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New records of green (Chlorophyta) and brown algae (Phaeophyceae) for Cabezo Reef, National Park Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, Gulf of Mexico.

INTRODUCTION

In the State of Veracruz, a total of 54 brown and 100 green algal species have been found, and in the National Park Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (NPSAV) in particular, 39 brown and 74 green algal species (Lehman, 1993; Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007, Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007; Godinez-Ortega et al., 2009). The largest number of species was encountered on Isla Enmedio, Isla Verde, Isla Sacrificios and Hornos Reef, which is proportional to the number of studies carried out at these sites, followed by La Blanquilla, Santiaguillo, La Gallega, Punta Gorda, Giote, Ingenieros and Blanca reefs. There is no published information on brown and green algae from Cabezo Reef. According to Lehman (2007), Santiaguillo is third in terms of registered brown and green algal species (28).

To contribute to our knowledge of the morphology and species of Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae of the NPSAV occurring on Cabezo Reef and to document their records were the main purposes of the present study.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

During CEPIA boat trips within the NPSAV, specimens of green and brown algae were collected on Cabezo Reef (Fig. 1) on 11th March and 12th November 2008 and 3rd June 2010 during snorkeling at 0.5 to 1.5 m depth, manually or with a knife, and placed into a 500-ml plastic bottle or a Ziplock plastic bag filled with seawater from the sampling site. Immediately after sampling, a stock 37% formaldehyde solution was added to the samples to a final concentration of 4%. The samples were incorporated into the collection of liquid samples and the herbarium of macroalgae of the Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Pesquerias de la Universidad Veracruzana (ICIMAP-UV). In the laboratory, morphological features were observed and described using a stereoscopic low-magnification Carl Zeiss Stemi 2000C microscope. When necessary, cross-sections of algal thalli were made with a razor and photographed using an Olympus BX51 microscope equipped with phase-contrast objectives and an Olympus C7070 Wide Zoom 7.1-megapixel digital camera. A camera lucida was also used to make line drawings. Specimens were identified with the use of specialized literature (Taylor, 1960; Joly, 1967; Earle, 1969; Schneider & Searles, 1991; Flores-Moya & Conde, 1998; Littler & Littler, 2000; Moreira & Suarez, 2002; Sole & Foldats, 2003; Boraso de Zaixso, 2004; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008; Miranda Alves et al., 2010; Norris, 2010). In our species descriptions, anatomical and morphological terms for macroalgal structures given by Dawes & Mathieson (2008) were followed, with some exceptions.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Abbreviations used: bas.--basionym; diam.--diameter; GOM--Gulf of Mexico; ICIMAP-UV-AL--herbarium of macroalgae of the Institute for Marine Sciences and Fisheries of the University of Veracruz; LS--liquid sample; Mpio.--municipality; syn.--synonym.

RESULTS

Descriptions of 13 green and 12 brown algal species from 15 families collected on Cabezo Reef are given below. They include morphometric and biological data and are accompanied by photographs and line drawings for each species. The data on the geographic distribution in the NPSAV, the State of Veracruz and the Gulf of Mexico in general are also presented. However, the primary literature sources cited in floristic lists by Dreckmann (1998), Ortega et al. (2001) and Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia (2007) were omitted. More recent publications (Orduna-Medrano, 2004; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007; Lehman, 2007; Godinez-Ortega et al., 2009) were considered. The taxa are given in the order following Fredericq et al. (2009).

Division Chlorophyta

Family Ulvaceae

1. Percursaria percursa (C. Agardh) Rosenvinge, 1893 (Pl. 1, Fig. 1 and 2; Pl. 8, Fig. 1)

Bas.: Conferva percursa C. Agardh, 1817: 87.

Syn.: Enteromorphapercursa (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, 1842: 15.

Thallus filamentous, erect and ramified, 7 mm long. Pale green. Principal branches (62.5) 75-80 (113) [micro]n in diam., consisting of 3-4 longitudinal rows of quadrangular or rectangular cells 25-40 [micro]m long and 20-25 (37.5) [micro]m wide. Filaments uniform in diam., 32-38 [micro]m, consisting of 2 rows of cells of very regular shape, rectangular, 22.5-27.5 [micro]m long and 17.5 [micro]m in diam. Cells of the thicker branches are less regular in shape. Median branches 20-25 [micro]m long and 52.5-62.5 [micro]m in diam. Terminal branchlets consist of one row of cells 12.5-17.5 [micro]m long and 12.5-17.5 [micro]m in diam. Single laminar, parietal chloroplast, with 1-3 pyrenoids. Epiphyte on Bryothamnion triquetrum (S. G. Gmelin) M. A. Howe (Rhodophyta).

Examined specimens: LS-8 (1 March 2008).

A new record for the NPSAV.

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. San Andres Tuxtla: Playa Escondida (Valen zuela, 1987).

GOM: SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 54; Boraso de Zaixso, 2004: 101, pl. 7, fig. 20; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 30, pl. 1, fig. 11 and 12.

Family Siphonocladaceae

2. Cladophoropsis membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C. Agardh) Borgesen, 1905 (Pl. 1, Fig. 3-5; Pl. 8, Fig. 2 and 3)

Bas.: Conferva membranacea Hofman Bang ex C. Agardh, 1824: 120.

Syn.: Cladophora membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C. Agardh) Kutz., 1843: 271; Acrosiphonia membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C. Agardh) J. Agardh, 1846: 104; Aegagropila membranacea (C. Agardh) Kutz., 1854: 4, pl. 14.

