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New records of occurrence of five species of Neosilba (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) in the State of Bahia, Brazil/Novos registros de ocorrencia de cinco especies de Neosilba (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) para o Estado da Bahia, Brasil.


The genus Neosilba comprises 30 described species distributed mainly in Neotropical region (McALPINE & STEYSKAL, 1982; STRIKIS & PRADO, 2005, 2008, 2009; STRIKIS & LERENA, 2009; STRIKIS, 2011).

Some species of this genus are known to cause injuries in commercial fruits in Brazil causing commercial losses. Some crops attacked by Neosilba species are Barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata) (ARAUJO & ZUCCHI, 2002), coffee (Coffea arabica) (AGUIAR-MENEZES et al., 2007), orange (Citrus sinensis) (UCHOA-FERNANDES et al., 2003), peach (Prunus persica) (MONTES et al., 2010), tangerine (Citrus reticulate) (LOPES et al., 2007), umbu-cajazeira (Spondias sp.) (SANTOS et al., 2004), and leaf buds of cassava (Manihot esculenta) (LOURENCAO et al., 1996), and other fruit species (RAGA et al., 2011). In Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, Neosilba species were associated to many fruits species (GARCIA & NORRBOM, 2011). In the state of Bahia the following species of Neosilba recorded are: N. zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal (SANTOS et al., 2004), N. certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. parva (Hennig) and N. pendula (Bezzi) (BITTENCOURT et al., 2006).

The main purpose of this study was to report new records of species of Neosilba as well as some of its hosts in the state of Bahia. McPhail traps (n=10) were used to capture Tephritoidea flies in commercial crops in the municipalities of Ilheus (14[degrees]52'S; 39[degrees]12'W) and Itabela (16[degrees]39'S; 39[degrees]29'W), hydrolysed protein (5%) was used as attractant and was substituted weekly. In these crops the most common fruits were barbados cherry (Malpighia punicifolia, Malpighiaceae), mombin fruits (Spondias purpurea, Anacardiaceae), papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, Passifloraceae), guajava (Psidium guajava) and Surinan cherry (Eugenia uniflora) from Myrtaceae family. Also, many ripe fruits or almost ripe, of many species were randomly collected in domestic orchards in the South of Bahia during the year of 2003 until 2009. The insects trapped and those that emerged from puparia were kept in 70% alcohol. The specimens of Lonchaeidae were identified according to McALPINE & STEYSKAL (1982), STRIKIS & PRADO (2006) and STRIKIS (2011). The species sampled were the following ones: Neosilba bella Strikis & Prado; Neosilba cornuphallus Strikis; Neosilba dimidiata (Curran); Neosilba ilheuense Strikis and Neosilba pseudozadolicha Strikis.

Male specimens of N. bella were captured in traps in Itabela (n=7) and Ilheus (n=1); also emerged from puparia reared from fruits of araza fruit (Eugenia stipitata, Myrtaceae) (n=1) collected in the municipality of Camamu (13[degrees]58'S; 39[degrees]11'W), from Barbados cherry (n=2) collected in the municipality of Valenca (13[degrees]20'S; 39[degrees]10'W), and from sapodilla (Achras zapota, Sapotaceae) (n=1) collected in the municipality of Taperoa (13[degrees]33'S; 39[degrees]12'W). Several hosts families of this species were recorded, among them; Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae e Sapotaceae (STRIKIS & PRADO, 2008). N. bella has a wide geographical distribution in Brazil, it is present in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, Amapa, Roraima, Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul and Bahia, in many different biomes, ranging from Mata Atlantica, Amazon rain forest, and Cerrado. Its plasticity in occupying such different biomes and in attacking different hosts makes this species a candidate in becoming an important pest, once it is found in environments occupied by crops plantation, specially coffee (STRIKIS & PRADO, 2006; AGUIAR MENEZES et al., 2007).

From fruits of sapodilla two specimens of N. dimidiata were recovered. This specie is known to occur in fruits of the families Annonaceae and Sapotaceae (QUERINO et al., 2010; UCHOA, 2012), and is known to occur in Amazon, Sao Paulo, Amapa, Roraima, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo States (STRIKIS, unpublished data) in forested and humid areas.

Only one specimen of N. pseudozadolicha was recovered from fruit of araza fruit; this species have been recorded from fruits of Fabaceae in the Northwest of the state of Pernambuco and Malpighiaceae in the North of the state of Roraima (STRIKIS, 2011).

Only one specimen of N. cornuphallus was recovered from fruit of cashew (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae) collected in the municipality of Valenca (13[degrees]18'S; 39[degrees]15'W). This specie is known to occur in fruits of the following families Annonaceae, Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae, Ulmaceae e Verbenaceae (STRIKIS, 2011).

This is the first record of N. ilheuense (n=1); this species was collected in August 2011 in a McPhail trap placed in the Campus of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz of Ilheus (14[degrees]47'S; 39[degrees]10'W); the trap was placed close to a Passifloraceae crop. Neosilba ilheuense belongs to the same cryptic complex of species as N. peltae, N. mcalpiniei and N. parapeltae, although caught in a trap, it is possible that N. ilheuense is a primary invader of Passifloraceae fruit or flower bud, once the trap was placed close to a Passifloraceae plantation (STRIKIS, 2011).

Except for N. ilheuense, all the other species related in this study are poliphagous, what could make difficult to control the populations of such species. In crops the control is easier to achieve, but would be hard to accomplish in nature due to the widespread distribution of the species and to the polyphagy presented. The number of specimens reared from fruits or captured in traps suggests that the population size is small or the fruits sampled are not the preferred hosts of these species, so a more intensive fruit sampling is needed and the diversification of fruits sampled is also important in order to better evaluate the population dynamics of these species.

From the puparia obtained from the fruits were recovered 41 females of Neosilba. All the fruit-fly specimens are in the collection of Pedro Carlos Strikis, except those used to species descriptions that are deposited at Zoology museum of the Universidade de Sao Paulo (MZUSP).


Thanks to Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa no Estado da Bahia (FAPESB) and Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC) for the financial support.


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Maria Aparecida Leao Bittencourt (I) * Adriano Murielle Santos de Menezes (I) Joao Pedro de Andrade Bomfim (I) Olivia Oliveira dos Santos (II) Maria Aparecida Castellani (II) Pedro Carlos Strikis (III)

(I) Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Rodovia Jorge Amado, Km 16, 45662-900, Ilheus, BA, Brasil. E-mail: * Autor para correspondencia.

(II) Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA, Brasil.

(III) Pesquisador, Americana, SP, Brasil.

Received 11.19.12 Approved 05.12.13 Returned by the author 07.31.13 CR-2012-1158.R1
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Author:Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leao; de Menezes, Adriano Murielle Santos; Bomfim, Joao Pedro de Andrad
Publication:Ciencia Rural
Article Type:Report
Date:Oct 1, 2013
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