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New findings on Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) in the Brazilian Amazon.

Lonchaeids (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), commonly known as lance flies, are minute insects (3-6 mm long) with glossy, dark blue bodies and hyaline or very pale brown wings, found mainly in humid or shaded places. Larvae are associated with decomposing organic matter, mainly wood, flowers, and fruits. However, some species are primary invaders of fruits and flower buds (McAlpine 1961; Norrbom & McAlpine 1997) and may have a significant economic impact on fruit crops (MacGowan & Okamoto 2013).

Lonchaeidae contain approximately 545 species, grouped into 2 subfamilies (Dasiopinae and Lonchaeinae) and 8 genera (Chaetolonchaea Czerny, Dasiops Rondani, Earomyia Zetterstedt, Lamprolonchaea Bezzi, Lonchaea Fallen, Neosilba McAlpine, Protearomyia McAlpine, and Silba Macquart). The subgenus Setisquamalonchaea Morge is currently considered synonymous with Silba (MacGowan & Okamoto 2013; MacGowan 2015).

Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae are the most and second-most, respectively, economically important dipteran families in South America, and some species of Dasiops and Neosilba are primary pests of fruit crops. For plant species of economic importance, including citrus (Citrus species; Sapindales: Rutaceae), ambarella (Spondias dulcis Soland. ex Forst. f.; Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), and passionfruit (Passiflora species; Malpighiales: Passifloraceae), lonchaeids can be more abundant and more important as pests than Tephritidae (Uchoa 2012).

Although infestations of fruits of economic importance by lonchaeids have been reported in Brazil since the 1930s, these insects generally were neglected in surveys of fruit flies, mainly due to a lack of taxonomic knowledge. In the 1990s, the large number of lonchaeid puparia obtained in these surveys renewed interest in lonchaeid research, especially in southeastern Brazil (Araujo & Zucchi 2002). Recently, a number of studies on Lonchaeidae species have been conducted in Brazil, motivated by advances in taxonomic knowledge of Brazilian species. The species reported in Brazil belong to the genera Dasiops, Lonchaea, and Neosilba.

These studies have revealed that species of Neosilba are primary pests of certain crops, including cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz; Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) (Lourencao et al. 1996); acerola (Malpighia emarginata [Moc. & Sesse] ex. DC; Malpighiales: Malpighiaceae) (Araujo & Zucchi 2002); citrus (Citrus species) (Uchoa-Fernandes et al. 2002, 2003); coffee (Coffea arabica L.; Gentianales: Rubiaceae) (Aguiar-Menezes et al. 2007); and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco; Sapindales: Rutaceae) (Lopes et al. 2008). Dasiops frieseni Norrbom & McAlpine has been reported to damage fruits of sour passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims; Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) (Souza-Filho et al. 2002), and Dasiops inedulis Steyskal has been reported to damage passionfruit flower buds (Lunz et al. 2006).

Lonchaeids were first reported in the Brazilian Amazon in the state of Amazonas by Silva (1993), who reported species of Neosilba associated with 19 fruit-bearing species. Costa (2005) subsequently reported Neosilba major (Malloch), Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, and Neosilba sp. in a study conducted at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, in the city of Manaus. New studies were completed more recently, contributing significantly to knowledge on Lonchaeidae in the Amazon (Querino et al. 2010; Strikis et al. 2011; Adaime et al. 2012; Deus et al. 2013).

Lonchaeids have numerous native and exotic hosts in the Brazilian Amazon, many species of which are found exclusively in forest environments. Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedemann) and N. zadolicha are the most polyphagous and widely distributed lonchaeid species in this region (Strikis et al. 2011). Despite an increase in research, little is known about the ecology and biology of lonchaeids. This study reports new findings on the distribution of Lonchaeidae species and their hosts in the Brazilian Amazon.

Materials and Methods

STUDY SITE

We conducted this study on 3 farms located in the municipalities of Mazagao, Porto Grande, and Santana, state of Amapa, Brazil (Fig. 1). All 3 properties contained commercial orchards with adjoining areas of native forest.

The area in Mazagao (0.1[degrees]S, 51.25[degrees]W) exhibits native floodplain forest vegetation, which undergoes daily flooding due to tides. Common species include Platymiscium duckei Huber (Fabales: Fabaceae), Virola surinamensis (Rolander) Warb. (Magnoliales: Myristicaeceae), Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook,f. ex K. Schum. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Sapindales: Meliaceae). The commercial orchard area occupies an area of approximately 10 ha, with cultivated fruit trees including tahiti lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle var. 'Tahiti'; Sapindales: Rutaceae), passionfruit (P. edulis), and soursop (Annona muricata L.; Magnoliales: Annonaceae), grown for the manufacture of fruit concentrate or to be sold in natura.