Thallus filamentous, gregarious. Filaments uniseriate, 175-250 [micro]m in diam., forming dense cespitose clumps of 15 cm width. Glossy light green. Branching alternate inferiorly and unilateral superiorly. Lateral filaments 100-140 [micro]m in diam., originating from the parietal cells as extensions, having an open connection with the parent cells. Chloroplasts reticulate, with numerous pyrenoids. It is attached to the substrate by a stolon with rhizoids with finger-shaped extremities (specialized hapteroid cells) oriented horizontally, pale or lightly colored.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 08, 08R (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Isla de Enmedio, Isla Verde, Isla Santiaguillo, Gallega Reef (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos; Mpio. Actopan: La Mancha (Punta Mancha); Playa Paraiso (La Mancha), Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica); Mpio. Alto Lucero: Boca Andrea, El Morro (Punta del Morro), Laguna Verde; Mpio. Catemaco: Laguna de Sontecomapan (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: NW, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 118; Littler & Littler, 2000: 332, 333 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 55, pl. 4, fig. 5.

3. Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskal) Borgesen, 1932 (Pl. 1, Fig. 6 and 7; Pl. 8, Fig. 4 and 5)

Bas.: Ulva cavernosa Forsskal, 1775: 187.

Syn.: Valonia favulosa C. Agardh, 1823 (1822-1823): 432; Dictyosphaeria favulosa (C. Agardh) Decaisne ex Endlicher, 1843: 18.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, globular, saclike, hollow, spherical when young and irregularly lobed and ruptured when mature, 5-6 cm in diam. Bright green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Membrane cells 0.8-1.2 mm in diam., arranged in one row, angular or polyhedral in surface view, beehive-like, attached to each other by hapteroid cells of 50-60 [micro]m diam., forming a continuous row of primary cells alternately arranged.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 08 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Playa Mocambo, San Juan de Ulua, Hornos Reef, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Verde (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos, Tuxpan Reef, marine littoral of Tampamachoco lagoon; Mpio. Ursulo Galvan: Barra de Chachalacas (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: NE, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 116; Littler & Littler, 2000: 332, 333 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 56, pl. 4, fig. 6-8.

Family Valoniaceae

4. Ernodesmis verticillata (Kutz.) Borgesen, 1912 (Pl. 1, Fig. 8-10; Pl. 8, Fig. 6) Bas.: Valonia verticillata Kutz., 1847: 165.

Thallus vesicular, dense, forming spherical clumps, 5 cm long. Translucent yellowish green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Branching verticillate (forming whorls). Branches are formed by simple macroscopic cells: narrow cells apically swollen at the basal part, and 8-11 morphologically similar cells arranged in whorls in the superior part. Cells in branches 0.8-1 mm in diam. Tenacular cells are present where the mother cell and sister cells unite. Fertile cells are in the apical part of thallus. Crystalline birefringent inclusions of silicon in the form of fine needles grouped together are present. Attachment cell 1-2 cm long and 0.4-0.5 mm in diam.

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Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 16 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Isla Verde (Dreckmann, 1998; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: not found.

GOM: NE and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor 1960: 113; Littler & Littler, 2000: 338, 339 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 58, pl. 4, fig. 15; Miranda Alves et al., 2010: 173, fig. 1-10; Norris, 2010: 75, fig. 35.

Family Caulerpaceae

5. Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh var. occidentalis (J. Agardh) Borgesen, 1907 (Pl. 2, Fig. 1-3; Pl. 8, Fig. 7 and 8)

Bas.: Caulerpa chemnitzia (Esper) J. V. Lamouroux var. occidentalis J. Agardh, 1873: 37.

Syn.: Caulerpa racemosa f. occidentalis (J. Agardh) Nizamuddin, 1964: 207, fig. 5 and 5a, pl. 2b.

Thallus completely coenocytic, with a creeping axis (horizontal stolon) 1.5-2 mm in diam., bearing erect fronds. Pale green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Fronds erect, cylindrical, 1-2 cm long, with trabeculae (wall ingrowths), usually covered with branchlets in the shape of bunched, radially arranged beads; the axes can be unramified. Branchlets elongate, flattened at base and expanded at apices, 2-3 mm and 1.5-2 mm in diam. Apices subspherical. Central axes cylindrical. Attaches to the substrate with a thick axis from which numerous fine, abruptly pointed, yellowish rhizoids descend.

Note. The var. occidentalis can possibly be raised to the rank of species; for details see Norris & Olsen (1991) and Dreckmann (1998).

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 02 (12 November 2008).

The var. occidentalis is a new record for the State of Veracruz. In this state, only var. racemosa, var. macrophysa (Sonder ex Kutz.) W. R. Taylor, var. turbinata (J. Agardh) Eubank, have been reported; var. racemosa f. condensata Weber-van Bosse, var. racemosa f. reducta Borgesen, var. gracilis (Zanardini) Weber-van Bosse, var. laetevirens (Montagne) Weber-van Bosse f. cylindrica (Sonder) Weber-van Bosse and var. lamourouxii (Turner) Weber-van Bosse have been reported for the Atlantic Mexican coast in general (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: Caulerpa racemosa is distributed throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 151; Littler & Littler, 2000: 370, 371 (fig.); Schneider & Searles, 1991: 93; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 74, pl. 379, fig. 28 and 29.

6. Caulerpa sertularioides (S. G. Gmelin) M. A. Howe, 1905 (Pl. 2, Fig. 4-6; Pl. 8, Fig. 9 and 10)

Bas.: Fucus sertularioides S. G. Gmelin, 1768: 151, pl. 15, fig. 4.

Syn.: Fucus plumaris Forsskal, 1775: 190; Caulerpa plumaris (Forsskal) C. Agardh, 1823 (1822-1823): 436.

