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New hosts of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil.

The carambola fruit fly (Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae), native to Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand (White & Elson-Harris 1992), was first reported in South America in 1975 in Paramaribo, Suriname (Sauers-Muller 1991). Bactrocera carambolae was detected in French Guiana in 1989, and in 1996 in the state of Amapa, Brazil, where it is under strict official control (Godoy et al. 2011).

Bactrocera carambolae is a quarantine pest in Brazil, because its presence in production areas would cause the loss of major consumers markets worldwide. Unfortunately, little information is available about this pest's population dynamics, demographics, host range, and host preferences, but such data that are essential for the establishment of control measures. The current list of carambola fruit fly hosts in Brazil is mainly based on information from the center of origin of the species. The following hosts have been reported in Brazil: Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Malpighia emarginata Sesse & Moc. ex DC. (Malpighiaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Pouteria caimito Radlk (Sapotaceae), Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill. (Annonaceae), and Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) (Silva et al. 2011a). This work aimed to record new hosts of B. carambolae in the state of Amapa, which is situated in the extreme north of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon.

Fruits were collected in 3 municipalities in Amapa: Santana (S 00[degrees] 02' 09" -W 51[degrees] 13' 31"), Mazagao (S 00[degrees] 06' 31" - W 51[degrees] 15' 45"), and Porto Grande (N 00[degrees] 36' 13" - W 51[degrees] 27' 10"), from Jan to Dec 2012. Samples were collected and processed (individual fruits) and adult insects were obtained according to Silva et al. (2011b).

Adult B. carambolae flies emerged from 9 plant species in 6 families. Six of those plant species are reported here for the first time as hosts of B. carambolae in Brazil (marked with a black circle in Table 1). In September 2010, using the grouped fruits method, we collected a sample of Chrysobalanus icaco L. (79 fruits, 286 g, 160 puparia) in Macapa (N 00[degrees] 48' 30" - W 50[degrees] 45' 23"), from which 106 B. carambolae adults were obtained. This is the first report of B. carambolae on this plant species. So, in this work we report 7 new hosts of B. carambolae in Brazil.

In Southeast Asia, the region of origin of B. carambolae, Allwood et al. (1999) reported the occurrence of the carambola fruit fly on 75 plant species from 26 families. In Suriname in South America, Sauers-Muller (2005) reported 20 hosts from 9 plant families. A total of 9 species were identified as hosts in this report, 5 [Mangifera indica (cv. 'Tommy Atkins'), Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry, P. guajava, A. carambola, and Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] have also been reported by the aforementioned authors. However, this is the first report of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Solanales: Solanaceae), Chrysobalanus icaco L. (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae), Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaughe (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and Pouteria macrophylla (Lam.) Eyma (Ericales: Sapotaceae) as hosts of B. carambolae.

The highest number of B. carambolae adults were obtained from A. carambola and P. guajava. These species have been reported in Southeast Asia and in Suriname as the primary hosts of B. carambolae (Allwood et al. 1999; Sauers-Muller 2005). In addition, we especially note the occurrence of B. carambolae on fruits of E. stipitata and P. macrophylla, which are native to the Amazon region. Although the fruits of these plant species were collected in areas altered by human activity, the carambola fruit fly is able to use species of the Amazon flora as alternative hosts. Therefore, new surveys should be conducted for a better understanding of host use by the exotic species B. carambolae in Brazil, encompassing both exotic and native plant species.

The authors thank Maria Julia Signoretti Godoy by supporting research on Bactrocera carambolae in the state of Amapa. We express heartfelt thanks to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply for permission to publish this work, and to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico--CNPq for the Research Productivity Fellowship granted to R. Adaime and the Human Resource Stability Fellowship granted to E. G. Deus.


ALLWOOD, A. J., CHINAJARIYAWONG, A., VKRITSANEE-PAIBOON, S., DREW, R. A. I., HAMACEK, E. L., HANCOCK, D. L., HENGSAWAD, C., JIPANIN, J. C., JIRASURAT, M., KONG KRONG, C., LEONG, C. T. S., AND VIJAYSEGARAN, S. 1999. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. The Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. 7: 1-92.

GODOY, M. J. S., PACHECO, W. S. P., PORTAL, R. R., PIRES FILHO, J. M., AND MORAES, L. M. M. 2011. Programa Nacional de Erradicacao da Mosca-da-Carambola, pp. 134-158 In R. A. Silva, W. P. Lemos and R. A. Zucchi [eds.], Moscas-das-frutas na Amazonia brasileira: diversidade, hospedeiros e inimigos naturais. Macapa: Embrapa Amapa.