The area in Porto Grande (0.6[degrees]N, 51.45[degrees]W) exhibits dense forest vegetation, with numerous tree species, including Protium species (Sapindales: Burseraceae), Caryocar villosum (Aubl.) Pers. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), and Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. (Fabales: Fabaceae). The property is approximatly 100 ha, of which 30% is used for the cultivation of fruit trees, mainly hog plum (Spondias mombin Jacq.; Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), araza (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh; Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and soursop (A. muricata).

The area in Santana (0.03[degrees]S, 51.21[degrees]W) exhibits secondary forest vegetation, with Eschweilera tenuifolia Miers (Ericales: Lecythidaceae), Ficus pertusa L.f., (Rosales: Moraceae), and Pourouma guianensis Aubl. (Rosales: Urticaceae) as predominant species. The commercial orchard is approximately 20 ha, and the main species are acerola (M. emarginata), guava (Psidium guajava L.; Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and passionfruit (P edulis). As classified by Koppen, the climate type at the study sites is Am, characterized as hot and humid with a short dry season in the spring. Rainfall is distributed bewteen 2 well-defined periods: a rainy season (Jan to Jul), which receives about 80% of all annual rainfall in the area, and a dry season (Aug to Dec). Temperatures are elevated throughout the year, with an annual average of 25 to 27[degrees]C (low of 22[degrees]C and high of 34[degrees]C) (IBGE 2010).

FRUIT COLLECTION AND PROCESSING

Every fruit tree species in the orchards was sampled. Within the native vegetation areas, 1 parcel of 40 x 250 m (1 ha) was delimited in each area. Once per month from Jan to Dec 2012, fruits were collected from various plant species, either directly from the plant or by retrieving recently fallen fruit. Samples were transported in stackable plastic crates to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapa, where the fruits were weighed on a digital scale. For preparation of the samples, the fruits were processed and individualized according to the sample size criterion established by Silva et al. (2011): 15 units, for small fruit; 10 units, for medium-sized fruit; and 3 units, for large or elongated fruit. In each sample, each individual fruit was considered as 1 subsample.

The collected fruits were placed either individually into tubular, transparent plastic vials (8 cm diameter x 6 cm height), with vented lids lined with organza; or, in the case of large or elongated fruit, on rectangular plastic trays (33 x 18 x 6 cm LWH), also covered with organza held in place by rubber bands. Both types of containers included a thin layer of sterilized sand as a substrate for pupation.

ACQUISITION OF PUPARIA AND ADULT INSECTS

Every 3 d, the sand was examined and lonchaeid puparia were removed with spatulas. The puparia were transferred into transparent plastic vials (8 cm diameter), with vented lids covered with organza, containing a thin layer of moistened vermiculite. The adult insects that emerged were killed, transferred to Eppendorf tubes containing 70% ethanol, and labeled for subsequent identification.

Identification of Insects

Specimens obtained were identified according to McAlpine & Steyskal (1982) and Strikis (2011).

Identification of Botanical Material

Branches with attached reproductive structures (flowers and/or fruits), were collected and vouchered as herbarium specimens using typical mounting and preservation techniques (Fidalgo & Bononi 1984). Plant species was identified with identification keys and by comparison with specimens available at the Herbario Amapaense, the herbarium at the Amapa State Institute for Scientific and Technological Research.

DATA ANALYSES

The following infestation rates were calculated: 1) percentage of fruits infested = (number of fruits infested 4 number of fruits collected) x 100; 2) number of puparia per fruit = number of puparia obtained / number of infested fruits in the sample.

Results

In total, 412 plant samples were collected (78 plant species in 32 families, 4,554 fruits, 323.4 kg) (Table 1). Infestation was observed in 50 of the samples (12.1%), representing 23 plant species (18 families; Table 1). In total, 856 Lonchaeidae puparia were obtained, from which emerged specimens of 10 species in the genera Neosilba, Dasiops, and Lonchaea.

MAZAGAO

In total, 129 samples were collected, consisting of 1,495 fruits of 42 species (20 families; Table 1). Infestation by lonchaeids was observed in 15 samples: 59 fruits of 7 plant species (7 families), from which 457 puparia were obtained (Tables 1 and 2). Metrodorea flavida K. Krause (Sapindales: Rutaceae) showed the highest percentage of infested fruits (70.0%), and A. muricata had the highest infestation load (39 puparia/fruit) (Table 2).

Seven species of Lonchaeidae were obtained: N. glaberrima, N. laura Strikis, N. pendula (Bezzi), N. pseudozadolicha Strikis, N. zadolicha, D. inedulis, and 1 Lonchaea species (Table 2) that was in poor condition and unidentifiable. Neosilba zadolicha was the most abundant species (66 specimens), occurring from Apr to Jul and infesting 5 host species (Table 2).