Thallus completely coenocytic, with a creeping axis and erect feather-like fronds, sometimes branched, up to 5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide. Dark green. Fronds erect, with trabeculae (wall ingrowths). Branchlets opposite, cylindrical, needle-shaped, curved upwards, 3-5 mm long and 400-500 [micro]m in diam., with bluntly pointed apices. Central axes cylindrical, 1-1.5 mm in diam. Horizontal stolon creeping, extended, cylindrical, 2.0-2.5 mm in diam., usually about 20 cm long, sometimes up to 2 m. Attaches to the substrate by a stolon from which fine, abruptly pointed, yellowish filamentous rhizoids descend.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 01, 01R, 01R1 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: San Juan de Ulua, Blanquilla, Punta Gorda, Gallega, Pajaros, Hornos, Ingeniero and Giote reefs, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Verde, Isla Santiaguillo (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007; Godinez-Ortega et al., 2009).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos, Tuxpan Reef (f. breviceps (J. Agardh) Svedelius, f. farlowii (Weber-van Bosse) Borgesen and f. longiseta (Bory) Svedelius; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007), marine littoral of Tampamachoco lagoon; Mpio. Actopan: La Mancha (Punta Mancha), Playa Paraiso (La Mancha), Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica); Mpio. Alto Lucero: Boca Andrea, El Morro (Punta del Morro); Laguna Verde; Mpio. San Andres Tuxtla: Montepio (Punta Morrillos) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: NE, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor 1960: 144; Littler & Littler, 2000: 374, 375 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 75, pl. 6, fig. 26- 29; Norris, 2010: 96, fig. 46.

Family Codiaceae

7. Codium isthmocladum Vickers subsp. clavatum (Collins et Hervey) P. C. Silva, 1960 (Pl. 2, Fig. 7 and 8; Pl. 8, Fig. 11 and 12)

Bas.: Codium decorticatum var. clavatum Collins et Hervey, 1917: 56.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, compact, spongy, 5-8 cm long. Light green when alive, olive green in dried specimens, loses color after exposure to light. Branching irregular in basal part and dichotomous in superior parts, branches cylindrical, 2-4 mm in diam. Trichomes per utricle are single (usually) or few, deciduous, 300-350 [micro]m long. Apical wall of the utricles 0.5-2 cm long and 50-55 [micro]m wide. The revised specimens were in the vegetative stage.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 51, 51R, 51R2 (12 November 2008).

The subsp. clavatum is a new record for the State of Veracruz. The species C. isthmocladum was reported for this area (Valenzuela, 1987; Dreckmann, 1998), and the var. isthmocladum was found on Isla Sacrificios and Hornos Reef of the NPSAV (Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: Codium isthmocladum is distributed throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 186, 187; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 86; Littler & Littler, 2000: 352, 353 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 80, pl. 5, fig. 15 and 16.

8. Codium taylorii P. C. Silva, 1960 (Pl. 2, Fig. 9-11; Pl. 9, Fig. 1 and 2)

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, forming dense clumps, 7-8 cm long. Green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Branching irregular, sometimes cervicorn in basal part and dichotomous at the extremities. Branches firm, spongy, smooth, 4-5 mm in diam., with rounded apices, formed by utricles that are constricted at base and claviform and rounded at apices, 450-1000 [micro]m long and 100-350 [micro]m wide. Apices of the utricles have very thin walls (4-5 [micro]m). Trichomes scarce, up to 1000 [micro]m long, inserted near the apices. Gametangia elongate, 200-320 um long and 50-75 [micro]m in diam., usually one per utricle, inserted into its middle part. Attaches to the substrate by a crusty disc 0.8-1 cm in diam.

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Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 07R, LS-26 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Playa Mocambo, Hornos Reef, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Verde (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos; Mpio. Alto Lucero: El Morro (Punta del Morro) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: NE, NW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 188; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 87; Littler & Littler, 2000: 354, 355 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson 2008: 81, pl. 5, fig. 19-21.

Family Halimedaceae

9. Halimeda opuntia (L.) J. V. Lamouroux, 1816 (Pl. 3, Fig. 1-3; Pl. 9, Fig. 3-6)

Bas.: Corallina opuntia L., 1758: 805.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, formed by articulated sequences of segments, strongly calcified, forming compact mats 10-15 cm in diam. Yellowish green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Densely branched in various planes. Segments plane, kidney-shaped, sometimes grooved, 0.3-0.5 cm long and 0.7-12 cm wide. Medullary siphons 40-70 [micro]m in diam., paired but not fused in nodes, forming simple groups. Superficial utricles in groups of 4-5, rounded or polygonal, 25-40 cm in diam. Subsuperficial utricles 30-50 [micro]m long, supporting 2-4 superficial utricles. In surface view, cortex formed by hexagonal cells 15-30 [micro]m in diam. Attaches to the substrate by multiple parts of thallus.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 72, 72R (11 March 2008); LS-19, 22, 38 (10 April 2008), 32 (12 November 2008), 1 (3 June 2010).

NPSAV: Blanquilla, Hornos, Pajaros, Gallega, Galleguilla and Anegada de Adentro reefs, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Verde, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Santiaguillo (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007; Godinez-Ortega et al., 2009).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos, marine littoral of Tampamachoco lagoon; Mpio. Actopan: Playa Paraiso (La Mancha) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: NE, NW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 176; Littler & Littler, 2000: 406, 407 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson 2008: 84, pl. 8, fig. 29 and 31; Bandeira-Pedrosa et al., 2004: 365, fig. 3-5, 21, 28-30.

10. Halimeda scabra M. A. Howe, 1905 (Pl. 3, Fig. 4-6; Pl. 9, Fig. 7-10)

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, calcareous, 8 cm long. Dark green. Branched in a single plane. Segments moderately calcified, oval or compressed, without ribs, 0.2-1 cm long and 0.4-1.4 cm wide, margin entire, rounded. Superficial utricles elongate, with bulbous extremities, 90-100 [micro]m long. Medullary siphons fused 2-3 times, principal utricles in 3-4 rows, 70-80 [micro]m long and 30-40 [micro]m wide, with a prominent central spine. Gametangia formed on the surface from the surface utricles. Attaches to the substrate by a fibrose segment.

