Miller, 1907).

The HGO-MAM-1163 specimen lacks both third lower incisors but, in it, all teeth are excessively worn out and we think that the loss of i3 was a consequence of the wear out more than of anomalies. However, there have been reports of specimens from Zacatecas and Jalisco which had anodontia (congenital absence of teeth) in both i3 and one case of atresia (excessive wear out; Polaco et al., 1992) as well as in one specimen from Puebla with anodontia (also in both i3) and agenesis (failure of the development; Ramirez-Pulido and Mudespacher, 1987).

One specimen of Myotis californicus (Audubon and Bachman, 1842) was examined. At the Municipality of Atontonilco El Grande, La Nogalera, 1,374 m, 20[degrees]23'15.00"N, 98[degrees]39'11.55"W (HGO-MAM-1360; Fig. 1), we collected a reproductively inactive adult female on 24 March 2010 in a mist net (12 m long x 2.6 m high) set to close to a river (an distance of 50 m) where the main vegetation was tropical semiarid shrubland dominated by the columnar cacti Stenocereus dumortieri.

This record is located between 20 and 25 km NE of the previous recorded localities: La Trucha Feliz, 2, 884 m and Presa El Cedral, 2,785 m (Hernandez-Flores and Rojas-Martinez, 2010).

The reproductive pattern of the Californian myotis is seasonal monoestry (Simpson, 1993). There are records of females with embryos in Sinaloa in April (Jones et al., 1972) and in Mexico City (Navarro Frias et al., 2007) and Durango (Torres-Morales et al., 2010) in May.

The identification of the specimen was made based on morphological characteristics. Its dorsal color is brown with a paler venter. Hairs extend sparingly onto the upper side of the uropatagium to a line connecting the knees. The hind foot is <50% the length of the tibia. The skull is delicate and slender, the rostrum is relatively long and tapering, and the braincase is globose but also flattopped, rising abruptly from the rostral level. The sagittal crest is absent. The lambdoidal crest and temporal ridges have a weaker development, and it has two tiny premolars behind each upper canine. Myotis californicus is very similar to Myotis melanorhinus, but the Californian myotis has dark ears but not black, and a rostrum without a black mask, while in M. melanorhinus the ears are black and the rostrum has a black mask, as it was cited by Van Zyll de Jong (1984). In addition, as that author specified, if one draws a line on the lateral projection of the skull, tangential to a point at the location of the cribriform plate, it intersects the alveolar line at the canine in M. californicus and not in a point between the canine and incisors as it occurs in M. melanorhinus.

Both species of bats have been scarcely collected and are considered as rare; they have no special conservation status in Mexico (Secretaria del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, 2010) and they are considered as a species of Least Concern for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, However, very little information about life histories of the species has been recorded. In order to change this, studies should be increased to have a better understanding about distribution, population status, and reproductive patterns of bat species and, thus, design better strategies for their conservation in Mexico.

We thank L. A. Mendoza, O. Noguera-Cobos, and V. Canales-Almaraz, colleagues of Laboratorio de Ecologia de Poblaciones (Seccion Mamiferos), for their assistance in the field. Financial support was provided by the project Diversidad Biologica del Estado de Hidalgo (FOMIX-HGO-2006-43761, FOMIX-HGO2009-95828, FOMIX-HGO-2012-191908 (tercera etapa).


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Submitted 23 September 2014.

Acceptance recommended by Associate Editor, Troy A. Ladine, 6 May 2015.


Laboratorio de Ecologia de Poblaciones. Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 42184. Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo (MA-L, AER-M)

Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste. Instituto Politocnico Nacional 195, Playa Palo de Santa Rita Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur 23096, Moxico (CC-L)

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-153, Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico (CS-H)

Escuinapa No. 92 bis. Col. Pedregal de Santo Domingo, C.P. 04369 Mexico, D. F. Mexico (MLR-A)

* Correspondent:
TABLE 1--External and cranial measurements of the examined specimens.
Linear measurements are in millimeters (mm); mass is in grams (g). The
number collection is indicated as follows: Myotis californicus:
HGO-MAM-1163, and Rhogeessa alleni: HGO-MAM-1162, 1163, 1164, 2011.

Measurement                  Myotis              Rhogeessa alleni
                              1163       1162    1163    1164    2011

Total length              76             78      87      85      84
Tail length               34             33      36      38      39
Foot length                5              8       8       8       7
Ear length                10             15      15      14      13
Mass                       2.5            4.0     5.0     4.5     6.6
Forearm length            31.50          31.15   33.80   32.50   34.94
Metacarpal length of      30.30          31.42   32.97   32.23   33.96
  3rd digit
1st phalanx of 3rd        11.50          13.67   14.64   14.60   16.28
2nd phalanx of 3rd         9.70          13.04   12.54   11.79   12.17
3rd phalanx of 3rd         3.40           3.36    6.56    6.47    8.30
Length of tibia           12.70          12.85   13.30   12.97   13.32
Greatest skull length     13.50          14.60   14.62   14.72   14.86
Condylocanine length      11.22          13.06   13.14   13.08   13.14
Maxillary-toothrow         4.88           5.12    5.52    5.22    5.09
Postorbital                3.24           3.56    3.34    3.15    3.58
Zygomatic breadth          --             9.16    9.20    8.66    9.30
Braincase breadth          6.28           6.74    6.57    6.83    6.70
Mastoid breadth            6.75           7.56    7.66    7.44    8.02
Mandible length            8.80          10.5    10.60   10.02   10.90
Mandibular-toothrow        5.82           6.45    6.32    6.46    6.49
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Title Annotation:Notes
Author:Aguilar-Lopez, Melany; Rojas-Martinez, Alberto E.; Cornejo-Latorre, Cristian; Sanchez-Hernandez, Cor
Publication:Southwestern Naturalist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1MEX
Date:Jun 1, 2015
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