PORTO GRANDE

In total, 154 samples were collected, consisting of 1,524 fruits of 41 species (24 families). Infestation by lonchaeids was observed in 16 samples: 41 fruits of 8 plant species (7 families), from which 176 puparia were obtained (Tables 1 and 3). Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Forsberg (Rosales: Moraceae) showed the highest percentage of infested fruits (66.7%), and A. muricata had the highest infestation load (11 puparia/fruit) (Table 3).

Six species were reared: N. glaberrima, N. laura, N. pendula, N. pseudozadolicha, N. zadolicha, and 1 unidentified Lonchaea species (Table 3). Neosilba glaberrima infested the greatest number of hosts (6), followed by N. zadolicha and N. pseudozadolicha (3). Neosilba zadolicha was the most abundant species (31 specimens). In total, 44 specimens of Neosilba were obtained from E. stipitata, specifically 20 specimens of N. zadolicha, 3 of N. glaberrima, 1 of N. pseudozadolicha, and 20 females (Table 3). Except for Oct and Nov, specimens were obtained from at least 1 sampled host in all other months (Table 3).

SANTANA

In total, 129 samples were collected, consisting of 1,535 fruits of 40 plant species (23 families). Infestation was observed in 19 samples: 43 fruits of 12 plant species (12 families), from which 223 puparia were obtained (Tables 1 and 4). Inga edulis Mart. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the highest percentage of infested fruits (100%) (Table 4). The highest infestation load was observed on shoots of M. esculenta (11puparia/shoot) (Table 4).

Eight species were reared: Neosilba bella Strikis, N. glaberrima, N. parapeltae Strikis, N. pendula, N. perezi Romero & Ruppel, N. pseudozadolicha, N. zadolicha, and D. inedulis. Neosilba zadolicha infested the greatest number of hosts (5), followed by N. glaberrima (4). Neosilba zadolicha was the most abundant species (59 specimens). The fruits of P guajava yielded specimens from 3 species of Neosilba (N. glaberrima, N. pseudozadolicha, and N. zadolicha) in 6 mo of the year (Table 4).

Discussion

Our results contribute significantly to the knowledge of Lonchaeidae species that occur in the Amazon and their plant hosts, and we document 2 new records in the Amazon (N. laura and N. parapeltae) and 2 records in the state of Amapa (D. inedulis and N. perezi). We also report 24 new associations between lonchaeid species and hosts in the Amazon (Table 5), contributing towards a better understanding of Lonchaeidae--host relationships in this region of Brazil.

Neosilba species are polyphagous, and Uchoa (2012) reported that 5 species of Neosilba were of economic importance to the continent: N. zadolicha, N. pendula, N. glaberrima, N. perezi, and N. inesperata Strikis & Prado. In our study, the species that infested the greatest numbers of hosts were N. zadolicha (11 plant species in 9 families) and N. glaberrima (10 plant species in 9 families). These are the most polyphagous and most widely distributed lonchaeids in the Amazon region (Strikis et al. 2011), and are among the species with the highest economic importance for South America (Uchoa 2012).

Neosilba laura and N. parapeltae were described only recently (Strikis 2011), and there is no information about their biology. Neosilba laura was obtained from a fruit of M. flavida in Mazagao, a lonchaeid--host association reported for the first time here (Table 2). Neosilba parapeltae was obtained from a flower bud of E. tenuifolia in Santana, and this is possibly the first report of this host plant being used by the lonchaeid species (Table 2).

Neosilba perezi was obtained from sprouts of M. esculenta in Santana (Table 4). Neosilba perezi is a pest of cassava crops, with occurence varying by region and time of year (Lourencao et al. 1996). In the Amazon, N. perezi has been reported in the state of Rondonia (Oliveira 1987), under the name Silba pendula. Cassava is a significant social and economic species as a food staple and source of family income, but damage from this pest has not yet been quantified; this is the first report of N. perezi in the state of Amapa.

Dasiops inedulis was obtained from flower buds of P edulis, a new distribution record for this species in the state of Amapa. Dasiops inedulis is an important pest of Passiflora flower buds in South America (Penaranda et al. 1986; Uchoa-Fernandes et al. 2002). In the state of Para, it is considered the most important pest of passionfruit plants, causing production losses of up to 100% (Lemos 2009).

Specimens of Lonchaea sp.1 were reared from fruits of A. muricata only. An additional unidentfied of Lonchaea species has already been reported in the states of Amazonas and Amapa. In Brazil, only localized reports of Lonchaea have been made, with no information about its biology and ecology, indicating a need for new surveys to discover additional potential hosts (Strikis et al. 2011).