Examined specimens: LS-4 (10 April 2008), 1 (3 June 2010).

NPSAV: Isla Verde (Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Actopan: La Mancha (Punta Mancha) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: NE, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 180; Littler & Littler 2000: 406, 407 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson 2008: 83, pl. 9, fig. 1 and 2.

Family Udoteaceae

11. Rhipocephalus phoenix (Ellis et Sol.) Kutz, f. brevifolius A. Gepp et E. S. Gepp, 1911 (Pl. 3, Fig. 7-10; Pl. 10, Fig. 1-3)

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, 3-6 cm long, moderately calcified, solitary or in pairs, consisting of capitulum or cap (composed of narrow blades radially arranged), simple stalk and holdfast of fine siphons interlaced with sand particles. Dark green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Stipes cylindrical, smooth, 1-4 cm long and 2-3 mm in diam. Surface siphons compact, dichotomously branched in a single plane, with thin walls and rounded finger-like apices. Cap ovoid, 2-3 cm long; blades minute, 0.6-1 cm long. Siphons in blades are laterally fused together, 200-220 [micro]m in proximal part and 50-100 [micro]m in distal part, constricted at base, after the first dichotomous division. Siphons in stipes with repeatedly ramified appendages, finger-like, grouped into packages. Attaches to the substrate by a rhizoidal mass (holdfast).

Examined specimens: LS-37 (10 April 2008).

NPSAV: Isla Verde, Isla de Enmedio (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos, Tuxpan Reef (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: NE, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 174; Littler & Littler, 2000: 418, 419 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 98, pl. 9, fig. 27-30.

Family Dasycladaceae

12. Neomeris annulata Dickie, 1874 (Pl. 3, Fig. 11-13; Pl. 10, Fig. 4 and 5) Syn.: Neomeris kelleri Cramer, 1887: 3-9, 39, pl. 1; pl. 2: fig. 1-12; pl. 3: fig. 1 and 2.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, 0.4-1 cm long and 1-3 mm wide. Light green, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Solitary, cylindrical, arched downwards, lightly calcified. Apices of the filaments fine, deciduous. Central axis 300-400 [micro]m wide. Branches of the central axis arranged spirally, leaving scars after being detached; terminated with two superficial cells encircling a gametangium, cells polyhedral or globular, 100-130 [micro]m in diam., with bulbous apices. Rows of superficial cells aligned with 50-150 [micro]m distance between them. Gametangium elongate or oval, 120-150 [micro]m long and 60-80 [micro]m in diam. Attachment disc is formed by short siphons. Usually grows on fragments of corals.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 09, 09R (12 November 2008); LS-24, 28 (1 March 2008).

NPSAV: Blanquilla Reef, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Verde, Isla Santiaguillo (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos, Tuxpan Reef (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: NE, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 101; Littler & Littler, 2000: 438, 439 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 108, pl. 9, fig. 12 and 13.

Family Polyphysaceae

13. Parvocaulis polyphysoides (P. L. Crouan et H. M. Crouan) S. Berger, U. Fettweiss, S. Gleissberg, L. B. Liddle, U. Richter, H. Sawitsky et G. C. Zuccarello, 2003 (Pl. 4, Fig. 1-3; Pl. 10, Fig. 6-8)

Bas.: Acetabularia polyphysoides P. L. Crouan et H. M. Crouan in Schramm et Maze, 1865: 42.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Thallus unbranched, erect, minute, umbrella-shaped, 1-4 mm long, with a solitary plane or slightly concave downwards disc (cap) 1-5 mm in diam., with 21-23 rays. Deep brown green or bright green. Margins of the rays slightly sharp-pointed by 6-9 scars left by sterile hairs, arranged elliptically at base of the rays. Cylindrical calcified stalk 4 mm long and 300-600 [micro]m wide. Gametangia in mature thallus are rays containing cysts. Cysts spherical, numerous, 50-100 [micro]m in diam., sometimes up to 50 cysts per ray.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 13, 13R (12 November 2008); LS-24 (1 March 2008).

NPSAV: Blanquilla Reef, Isla Verde, Isla Sacrificios (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: not found.

GOM: SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 104; Littler & Littler, 2000: 444, 445 (fig.).

Class Phaeophyceae

Family Ectocarpaceae

14. Ectocarpus rallsiae Vickers, 1905 (Pl. 4, Fig. 4 and 5; Pl. 10, Fig. 9 and 10). Syn.: Feldmannia rallsiae (Vickers) G. Hamel, 1939: 67; Giffordia rallsiae (Vickers) W. R. Taylor, 1960: 208. Hincksia rallsiae (Vickers) P. C. Silva in P. C. Silva, Menez et Moe, 1987: 73 (for synonymy, see Wynne, 2011: 112, note 430).

Thallus filamentous, fine, forming clumps of 0.5-1 cm. Light brown. Filaments uniseriate, branched. Branching spacious, irregular to dichotomous. In surface view, cells rectangular, 50-100 [micro]m long and 25-50 [micro]m wide. Plurangia sessile, fusiform, 75-125 [micro]m long and 20-30 [micro]m in diam. Phaeoplasts parietal, ribbon-like, with numerous pyrenoids. Attaches to the substrate by creeping basal filaments. Epiphyte on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks et Sol. ex Konig.

Examined specimens: LS-39 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Port of Veracruz, Hornos Reef, Isla de Enmedio (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Actopan: Playa Paraiso (La Mancha); Mpio. Alto Lucero: Boca Andrea, Playa el Morro (Punta del Morro) (Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: NE, NW, SE and SW (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 208; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 147, pl. 17, fig. 4.

Family Sphacelariaceae

15. Sphacelaria rigidula Kutz., 1843 (Pl. 4, Fig. 6 and 7; Pl. 10, Fig. 11)

Syn.: Sphacelariafurcigera Kutz., 1855: 27, pl. 90, fig. 2.