SAUERS-MULLER, A. VAN. 2005. Host plants of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Suriname, South America. Neotrop. Entomol. 34(2): 203-214.

SAUERS-MULLER, A. VAN. 1991. An overview of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae), found recently in Suriname. Florida Entomol. 74(3): 432-440.

SILVA, R. A., DEUS, E. G., PEREIRA, J. D. B., JESUS, C. R., SOUZA-FILHO, M. F., AND ZUCCHI, R. A. 2011a. Conhecimento sobre moscas-das-frutas no Estado do Amapa, pp. 223-236 In R. A. Silva, W. P. Lemos and R. A. Zuc chi [eds.], Moscas-das-frutas na Amazonia brasileira: diversidade, hospedeiros e inimigos naturais. Macapa: Embrapa Amapa.

SILVA, R. A., DEUS, E. G., RAGA, A., PEREIRA, J. D. B., SOUZA FILHO, M. F., AND COSTA NETO, S. V. 2011b. Monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas na Amazonia: amostragem de frutos e uso de armadilhas, pp. 33-50 In R. A. Silva, W. P. Lemos and R. A. Zucchi [eds.], Moscas-das-frutas na Amazonia brasileira: diversidade, hospedeiros e inimigos naturais. Macapa: Embrapa Amapa.

WHITE, I. M., AND ELSON-HARRIS, M. 1992. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. Melksham, UK, CAB International, Redwork Press Ltd. 601 pp.

Lailsun Do Nasoimento Lemos (1), Ricardo Adaime (2) *, Cristiane Ramos De Jesus-Barros (2), and Ezequiel Da Gloria De Deus (1)

(1) Universidade Federal do Amapa, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biodiversidade Tropical, Rodovia JK, km 4, 68902-280 Macapa, Amapa, Brazil

(2) Embrapa Amapa, Rodovia JK, km 5, No. 2600, 68903-419, Macapa, Amapa, Brazil

* Corresponding author; E-mail:

Family/Species     Origin     Collection     Location     (A) Fruits
                   of host       date                       (C/I)


Mangifera          India,      Jan/2012    Porto Grande      3/1
indica (C)          Burma


Malpighia         Tropical     Jan/2012    Porto Grande      15/2
emarginata         America     Aug/2012    Porto Grande      15/2
                               Feb/2012      Santana         15/1
                               Jun/2012      Santana         15/1
                               Jul/2012      Santana         15/6
                               Aug/2012      Santana         15/3
                               Sep/2012      Santana         15/2


Eugenia             West       Jan/2012    Porto Grande      10/5
stipitata (C)      Amazon      Feb/2012    Porto Grande      10/8
                               Aug/2012    Porto Grande      10/3
Psidium guajava   Tropical     Apr/2012      Mazagao         15/9
                   America     May/2012      Santana         10/3
                               Jun/2012      Santana         10/2
                               Oct/2012      Santana         10/2
Syzygium          Southeast    Apr/2012      Mazagao         10/4
malaccense (C)      Asia       Sep/2012      Mazagao         15/6
                               Apr/2012    Porto Grande      10/3
                               Sep/2012      Santana         10/1


Averrhoa          Southeast    May/2012    Porto Grande      15/7
carambola           Asia       Jun/2012    Porto Grande      10/8
                               Jul/2012    Porto Grande      15/9
                               Sep/2012    Porto Grande      15/4
                               Nov/2012    Porto Grande     15/12
                               Dec/2012    Porto Grande      15/4


Manilkara          Central     Apr/2012    Porto Grande      15/1
zapota (C)         America     May/2012    Porto Grande      10/1

Pouteria           Amazon      Jan/2012    Porto Grande      10/1
macrophylla (C)    Forest      Feb/2012    Porto Grande      10/2
                               Nov/2012    Porto Grande      15/1
                               Dec/2012    Porto Grande      10/4


Capsicum            South      Feb/2012    Porto Grande      15/3
chinense (C)       America

Family/Species     Origin     Collection   (B) Weight   Puparia
                   of host       date         (g)         (n)


Mangifera          India,      Jan/2012       772         22
indica (C)          Burma


Malpighia         Tropical     Jan/2012       6.9          3
emarginata         America     Aug/2012       9.8          2
                               Feb/2012       4.8          1
                               Jun/2012       6.6          2
                               Jul/2012       28.9        18
                               Aug/2012       17.4         6
                               Sep/2012       9.4          3


Eugenia             West       Jan/2012       605         60
stipitata (C)      Amazon      Feb/2012       944         222
                               Aug/2012       391         60
Psidium guajava   Tropical     Apr/2012       510         220
                   America     May/2012       181         27
                               Jun/2012       174         53
                               Oct/2012       269         41
Syzygium          Southeast    Apr/2012       214         22
malaccense (C)      Asia       Sep/2012       263         40
                               Apr/2012       287         23
                               Sep/2012        51          2