Infestation rates varied widely (Tables 2-4). The greatest percentages of infested fruits were observed on fruits of native species, such as I. edulis, in Santana (Table 4). In previous studies conducted in the Amazon region, Silva et al. (2010) and Deus et al. (2013) reported infestation by lonchaeids of this plant species. The largest infestation (i.e., number of puparia/fruit) was observed on fruits of A. muricata in Mazagao (Table 2). This plant species represents a significant source of income for inhabitants of the Amazon region, who use it to make soursop concentrate.

We did not rear any parasitoids in this work, although 8 species of parasitoid Eucoilinae (Figitidae) are associted with larvae of Neosilba in Brazil (Uchoa 2012). Figitid parasitoids search for host larvae located inside fruits that have already fallen to the ground and that have an orifice for entry, as the females of these parasitoids have short ovipositors (Uchoa 2012). Because fruits were collected directly from host palnts, figitid parasitoids may not have had an opportunity to parasitize larvae. An interesting finding in this study was the wide diversity of Lonchaeidae host plants sampled in native forest areas. Of the 10 species we reared, 6 were associated with hosts located in native forest areas. In addition, the 2 new reports for the Brazilian Amazon were associated with native hosts (Table 5).

Because some lonchaeid species are pest species, researchers have become increasingly interested in studying these flies. However, little is known about the ecology and biology of lonchaeid flies in Brazil. This work identifies the state of Amapa as a region with the greatest recorded lonchaeid species richness in the Amazon, and suggests that additioanl survey and rearing work be conducted.

Acknowledgments

We dedicate this paper to Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, science doctor at the University of Panama, who sadly passed away on 12 May 2015, for his great scientific contribution to knowledge on Lonchaeidae species. We thank the students Danilo Baia do Nascimento, Maria do Socorro Miranda de Sousa, Luana dos Santos Pinheiro, Francisco Andrew Pacheco, Oziel Barroso Baia, Sarron Feliphe, and Jonh Carlo Reis. We also thank our colleagues at Embrapa Amapa: Felipe Galdino Machado, Carlos Alberto Moraes, Manoel Jonas de Jesus Viana, and Marcelo Luiz de Oliveira. We gratefully acknowledge the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development--CNPq, for the Research Productivity Fellowship granted to R. Adaime.

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Caption: Fig. 1. State of Amapa with markers (black triangles) indicating the sampling site locations.

Lailson do Nascimento Lemos (1), Ricardo Adaime (2) *, Salustiano V. Costa-Neto (3), Ezequiel da Gloria de Deus (1), Cristiane Ramos de Jesus-Barros (2), and Pedro Carlos Strikis (4)

(1) Universidade Federal do Amapa, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biodiversidade Tropical, Macapa, Amapa, 68902-280, Brazil

(2) Embrapa Amapa, Macapa, Amapa, 68903-419, Brazil

(3) Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa (IEPA) Macapa, Amapa, 68900-000, Brazil

(4) Independent Researcher, Av. Paschoal Ardito, No. 886, 13473-010, Americana, Sao Paulo, Brazil

* Corresponding author; E-mail: ricardo.adaime@embrapa.br

Table 1. Number of samples and fruits collected and infested by
Lonchaeidae in 3 municipalities of the state of Amapa, Brazil,

Fruit tree species/
families sampled
Scientific name             Common name               Family

