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New geographic distribution records for Parajulid millipeds (Diplopoda: Julida), in Arkansas and Texas.

The primary North American milliped family Parajulidae ranges from Yakutut, Alaska, and James Bay, Ontario, to western El Salvador (Shelley 2008). This large and complex assemblage of taxa includes the genus Aniulus Chamberlin which, at present, contains at least 22 species inhabiting various habitats from the Atlantic Ocean to southwestern Utah, and north to south, from southern Quebec to southern Texas and Arizona (Shelley 2001; McAllister et al. 2009). Another group, the subgenus Hakiulus, ranges from the vicinity of the Canadian border in North Dakota and Michigan to the Rio Grande in Texas and east to west, extending from central Ohio to eastern Michigan to southwestern Colorado (Shelley 2000). There are currently eight species of Aniulus within the subgenus Hakiulus; one of these, Aniulus (Hakiulus) amophor (Chamberlin), was described from material collected along Turtle Creek, Kerr County, Texas (Chamberlin 1940). Since then, additional records of A. (Hakiulus) amophor have been reported only from Texas (Chamberlin & Hoffman 1958; Hoffman 1999; Shelley 2000). Herein, this study provides a significant distributional record for A. (Hakiulus) amophor in Arkansas, as well as 13 new county records for other species/subspecies of Aniulus in Texas.

Between October 2002 and November 2007, millipeds were collected from various sites in Arkansas and Texas. Collecting techniques involved using a potato rake to move debris, turning decaying logs, peeling bark off fallen trees, and moving leaf litter and rocks; pitfall trapping was used at only one site. Following preliminary identification, specimens were placed in vials containing 70% ethanol and shipped to Rowland M. Shelley at the North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, North Carolina (NCSM) for verification of identification. Voucher specimens were subsequently deposited in the NCSM. Taxa recovered are presented below along with distributional (state, county, specific locality, number of millipeds and sexes, collection date) information.


Aniulus (Hakiulus) amophor (Chamberlin).-ARKANSAS: Union Co., El Dorado (33.1244[degrees]N, 92.3957[degrees]W), [male], 27 November 2007. A single male specimen was collected with a pitfall trap from a yard in urban habitat. This is the first time this species has been reported from a state outside of Texas. This milliped was previously known from Bexar, Comal, DeWitt, Gonzales, Guadalupe, Jasper, Jim Wells, Karnes, Kerr, Live Oak, San Patricio, Wharton, and Wilson counties. The new disjunct site reported herein is ca. 365 km NE of the most proximate locality of A. (Hakiulus) amophor in Jasper, Jasper Co., Texas. Other myriapods collected at this site included Eurymerodesmus angularis Causey and Hemiscolopendra marginata (Say).

Compared to northern Arkansas where the late Nell B. Causey (1910-1979) did most of her work (Causey 1950; 1951; and others), little is known about the general milliped fauna of southern Arkansas. New records for Arkansas millipeds were reported by McAllister et al. (2002a; 2002b; 2003) and McAllister & Shelley (2008). In addition, several miscellaneous taxonomic papers by Shelley (1990), Shear (2003), Shelley & McAllister (2006) and Shelley et al. (2006) reported millipeds from various southern Arkansas counties. Obviously, additional collecting of millipeds should be attempted in this part of the state as well as eastern Arkansas where there are few records.

Aniulus (Hakiulus) diversifrons diversifrons (Wood).--TEXAS: Bowie Co., 11.3 km N DeKalb off CR (County Road) 3207, 2[male], 3[female], 23 November 2004; Delta Co., Cooper Lake State Park, Doctors Creek Unit, [male], 3 January 2003; Hood Co., Fort Spunky off CR 1120, 3[male], 4[female], 17 February 2005; Marion Co., Berea Six off FM 728, [male], [female], 2 juvs., 23 October 2002; Titus Co., Argo, off FM 1993 at Snake Creek, [male], 10 November 2003. These sites (Fig. 1) document five new county records for A. (Hakiulus) diversifrons diversifrons. It has previously been reported from much of the central United States, including Arkansas, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas (Shelley 2000). In Texas, this milliped was known previously from Anderson, Baylor, Brown, Cherokee, Colorado, Dallas, Erath, Grayson, Hamilton, Hopkins, Hunt, Lavaca, Milam, Potter, Randall, Smith, Stonewall, Travis, Val Verde, and Wilson counties (Stewart 1969; Shelley 2000).


Aniulus (Hakiulus) diversifrons neomexicanus (Chamberlin).-TEXAS: Brown Co., Brownwood State Park, 20.9 km NNW Brownwood, 27 November 2002; Limestone Co., Confederate Reunion Grounds State Park, 6[male], 18[female], 21 December 2002. This milliped was previously known from Colorado and New Mexico, and Hudspeth, Potter, and Randall counties, Texas (Shelley 2000). Two new county records are documented herein (Fig. 1) that are considerable distances east of previous Texas localities in the Panhandle and Guadalupe Mountains areas of the state.