Averrhoa          Southeast    May/2012       310         95
carambola           Asia       Jun/2012       253         100
                               Jul/2012       251         76
                               Sep/2012       113         11
                               Nov/2012       257         64
                               Dec/2012        63         23


Manilkara          Central     Apr/2012       117          1
zapota (C)         America     May/2012        85          5

Pouteria           Amazon      Jan/2012        77          2
macrophylla (C)    Forest      Feb/2012       104         17
                               Nov/2012        36          4
                               Dec/2012       140         29


Capsicum            South      Feb/2012        28          8
chinense (C)       America

Family/Species     Origin     Collection   * Infestation   Anastrepha
                   of host       date          (P/f)          (n)


Mangifera          India,      Jan/2012         22             0
indica (C)          Burma


Malpighia         Tropical     Jan/2012         1.5            0
emarginata         America     Aug/2012          1             0
                               Feb/2012          1             0
                               Jun/2012          2             0
                               Jul/2012          3             1
                               Aug/2012          2             0
                               Sep/2012         1.5            0


Eugenia             West       Jan/2012         12             12
stipitata (C)      Amazon      Feb/2012        27.75           41
                               Aug/2012         20             22
Psidium guajava   Tropical     Apr/2012        24.44           55
                   America     May/2012          9             8
                               Jun/2012        26.5            31
                               Oct/2012        20.5            6
Syzygium          Southeast    Apr/2012         5.5            0
malaccense (C)      Asia       Sep/2012        6.66            0
                               Apr/2012        7.66            0
                               Sep/2012          2             0


Averrhoa          Southeast    May/2012        13.57           0
carambola           Asia       Jun/2012        12.5            0
                               Jul/2012        8.44            0
                               Sep/2012        2.75            0
                               Nov/2012        5.33            1
                               Dec/2012        5.75            0


Manilkara          Central     Apr/2012          1             0
zapota (C)         America     May/2012          5             0

Pouteria           Amazon      Jan/2012          2             0
macrophylla (C)    Forest      Feb/2012         8.5            0
                               Nov/2012          4             0
                               Dec/2012        7.25            0


Capsicum            South      Feb/2012        2.66            0
chinense (C)       America

Family/Species     Origin     Collection   B. carambolae (n)
                   of host       date


Mangifera          India,      Jan/2012    11[male], 8[female]
indica (C)          Burma


Malpighia         Tropical     Jan/2012    3[female]
emarginata         America     Aug/2012    1[male], 1[female]
                               Feb/2012    1[male]
                               Jun/2012    1[female]
                               Jul/2012    3[male], 6[female]
                               Aug/2012    2[male], 4[female]
                               Sep/2012    1[male], 2[female]


Eugenia             West       Jan/2012    8[male], 10[female]
stipitata (C)      Amazon      Feb/2012    38[male], 28[female]
                               Aug/2012    4[male]
Psidium guajava   Tropical     Apr/2012    41[male], 39[female]
                   America     May/2012    1[male], 8[female]
                               Jun/2012    7[male], 3[female]
                               Oct/2012    2[male], 1[female]
Syzygium          Southeast    Apr/2012    7[male], 9[female]
malaccense (C)      Asia       Sep/2012    12[male], 14[female]
                               Apr/2012    9[male], 7[female]
                               Sep/2012    1[female]


Averrhoa          Southeast    May/2012    18[male], 20[female]
carambola           Asia       Jun/2012    24[male], 21[female]
                               Jul/2012    11[male], 19[female]
                               Sep/2012    3[male], 3[female]
                               Nov/2012    25[male], 17[female]
                               Dec/2012    6[male], 8[female]


Manilkara          Central     Apr/2012    1[male]
zapota (C)         America     May/2012    2[male]

Pouteria           Amazon      Jan/2012    1[male], 1[female]
macrophylla (C)    Forest      Feb/2012    5[male], 9[female]
                               Nov/2012    1[male], 1[female]
                               Dec/2012    4[male], 8[female]


Capsicum            South      Feb/2012    3[male], 3[female]
chinense (C)       America

(A) number of fruits collected/number of fruits infested;
(B) mass of infested fruits; * infestation rate, calculated
exclusively from infested fruits; P/f: puparia/fruit;
(C) first report as host of B. carambolae in Brazil.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Scientific Notes
Author:Lemos, Lailson Do Nascimento; Adaime, Ricardo; De Jesus-Barros, Cristiane Ramos; De Deus, Ezequiel D
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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