Alibertia edulis            Purui                     Rubiaceae
  (L. C. Rich.) A.
  Rich, ex DC
Anacardium                  Cashew                    Anacardiaceae
  occidentale L.
An nona mu ricota L.        Soursop                   Annonaceae
Artocarpus altilis          Breadfruit                Moraceae
  (Parkinson) Fosberg
Artocarpus                  Jackfruit                 Moraceae
  heterophyllus Lam.
Astrocaryum                 Tucuma                    Arecaceae
  aculeatum G. Mayer
Astrocaryum                 Murumuru                  Arecaceae
  murumuru Mart.
Attalea phalerata           Urucuri                   Arecaceae
  Mart. exSpreng.
Averrhoa carambola L.       Star fruit                Oxalidaceae
Bactris                     Peach-palm                Arecaceae
  gasipaes Kunth.
Bactris maraja Mart.        Maraja                    Arecaceae
Bellucia                    Goiaba-de-anta            Melastomataceae
  grossularioides
  (L.) Triana
Byrsonima                   Nance                     Malpighiaceae
  crassifolia
  (L.) HBK
Capsicum chinense           Yellow lantern chili      Solanaceae
  Jacq.
Calophyllum                 Jacareuba                 Calophyllaceae
  brasiliense Cambess.
Carica papaya L.            Papaya                    Caricaceae
Caryocar glabrum            Water sawari              Caryocaraceae
  (Aubl.) Pers.
Cayaponia ferruginea        Fruta de cutia            Cucurbitaceae
  Gomes-Kiein
Cheiloclinium cognatum      Bacupari                  Celastraceae
  (Miers) A.C. Sm.
Cissus amapaenses           Uva-do-mato               Vitaceae
  Lombardi
Citrus aurantifolia         Tahiti lime               Rutaceae
  Swingle var. 'Tahiti'
Citrus aurantium L.         Bitter orange             Rutaceae
Citrus latifolia Tanaka     Tahiti lime               Rutaceae
Citrus limonia Os beck      Rangpur                   Rutaceae
Citrus reticulata           Tangerine                 Rutaceae
  Blanco
Citrus sinensis             Orange                    Rutaceae
  (L.) Os beck
Coffea arabica L.           Coffee                    Rubiaceae
Combretum laxum Jacq.       Pombeiral                 Combretaceae
Conceveiba                  Arraieira                 Euphorbiaceae
  guianensis Aubl.
Cucumis anguria L.          Bur cucumber              Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis sativus L.          Cucumber                  Cucurbitaceae
Eschweilera                 Mata-mata (flower bud)    Lecythidaceae
  tenuifolia Miers
Eugenia stipitata           Araza                     Myrtaceae
  McVaugh
Ficus pertusa Li            Apui                      Moraceae
Geissospermum               Quinarana                 Apocynaceae
  sericeum Miers
Guarea guidonia             American muskwood         Meliaceae
  (L.) Sleumer
Gustavia augusta L.         Jenipaparana              Lecythidaceae
Inga edulis Mart.           Ice-cream-bean            Fabaceae
Licania macrophylla         Anoera                    Chrysobalanaceae
  Benth.
Malpighia emarginata        Acerola                   Malpighiaceae
  Moc. & Sesse ex. DC
Mammea americana L.         Apricot                   Clusiaceae
Mangifera indica L.         Common mango              Anacardiaceae
Mangifera indica L. var.    Tommy Atkins mango        Anacardiaceae
  'Tommy Atkins'
Man icaria saccifera        Wine palm                 Arecaceae
  Gaertn.
Manihot esculenta Crantz    Cassava (sprout)          Euphorbiaceae
Manilkara huberi            Manilkara                 Sapotaceae
  (Ducke) A. Chev.
Manilkara zapota (L.)       Sapodilla                 Sapotaceae
  P. Royen
Maximiliano maripa          American oil palm         Arecaceae
  (Aubl.) Mart.
Metrodorea fiavida          Laranjinha                Rutaceae
  K. Krause
Myrciaria jaboticaba        Jaboticaba                Myrtaceae
  (Veil.) Berg.
Myriaspora egensis DC       Verde-peludo              Melastomataceae
Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.     Bacaba                    Arecaceae
Parinari excelsa Sabine     Guinea plum               Chrysobalanaceae
Passiflora edulis Sims      Passionfruit              Passifloraceae
                              (flower bud)
Passiflora edulis Sims      Passionfruit (fruit)      Passifloraceae
Persea americana Mill       Avocado                   Lauraceae
Physalis angulata L.        Lanceleaf groundcherry    Solanaceae
Pourouma guianensis Aubl.   Mapatirana                Urticaceae
Pouteria caimito Radik.     Abiu                      Sapotaceae
Pouteria gardneri           Aguai-una                 Sapotaceae
  (Mart. & Miq.) Baehni
Pouteria macrophylla        Cutite                    Sapotaceae
  (Lam.) Eyma
Protium heptaphyllum        Brazil resintree          Burseraceae
  (Albl.) Marchand
Protium sp. Sandwith        Resintree                 Burseraceae
Psidium guajava L.          Guava                     Myrtaceae
Quararibea                  Guyanas                   Malvaceae
  guianensis Albl.            swizzlestick tree
Rollinia mucosa             Biriba                    Annonaceae
  (Jacq.) Baill.
Solan um gilo L.            Scarlet eggplant          Solanaceae
Solanum paniculatum L.      Jurubeba                  Solanaceae
Spondias dulcis Parkinson   Ambarella                 Anacardiaceae
Spondias mom bin L.         Hog plum                  Anacardiaceae
Spondias purpurea L.        Purple mombin             Anacardiaceae
Strychnos asperula          Gogo-de-guariba           Loganiaceae
  Sprague & Sandwith
Symphonia globulifera Li    Chewstick                 Clusiaceae
Syzygium jambolanum         Java plum                 Myrtaceae
  Skeels
Syzygium malaccense (L.)    Malay apple               Myrtaceae
  Merr. & L. M. Perry
Tapirira obtusa (Benth.)    Fruto de pombo            Anacardiaceae
  J. D. Mitch.
Theobroma cacao L.          Cacao                     Malvaceae
Trattinnickia               Amesclao                  Burseraceae
  rhoifolia Willd.
Trichilia rubra C. DC       Cachua                    Meliaceae
Trymatococcus amazonicus    Inhare                    Moraceae
  Poepp.& Endley

No. of species = 78                                   No. of
                                                      families = 32