Thallus filamentous, forming small tight clumps, 5-7 mm long. Yellowish brown. Branching irregular to radial, scarce to frequent. Filaments linear, cylindrical, segments 50-75 [micro]m in diam. and 1-1.5 diameters long, with 1-3 longitudinal walls. Lateral hairs abundant, 112-120 [micro]m long and 12.5 [micro]m in diam. Propagules with two cylindrical arms, some of them tapered; arms 310-363 [micro]m long and 17.5-25.0 [micro]m in diam.; their stalk below the bifurcation of the arms 245 [micro]m long and 27.5-30 [micro]m in diam. Attaches by a stolon. Epiphyte on the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum.

Examined specimens: LS-8 (1 March 2008).

NPSAV: Isla Verde, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Santiaguillo (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Actopan: Playa Paraiso (La Mancha), Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 210; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 152; Littler & Littler, 2000: 252, 253 (fig.); Mendoza-Gonzalez et al., 2000: 27, fig. 34-37; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 133, pl. 16, fig. 1; Norris, 2010: 112, fig. 51.

Family Dictyotaceae

16. Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutz.) De Paula et De Clerck in De Clerck, Leliaert, Verbruggen, Lane, De Paula, Payo et Coppejans, 2006 (Pl. 4, Fig. 8-11; Pl. 11, Fig. 1-5)

Bas: Dictyota cervicornis Kutz., 1859: 11, pl. 24: fig. 2.

Syn.: Dictyota fasciola Harvey, 1852: 108, pl. 8B; Dictyota indica Sonder ex Kutz., 1859: 8, pl. 17: fig. 1; Dictyotapardalis Kutz., 1859: 16-17, pl. 39: fig. 2; Dictyota dichotoma var. curvula P. L. Crouan et H. M. Crouan, 1878: 119.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, dense, thin, blades are easily fragmented. Dark brown, some portions olive green. Branching regularly dichotomous, sometimes in terminal branches, one of bifurcations being shorter. Blade margins entire. Branches ribbon-like, slightly inrolled, 3 mm wide, 200 [micro]m thick, slightly thinner with each subsequent division. Apices rounded. Proximal internodes 7-8 mm long, median 5-7 mm long and distal ones 3-5 mm long. Medullary cells irregular or rectangular, 100-200 [micro]m wide, arranged in one row of 22-25 cells across the blade width. Cortical cells spherical, 25 [micro]m in diam.; surface cells rectangular, 80-130 [micro]m long and 50-70 [micro]m wide. Bifurcations forming 15-45[degrees] angles. Sporangia solitary, spherical, 70-150 [micro]m in diam., surrounded by a ring of cells (paraphyses).

Examined specimens: LS-1 (3 June 2010).

NPSAV: Blanca, Blanquilla and Punta Gorda reefs, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Verde, Isla de Enmedio (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia &

Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos; Mpio. San Andres Tuxtla: Montepio (Punta Morrillos); Mpios. Pueblo Viejo, Tampico Alto, Ozuluama, Tamalin and Tamiahua (Laguna de Tamiahua) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

GOM: throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 222; Earle, 1969: 153, fig. 60; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 157; Littler & Littler, 2000: 260, 261 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 121, pl. 13, fig. 3; Sole & Foldats, 2003: 47, fig. 3 and 4.

17. Dictyerpa jamaicensis F. S. Collins, 1901 (Pl. 4, Fig. 12-14; Pl. 11, Fig. 6 and 7) Syn.: Vaughaniella rupicola Borgesen, 1950: 3-10, fig. 1-8; 1951: 11-14, fig. 4.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, forming small entangled mats, 2-3 cm wide, not calcified, rough. Brown, orange or golden brown. Branching opposite or densely irregular. Axes ribbon-like, slightly compressed, 0.2-0.3 mm long and 0.6-0.8 mm wide. Apices curved upwards. Medulla consisting of irregular-shaped cells, up to 6 rows of cells thick; cells 50-100 [micro]m in diam. Surface cells pigmented, 25-35 [micro]m in diam. Attaches to the substrate by rhizoids originating from creeping axes.

Note. Silva et al. (1996), Littler & Littler (2000) and Dawes & Mathieson (2008) conclude that Dictyerpa jamaicensis represents a growth stage in the life history of Padina but cannot be assigned with certainty to any particular species.

Examined specimens: LS-6 (10 April 2008).

A new record for the State of Veracruz.

GOM: in deep waters of the gulf (Dawes & Mathieson, 2008).

References: Littler & Littler, 2000: 272, 273 (fig.).

18. Dictyota bartayresiana J. V. Lamouroux, 1809 (Pl. 5, Fig. 1-4; Pl. 11, Fig. 8-10) Syn.: Dictyota bartayresii J. V. Lamouroux, 1809; Zonaria bartayresiana (J. V. Lamouroux) C. Agardh, 1817: 21; Ulva bartayresiana (J. V. Lamouroux) Martius, 1833: 22.

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Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, delicate, easily fragmented, 3-5 cm long. Dark brown, loses color rapidly after exposure to light. Branching dichotomous along the thallus. Branches ribbon-like, with margins not divided, 3-5 mm wide and 100-150 [micro]m thick, forming an angle of 30-40[degrees] between them. Apices clearly rounded or acute. Medulla consists of one row of rectangular cells 50-110 [micro]m in diam. Sporangia spherical, 30-50 [micro]m in diam., without a ring of cells. Oogonia grouped into sori 30-40 [micro]m long. Attachment disc not apparent.

Examined specimens: LS-27 (1 March 2008).