Aniulus (Hakiulus) diversifrons intergrades.-TEXAS: Coleman Co., 3.2 km E Talpa off US 67, 2[male], 2[female], juv., 23 December 2006; Tom Green Co., San Angelo, 156 Las Lomas Trail, 6[male], 7[female], 4 juvs., 13 November 2005 & 24 December 2006. These specimens display gonopodal characters intermediate between those of two races, A. (Hakiulus) diversifrons diversifrons and A. (Hakiulus) diversifrons neomexicanus (Chamberlin). Shelley (2000) previously reported similar intergrades from Garza Co., Texas, and Larimer Co., Colorado, and the new sites (county records, Fig. 1) are a considerable distance northwest and southeast, respectively, from those localities.

Aniulus brazonus Chamberlin.-TEXAS: Dallas Co., Cedar Hill State Park, Talaha Trail, [male], 2[female], 16 November 2002. This represents only the second record of A. brazonus ever documented, as the species was previously known only from the type locality in Brazos County, Texas (Shelley 2001). These specimens were collected underneath leaf litter and decaying logs in prairie habitat dominated by mesquite, live oak, and ashe juniper; the new site (Fig. 1) is ca. 240 km N of the type locality.

Aniulus craterus craterus Chamberlin.-TEXAS: Kimble Co., South Llano River State Park, 3.2 km S Junction, 6[male], 2[female], 22 February 2003; 1.6 km NE Telegraph off US 377 at Llano River, 3[male], 3[female], 21 February 2004; 8.0 km SW Junction off US 377 at Bailey Creek, [male], 21 February 2004. This milliped was previously reported from Bandera (Loomis 1959) and Bexar and Kerr counties (Shelley 2001). This study documents a new county record (Fig. 1) in the Edwards Plateau (Hill Country), the northernmost localities for A. craterus in the state.

Aniulus craterus intergrades.-TEXAS: Uvalde Co., Garner State Park, Crystal Cave, 2 [male], 6 March 2004. These specimens display gonopodal characters intermediate between those of two subspecies, A. craterus craterus and A. craterus fili Loomis. This is the first time, to the author's knowledge, that Aniulus millipeds have been reported from Uvalde County (see Fig. 1).

Aniulus fluviatilis Chamberlin.-TEXAS: Hood Co., Fort Spunky off CR 1120, 3[male], 20 February 2004. This represents a new county record as A. fluviatilis was known previously from Brazos and Polk counties (Causey 1952; Shelley 2001). The new site (Fig. 1) is a considerable distance northwest and west of previously reported localities into the Cross Timbers area of the state. Specimens were collected underneath rocks in disturbed shortgrass prairie habitat dominated by mesquite, ashe juniper, live oak, and cottonwood.


We thank Dr. R. M. Shelley (NCSM) for specimen identification and curatorial assistance, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department for scientific collecting permits issued to CTM, and J. T. McAllister, III, D. Moore, T. Ratliff, and T. Sciara for assistance in collecting.


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Causey, N. B. 1951. On Eurymerodesmidae, a new family of Diplopoda (Strongylosomidae). and a new Arkansas species of Eurymerodesmus. Proc. Arkansas Acad. Sci., 4:69-71.

Causey, N. B. 1952. New species and records of paraiulid millipeds from Texas. Texas J. Sci., 4(2):200-203.

Chamberlin, R. V. 1940. New genera and species of North American Paraiulidae. Bull. Univ. Utah, 30 [Biol. Ser. 5]: 1-39.

Chamberlin, R. V. & R. L. Hoffman. 1958. Checklist of the millipeds of North America. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 212:1-236.

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McAllister, C. T. & R. M. Shelley. 2008. New records of eurymerodesmid millipeds (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) from Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. J. Arkansas Acad. Sci., 62:155-158.

McAllister, C. T., R. M. Shelley & J. T. McAllister, III. 2002a. Millipeds (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) of the Ark-La-Tex. II. Distributional records for some species of western and central Arkansas and eastern and southeastern Oklahoma. J. Arkansas Acad. Sci., 56:95-98.

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McAllister, C. T., R. M. Shelley & S. E. Trauth. 2009. Aniulus garius (Chamberlin, 1912), a widespread milliped in central and eastern North America (Julida: Parajulidae: Aniulini). Spec. Publ. Virginia Mus. Nat. Hist., 16:229-238.

McAllister, C. T., C. S. Harris, R. M. Shelley & J. T. McAllister, III. 2002b. Millipeds (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) of the Ark-La-Tex. I. New distributional and state records for seven counties of the west Gulf Coastal Plain of Arkansas. J. Arkansas Acad. Sci., 56:91-94.

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Shelley, R. M., C. T. McAllister & M. F. Medrano. 2006. Distribution of the milliped genus Narceus Rafinesque, 1820 (Spirobolida: Spirobolidae): Occurrences in New England and west of the Mississippi River: A summary of peripheral localities; and first records from Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, and Minnesota. W. North Amer. Nat., 66:374-389.

Stewart, T. C. 1969. Records of millipeds in twenty five northeast Texas counties. Texas J. Sci., 20(4):383-385.

CTM at:

Chris T. McAllister and Henry W. Robison

RapidWrite, 102 Brown Street Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 71913 and Department of Biology, Southern Arkansas University Magnolia, Arkansas 71754
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Author:McAllister, Chris T.; Robison, Henry W.
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U7AR
Date:May 1, 2009
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