                                           Municipality

                               Origin
Fruit tree species/         native (N),           Mazagao
families sampled             introduced
Scientific name                 (i)        NSC    NFC    NSI    NFI

Alibertia edulis                 N          0      0      0      0
  (L. C. Rich.) A.
  Rich, ex DC
Anacardium                       I          1      10     0      0
  occidentale L.
An nona mu ricota L.             I          1      3      1      1
Artocarpus altilis                          0      0      0      0
  (Parkinson) Fosberg
Artocarpus                       I          0      0      0      0
  heterophyllus Lam.
Astrocaryum                      N          0      0      0      0
  aculeatum G. Mayer
Astrocaryum                      N          6      60     0      0
  murumuru Mart.
Attalea phalerata                N          7      70     0      0
  Mart. exSpreng.
Averrhoa carambola L.                       0      0      0      0
Bactris                          N          0      0      0      0
  gasipaes Kunth.
Bactris maraja Mart.             N          1      15     0      0
Bellucia                         N          0      0      0      0
  grossularioides
  (L.) Triana
Byrsonima                        N          0      0      0      0
  crassifolia
  (L.) HBK
Capsicum chinense                I          8     120     0      0
  Jacq.
Calophyllum                      N          1      15     1      1
  brasiliense Cambess.
Carica papaya L.                 I          1      3      0      0
Caryocar glabrum                 N          0      0      0      0
  (Aubl.) Pers.
Cayaponia ferruginea             N          0      0      0      0
  Gomes-Kiein
Cheiloclinium cognatum           N          2      30     0      0
  (Miers) A.C. Sm.
Cissus amapaenses                N          0      0      0      0
  Lombardi
Citrus aurantifolia              I          9      90     0      0
  Swingle var. 'Tahiti'
Citrus aurantium L.              I          0      0      0      0
Citrus latifolia Tanaka          I          0      0      0      0
Citrus limonia Os beck           I          8      80     0      0
Citrus reticulata                I          2      20     0      0
  Blanco
Citrus sinensis                  I          4      40     0      0
  (L.) Os beck
Coffea arabica L.                I          0      0      0      0
Combretum laxum Jacq.            N          0      0      0      0
Conceveiba                       N          0      0      0      0
  guianensis Aubl.
Cucumis anguria L.               N          5      75     0      0
Cucumis sativus L.                          5      15     0      0
Eschweilera                      N          0      0      0      0
  tenuifolia Miers
Eugenia stipitata                N          0      0      0      0
  McVaugh
Ficus pertusa Li                 N          2      30     0      0
Geissospermum                    N          0      0      0      0
  sericeum Miers
Guarea guidonia                  N          0      0      0      0
  (L.) Sleumer
Gustavia augusta L.              N          0      0      0      0
Inga edulis Mart.                N          2      6      0      0
Licania macrophylla              N          5      45     0      0
  Benth.
Malpighia emarginata             I          1      15     0      0
  Moc. & Sesse ex. DC
Mammea americana L.              I          0      0      0      0
Mangifera indica L.              I          2      20     0      0
Mangifera indica L. var.         I          0      0      0      0
  'Tommy Atkins'
Man icaria saccifera             N          1      15     0      0
  Gaertn.
Manihot esculenta Crantz         N          0      0      0      0
Manilkara huberi                 N          2      30     0      0
  (Ducke) A. Chev.
Manilkara zapota (L.)            N          0      0      0      0
  P. Royen
Maximiliano maripa               N          0      0      0      0
  (Aubl.) Mart.
Metrodorea fiavida               N          4      60     2      14
  K. Krause
Myrciaria jaboticaba             N          0      0      0      0
  (Veil.) Berg.
Myriaspora egensis DC            N          0      0      0      0
Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.          N          1      15     0      0
Parinari excelsa Sabine          N          1      15     0      0
Passiflora edulis Sims           N          5      75     3      8

Passiflora edulis Sims           N          8      80     1      2
Persea americana Mill            I          0      0      0      0
Physalis angulata L.             I          1      15     0      0
Pourouma guianensis Aubl.        N          0      0      0      0
Pouteria caimito Radik.          N          1      10     0      0
Pouteria gardneri                N          0      0      0      0
  (Mart. & Miq.) Baehni
Pouteria macrophylla             N          0      0      0      0
  (Lam.) Eyma
Protium heptaphyllum             N          1      15     0      0
  (Albl.) Marchand
Protium sp. Sandwith             N          1      15     0      0
Psidium guajava L.               I          4      40     3      8
Quararibea                       N          3      45     3      23
  guianensis Albl.
Rollinia mucosa                  N          0      0      0      0
  (Jacq.) Baill.
Solan um gilo L.                 I          3      30     1      2
Solanum paniculatum L.           N          0      0      0      0
Spondias dulcis Parkinson        I          0      0      0      0
Spondias mom bin L.              N          3      45     0      0
Spondias purpurea L.             I          7     105     0      0
Strychnos asperula               N          0      0      0      0
  Sprague & Sandwith
Symphonia globulifera Li         N          3      45     0      0
Syzygium jambolanum              I          1      15     0      0
  Skeels
Syzygium malaccense (L.)         I          3      30     0      0
  Merr. & L. M. Perry
Tapirira obtusa (Benth.)         N          0      0      0      0
  J. D. Mitch.
Theobroma cacao L.               I          1      3      0      0
Trattinnickia                    N          0      0      0      0
  rhoifolia Willd.
Trichilia rubra C. DC            N          1      15     0      0
Trymatococcus amazonicus         N          1      15     0      0
  Poepp.& Endley