NPSAV: Blanca, Blanquilla, Giote and Hornos reefs, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Verde (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Tuxpan Reef; Mpio. Actopan: Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica); Mpio. La Antigua: La Antigua; Mpios. Pueblo Viejo, Tampico Alto, Ozuluama, Tamalin and Tamiahua (Laguna de Tamiahua) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: NW, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 219; Earle, 1969: 151; Littler & Littler, 2000: 260, 261 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 120, pl. 13, fig. 1; Sole & Foldats, 2003: fig. 1 and 2.

19. Dictyota menstrualis (Hoyt) Schnetter, Hornig et Weber-Peuket, 1987 (Pl. 5, Fig. 5-8; Pl. 12, Fig. 1-4)

Bas.: Dictyota dichotoma var. menstrualis Hoyt, 1927: 616.

Syn.: Dictyota dichotoma var. latifrons P. L. Crouan et H. M. Crouan in Maze et Schramm, 1878: 119.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, entangled, 3-7 cm long, forming dense mats. Dark yellow or light brown, some portions olive green. Branching dichotomous, branches of equal size. Blades ribbon-like, margins not divided, 3-4 mm wide near the base and 5-6 mm in superior parts. About 34 cells across the blade in cross-section, blades 250 [micro]m thick. Branches 0.8-1 cm long, apices slightly pointed, sometimes rounded. Cortical cells ovoid, 20-30 [micro]m in diam. Medullary cells rectangular to globular, 130-200 [micro]m long and 100-200 [micro]m wide. Surface cells rectangular, pigmented, 17-45 [micro]m long and 12-25 [micro]m wide. Antheridial sori hemispherical, 90-100 [micro]m, located along both sides of the blade. Bifurcations forming 60-90[degrees] angles. Sporangia grouped, 60-80 um in diam., along both sides of the blade. Attachment disc fibrous. Epiphyte on the chlorophyte Halimeda scabra.

Note. The morphology of the species is widely variable. Its diagnostic features frequently overlap with those of other species. The species distribution in the Atlantic is still confused. The encountered specimens may belong to a species complex, and its varieties and forms are to be described (Sole & Foldats, 2003).

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 80, 80R, 80R1 (12 November 2008); LS-1 (3 June 2010).

NPSAV: Playa del Balneario Villa del Mar; Playa Mocambo, Blanca, Blanquilla, Giote and Hornos reefs, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Sacrificios (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Tuxpan: Tuxpan Reef; Mpio. Actopan: Playa Paraiso (La Mancha), Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica); Mpio. Alto Lucero: Boca Andrea, Laguna Verde, Playa el Morro (Punta del Morro); Mpio. Boca del Rio: Laguna de Mandinga; Mpio. San Andres Tuxtla: Montepio (Punta Morrillos); Mpio. Tuxpan: Tuxpan; Mpios. Pueblo Viejo, Tampico Alto, Ozuluama, Tamalin and Tamiahua (Laguna de Tamiahua) (Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 218; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 158; Littler & Littler, 2000: 266, 267 (fig.); Sole & Foldats, 2003: 60, fig. 13 and 14; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 123, pl. 13, fig. 13 and 14.

20. Dictyotapulchella Hornig et Schnetter, 1988 (Pl. 5, Fig. 9-12; Pl. 12, Fig. 5-8; Pl. 13, Fig. 1)

Syn.: Dictyota divaricata J. V. Lamouroux, 1809: 43; Zonaria divaricata (J. V. Lamouroux) C. Agardh, 1817: xxi.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, forming dense entangled mats. Light brown. Branching widely dichotomous. Bifurcations forming 90-100[degrees] angles at base and in superior parts, 60-120[degrees]. Blades compressed, ribbon-like, margins not divided, 2-3 mm wide in basal part, the width being continuously diminished with every bifurcation, down to 0.5-0.8 mm. Apices pointed. Surface cells rectangular, 40-50 [micro]m long and 10-14 [micro]m wide. Chloroplasts several. Medullary cells arranged in a single row, up to 23 cells in transverse section, rectangular to globular, 60-130 [micro]m in diam. Cortical cells spherical, strongly pigmented, 12-18 [micro]m in diam. Sporangia spherical, 70-120 [micro]m in diam., with a ring of basal cells. Antheridia 50 [micro]m long.

Note. A ring of cells that encircles the sporangia is not mentioned in the revised literature (Earle, 1969; Schneider & Searles, 1991; Littler & Littler, 2000; Sole & Foldats, 2003; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008). Although this structure was observed in the examined specimens, other morphological features and size correspond well to Dictyota pulchella.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 26, 26R (12 November 2008); LS-1 (3 June 2008).

NPSAV (as Dictyota divaricata): Giote Reef, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Sacrificios, Isla Verde, Isla Santiaguillo, Isla de Enmedio (Ortega et al., 2001; GaliciaGarcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz (as Dictyota divaricata): Mpio. Tuxpan: Isla de Lobos, Tuxpan Reef (Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 219; Earle, 1969: 160, fig. 45, 46 and 58; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 160; Littler & Littler, 2000: 268, 269 (fig.); Sole & Foldats, 2003: 65, fig. 19 and 20; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 125, pl. 14, fig. 1- 4.

21. Padinapavonica (L.) Thivy in W. R. Taylor, 1960 (Pl. 5, Fig. 13 and 14; Pl. 6, Fig. 1; Pl. 13, Fig. 2-5)

Bas.: Fucuspavonicus L., 1753: 1162.

Syn.: Padina pavonia J. V. Lamouroux, 1816: 304; Zonaria pavonia C. Agardh, 1820: 125; Padina mediterranea Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1827: 590.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, fronds fan-shaped, moderately calcified, 10 cm long. Light brown. Fronds grouped into dense clumps. Apical margins inrolled, composed of two rows of cells 45-80 [micro]m thick. Blades 100-115 [micro]m thick at base, formed by 3 rows of cells; their middle parts 80-100 [micro]m thick, formed by 2-3 rows of cells. Sterile hairs numerous, 20-25 [micro]m in diam., located near the base of fronds. Sporangia ovoid, 60-100 [micro]m in diam., with indusium, located along the concentric bands near the apical margin only on one side of the blades. Attaches to the substrate by a mass of rhizoids 1.5 cm in diam.