No. of species = 78                        129    1,495   15     59

                                   Municipality
Fruit tree species/
families sampled                   Porto Grande
Scientific name
                             NSC    NFC    NSI    NFI
Alibertia edulis
  (L. C. Rich.) A.            2      30     0      0
  Rich, ex DC
Anacardium
  occidentale L.              0      0      0      0
An nona mu ricota L.
Artocarpus altilis            4      12     3      3
  (Parkinson) Fosberg         4      12     2      4
Artocarpus
  heterophyllus Lam.          2      6      0      0
Astrocaryum
  aculeatum G. Mayer          0      0      0      0
Astrocaryum
  murumuru Mart.              0      0      0      0
Attalea phalerata
  Mart. exSpreng.             0      0      0      0
Averrhoa carambola L.
Bactris                       9      90     3      14
  gasipaes Kunth.             2      30     0      0
Bactris maraja Mart.
Bellucia                      0      0      0      0
  grossularioides             2      30     0      0
  (L.) Triana
Byrsonima
  crassifolia                 0      0      0      0
  (L.) HBK
Capsicum chinense
  Jacq.                       1      15     1      4
Calophyllum
  brasiliense Cambess.        0      0      0      0
Carica papaya L.
Caryocar glabrum              5      15     0      0
  (Aubl.) Pers.               1      10     0      0
Cayaponia ferruginea
  Gomes-Kiein                 0      0      0      0
Cheiloclinium cognatum
  (Miers) A.C. Sm.            0      0      0      0
Cissus amapaenses
  Lombardi                    0      0      0      0
Citrus aurantifolia
  Swingle var. 'Tahiti'       0      0      0      0
Citrus aurantium L.
Citrus latifolia Tanaka       10    100     0      0
Citrus limonia Os beck        0      0      0      0
Citrus reticulata             8      80     0      0
  Blanco                      4      40     0      0
Citrus sinensis
  (L.) Os beck                0      0      0      0
Coffea arabica L.
Combretum laxum Jacq.         0      0      0      0
Conceveiba                    2      30     0      0
  guianensis Aubl.            0      0      0      0
Cucumis anguria L.
Cucumis sativus L.            1      15     0      0
Eschweilera                   0      0      0      0
  tenuifolia Miers            0      0      0      0
Eugenia stipitata
  McVaugh                     11    110     3      11
Ficus pertusa Li
Geissospermum                 2      30     0      0
  sericeum Miers              2      20     0      0
Guarea guidonia
  (L.) Sleumer                1      15     0      0
Gustavia augusta L.
Inga edulis Mart.             0      0      0      0
Licania macrophylla           0      0      0      0
  Benth.                      0      0      0      0
Malpighia emarginata
  Moc. & Sesse ex. DC         4      60     0      0
Mammea americana L.               3      30     0      0
Mangifera indica L.               1      10     0      0
Mangifera indica L. var.          7      21     0      0
  'Tommy Atkins'
Man icaria saccifera              0      0      0      0
  Gaertn.
Manihot esculenta Crantz          1      15     0      0
Manilkara huberi                  0      0      0      0
  (Ducke) A. Chev.
Manilkara zapota (L.)             12    120     0      0
  P. Royen
Maximiliano maripa                1      15     0      0
  (Aubl.) Mart.
Metrodorea fiavida                0      0      0      0
  K. Krause
Myrciaria jaboticaba              1      15     0      0
  (Veil.) Berg.
Myriaspora egensis DC             3      45     0      0
Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.           1      15     0      0
Parinari excelsa Sabine           0      0      0      0
Passiflora edulis Sims            0      0      0      0