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 27, 27R (12 November 2008); LS-12 (1 March 2008), 2 (12 November 2008), 29 (10 April 2008).

NPSAV: Blanquilla Reef, Isla de Enmedio (Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Actopan: Playa Paraiso (La Mancha), Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica); Mpio. Alto Lucero: Playa el Morro (Punta del Morro); Mpio. San Andres Tuxtla: Montepio (Punta Morrilos); Mpio. Tuxpan: Barra de Tuxpan, Blanquilla, Enmedio, Tanhuijo and Tuxpan reefs; Isla de Lobos, Isla de Enmedio (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

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GOM: SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 234; Littler & Littler, 2000: 274, 275 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 128, pl. 14, fig. 15.

Family Chordariaceae

22. Cladosiphon occidentalis Kylin, 1940 (Pl. 6, Fig. 2-4; Pl. 13, Fig. 6-8)

Syn.: Eudesme zosterae sensu Dawes & Mathieson (2008: 140), non (J. Agardh) Kylin: 85, fig. 20; Cladosiphon zosterae sensu Dawes & Mathieson (2008: 140), non (J. Agardh) Kylin: 1940: 28, pl. 4, fig. 9.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, smooth, gelatinous, worm-like, small, 1-3 cm long, sometimes densely branched. Light brown, golden brown or yellow. Axes tubular, covered with fine colored hairs, up to 150 [micro]m long and 8-15 [micro]m in diam. Inward medullary cells compact, longitudinally elongate, cylindrical, 100-250 [micro]m long and 30-75 [micro]m in diam. Surface filaments strongly pigmented, radially arranged, 100-300 [micro]m long. Sporangia plurilocular, elongate, 30-40 [micro]m long, located at the extremities of the surface filaments. Attaches to the substrate by a basal disc 0.5 mm in diam. Epiphyte on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

Examined specimens: LS-39 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Hornos and Blanca reefs, Isla Verde, Isla Sacrificios, Isla de Enmedio (Dreckmann, 1998; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: not found.

GOM: throughout the gulf (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 247; Earle, 1969: 180, fig. 72, 75, 76 and 83; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 136; Littler & Littler, 2000: 244, 245 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 140, pl. 17, fig. 1 and 2.

Family Scytosiphonaceae

23. Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbes et Solier, 1851 (Pl. 6, Fig. 5 and 6; Pl. 13, Fig. 9; Pl. 14, Fig. 1)

Bas.: Ulva sinuosa Mertens ex Roth, 1806: 327, pl. 12; Encoelium sinuosum (Mertens ex Roth) C. Agardh, 1820: 146; Stilophora sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) C. Agardh, 1827: 642; Asperococcus sinuosus (Mertens ex Roth) Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1832: 326; Hydroclathrus sinuosus (Mertens ex Roth) Zanardini, 1843: 39.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, rigid, sessile, sac-like, irregularly lobed, creeping, 3-8 cm in diam., formed by 4-6 rows of cells, 0.3-0.4 mm thick. Light brown or golden brown. Medullary cells hyaline, irregular-shaped, 160-200 [micro]m in diam., continuously diminishing in size towards the surface layer (1-2 rows) of small, strongly pigmented cells 6-12 [micro]m in diam. Sporangia plurilocular, numerous, located on the blade surface, elongate, 10-20 [micro]m long and 5-8 [micro]m wide. Sterile hairs up to 150 [micro]m long and 10-13 [micro]m in diam., located on the blade surface.

Examined specimens: LS-36 (12 November 2008).

NPSAV: Playa Mocambo, Blanquilla, Hornos and Blanca reefs, Isla Verde, Isla Sacrificios, Isla de Enmedio, Isla Santiaguillo (Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Actopan: Playa Paraiso (La Mancha), Villa Rica (Punta Villa Rica); Mpio. Alto Lucero: Boca Andrea, Laguna Verde, Playa el Morro (Punta el Morro); Mpio. San Andres Tuxtla: Montepio (Punta Morrillos); Mpio. Tuxpan: Barra de Tuxpan, Isla de Lobos, Tuxpan Reef, marine littoral of Tampamachoco lagoon; Mpio. de Cazones: Barra de Cazones (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Gandara et al., 2007).

GOM: SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 260; Earle, 1969: 200, fig. 100 and 101; Schneider & Searles, 1991: 146; Littler & Littler, 2000: 248, 249 (fig.); Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 150, pl. 18, fig. 10 and 11; Norris, 2010: 192, fig. 92a.

24. Rosenvingea intricata (J. Agardh) Borgesen, 1914 (Pl. 6, Fig. 7-9; Pl. 14, Fig. 2-4)

Bas.: Asperococcus intricatus J. Agardh, 1847: 7.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, delicate, smooth, not gelatinous, easily fragmented, up to 10 cm long. Light brown or golden brown. Branching widely dichotomous, in some parts alternate. Axes slightly compressed, 1.2-1.5 mm in diam. Apices pointed, with numerous apical cells. Surface cells rectangular, 7-10 [micro]m in diam. Branches containing 3-4 rows of interior hyaline cells 40-100 [micro]m in diam. and one row of small external cells, strongly pigmented, 10-12 [micro]m in diam. Sporangia plurilocular, ovoid, 40-50 [micro]m long, located on visible sori on the blade surface. Surface hairs grouped into clumps.

Examined specimens: LS-27 (1 March 2008).

NPSAV: Gallega and Hornos reefs (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001; Galicia-Garcia & Morales-Garcia, 2007).

Elsewhere in Veracruz: Mpio. Alto Lucero: Playa el Morro (Punta el Morro); Mpio. de Tamiahua (Laguna de Tamiahua) (Dreckmann, 1998; Ortega et al., 2001).

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GOM: NW, SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 262; Earle, 1969: 207, fig. 108-112; Dawes & Mathieson, 2008: 153, pl. 18, fig. 18 and 19; Norris, 2010: 198, fig. 96.

Family Sargassaceae

25. Sargassum furcatum Kutz., 1843 (Pl. 7, Fig. 1-5; Pl. 14, Fig. 5-7)

Syn.: Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh (var.) furcatum (Kutz.) Kuntze, 1880: 229.

Thallus pseudoparenchymatous, erect, with numerous branches originating from the base area. Golden brown. Branchlets numerous, short, 1-1.6 cm long, all the axes muriculated. Blades are present principally in young parts of thallus, thin, linear-lanceolate, clearly serrulate (toothed), subpercurrent, with a rib, usually dichotomously divided 1-4 times, 3-3.5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide. Cryptostomata small, located irregularly on the blades, 192-228 [micro]m in diam. Air-bladders absent. Receptacles warty, cylindrical, 4-8 mm long. Male conceptacles 144 [micro]m in diam. Female conceptacles 168 [micro]m in diam.

Note. The species has been previously reported for the State of Quintana Roo (Caribbean Sea), and most likely it is in the process of expanding its range (Dreck mann, 1998).

Examined specimens: ICIMAP-UV-AL 69 (11 March 2008); LS-14 (11 March 2008). A fragment of thallus was found floating in the water column.

A new record for the State of Veracruz. For this species, Ortega et al. (2001: 333) only indicate "Veracruz" without giving any details about localities.

GOM: SW and SE (Fredericq et al., 2009).

References: Taylor, 1960: 277; Flores-Moya & Conde, 1998: 68, fig. 1; Moreira & Suarez, 2002: 53, fig. 1.

DISCUSSION

On Cabezo Reef a total of 46 macroalgal species were identified, of which 21 (45.6%) belong to red algae (Galicia-Garcia, pers. obs.), 13 (28.26%) to green algae and 12 (26.08%) to brown algae. The families Corallinaceae (6 species), Dictyotaceae (6) and Rhodomelaceae (5) were best represented in the number of species.

Out of 25 species given in the present work, Percursaria percursa is a new record for NPSAV, while Dictyerpa jamaicensis, Sargassum furcatum, Caulerpa racemosa var. occidentalis and Codium isthmocladum subsp. clavatum are new records for the State of Veracruz. Percursaria percursa is known from Labrador to New Jersey, the Gulf of Mexico and Venezuela, as well as from the northeastern and tropical Atlantic (type location: Hofmansgave, Denmark), the Mediterranean and Black seas, the Indo-Pacific region, Australia, and Antarctica (Dawes & Mathieson, 2008).

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Most chlorophyte genera (at least Caulerpa J. V. Lamouroux, Cladophoropsis Borgesen, Dictyosphaeria Decaisne, Ernodesmis Borgesen, Neomeris J. V. Lamouroux, Parvocaulis S. Berger, U. Fettweiss, S. Gleissberg, L. B. Liddle, U. Richter, H. Sawitsky, H. et G. C. Zuccarello and Rhipocephalus Kutz.) have exclusively tropical-subtropical distributions (Littler & Littler, 2000; Guiry & Guiry, 2011). Two genera, Ernodesmis and Rhipocephalus, seem to be endemic to the tropical western Atlantic (Guiry & Guiry, 2011). Codium Stackhouse, Halimeda J. V. Lamouroux and Percursaria Bory de Saint-Vincent are distributed throughout the tropical and temperate zones. The data on the geographic distribution of the phaeophycean genera are not sufficient to form reliable conclusions, although they seem to have a wider distribution in general. We conclude that at least the chlorophyte component of the macroalgal flora of Cabezo Reef has, to a greater extent, a tropical affiliation at the generic level.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Our thanks to Captain Cipriano Anaya-Cruz for logistic support, Luz Elena Mateo-Cid and A. Catalina Mendoza-Gonzalez for their hospitality in the Laboratory of Phycology at Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional in Mexico City, Horacio Perez-Espana from Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Pesquerias, Universidad Veracruzana (ICIMAP-UV) for both logistic and financial support with the boat trip in 2010. The help of Sachico Hayasaka-Ramirez (ICIMAP-UV) in obtaining necessary literature is very much appreciated. Marcia M. Gowing from the University of California at Santa Cruz, California, USA, kindly improved the writing style. The present study was a part of the project of the Direccion General de Investigaciones de la Universidad Veracruzana "Algas de la zona arrecifal Veracruzana, Golfo de Mexico, con enfasis en las algas rojas, diatomeas y dinoflagelados" (2007-2009) given to YBO. Financial support of "Programa de Mejoramiento del Profesorado" to the project "Patrones de distribucion de la diversidad y biomasa de grupos funcionales clave para el Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano" (2011-2012) is also appreciated.

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Recibido en agosto de 2011.

Aceptado en febrero de 2012.

NESTOR M. ROBINSON (1), CITLALLI GALICIA-GARCIA (1) & YURI B. OKOLODKOV (2,3)

(1) Instituto Tecnologico de Boca del Rio, Laboratorio de Biologia, km 12 carretera Veracruz-Cordoba, 94290 Boca del Rio, Veracruz, Mexico.

(2) Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Pesquerias, Calle Hidalgo num. 617, Colonia Rio Jamapa, 94290 Boca del Rio, Veracruz, Mexico.

(3) Author for correspondence: yuriokolodkov@yahoo.com
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Author:Robinson, Nestor M.; Galicia-Garcia, Citlalli; Okolodkov, Yuri B.
Publication:Acta Botanica Mexicana
Date:Oct 1, 2012
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