Passiflora edulis Sims            0      0      0      0
Persea americana Mill             4      12     0      0
Physalis angulata L.              0      0      0      0
Pourouma guianensis Aubl.         1      15     0      0
Pouteria caimito Radik.           0      0      0      0
Pouteria gardneri                 1      15     0      0
  (Mart. & Miq.) Baehni
Pouteria macrophylla              4      40     1      1
  (Lam.) Eyma
Protium heptaphyllum              0      0      0      0
  (Albl.) Marchand
Protium sp. Sandwith              1      15     0      0
Psidium guajava L.                0      0      0      0
Quararibea                        0      0      0      0
  guianensis Albl.
Rollinia mucosa                   3      9      0      0
  (Jacq.) Baill.
Solan um gilo L.                  0      0      0      0
Solanum paniculatum L.            1      15     0      0
Spondias dulcis Parkinson         11    110     2      3
Spondias mom bin L.               6      90     0      0
Spondias purpurea L.              9     135     0      0
Strychnos asperula                0      0      0      0
  Sprague & Sandwith
Symphonia globulifera Li          0      0      0      0
Syzygium jambolanum               0      0      0      0
  Skeels
Syzygium malaccense (L.)          2      20     1      1
  Merr. & L. M. Perry
Tapirira obtusa (Benth.)          0      0      0      0
  J. D. Mitch.
Theobroma cacao L.                4      12     0      0
Trattinnickia                     0      0      0      0
  rhoifolia Willd.
Trichilia rubra C. DC             0      0      0      0
Trymatococcus amazonicus          0      0      0      0
  Poepp.& Endley

No. of species = 78              154    1,524   16     41

                                    Municipality

Fruit tree species/                  Santana
families sampled
Scientific name              NSC    NFC    NSI    NFI

Alibertia edulis              0      0      0      0
  (L. C. Rich.) A.
  Rich, ex DC
Anacardium                    2      20     0      0
  occidentale L.
An nona mu ricota L.          2      6      1      2
Artocarpus altilis            0      0      0      0
  (Parkinson) Fosberg
Artocarpus                    3      9      0      0
  heterophyllus Lam.
Astrocaryum                   1      15     0      0
  aculeatum G. Mayer
Astrocaryum                   0      0      0      0
  murumuru Mart.
Attalea phalerata             0      0      0      0
  Mart. exSpreng.
Averrhoa carambola L.         0      0      0      0
Bactris                       0      0      0      0
  gasipaes Kunth.
Bactris maraja Mart.          0      0      0      0
Bellucia                      0      0      0      0
  grossularioides
  (L.) Triana
Byrsonima                     5      75     0      0
  crassifolia
  (L.) HBK
Capsicum chinense             3      45     0      0
  Jacq.
Calophyllum                   0      0      0      0
  brasiliense Cambess.
Carica papaya L.              6      90     0      0
Caryocar glabrum              0      0      0      0
  (Aubl.) Pers.
Cayaponia ferruginea          1      15     0      0
  Gomes-Kiein
Cheiloclinium cognatum        3      45     0      0
  (Miers) A.C. Sm.
Cissus amapaenses             2      30     0      0
  Lombardi
Citrus aurantifolia           3      30     0      0
  Swingle var. 'Tahiti'
Citrus aurantium L.           0      0      0      0
Citrus latifolia Tanaka       2      20     0      0
Citrus limonia Os beck        11    110     1      1
Citrus reticulata             5      50     0      0
  Blanco
Citrus sinensis               1      10     0      0
  (L.) Os beck
Coffea arabica L.             3      45     1      1
Combretum laxum Jacq.         0      0      0      0
Conceveiba                    1      15     0      0
  guianensis Aubl.
Cucumis anguria L.            1      15     0      0
Cucumis sativus L.            1      3      1      1
Eschweilera                   4      60     1      1
  tenuifolia Miers
Eugenia stipitata             0      0      0      0
  McVaugh
Ficus pertusa Li              1      15     0      0
Geissospermum                 0      0      0      0
  sericeum Miers
Guarea guidonia               0      0      0      0
  (L.) Sleumer
Gustavia augusta L.           1      10     0      0
Inga edulis Mart.             5      15     2      6
Licania macrophylla           1      15     1      2
  Benth.
Malpighia emarginata          9     135     0      0
  Moc. & Sesse ex. DC
Mammea americana L.               0      0      0      0
Mangifera indica L.               2      20     0      0
Mangifera indica L. var.          0      0      0      0
  'Tommy Atkins'
Man icaria saccifera              0      0      0      0
  Gaertn.
Manihot esculenta Crantz          1      15     1      2
Manilkara huberi                  0      0      0      0
  (Ducke) A. Chev.
Manilkara zapota (L.)             0      0      0      0
  P. Royen
Maximiliano maripa                0      0      0      0
  (Aubl.) Mart.
Metrodorea fiavida                0      0      0      0
  K. Krause
Myrciaria jaboticaba              0      0      0      0
  (Veil.) Berg.
Myriaspora egensis DC             4      60     0      0
Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.           6      90     0      0
Parinari excelsa Sabine           0      0      0      0
Passiflora edulis Sims            3      45     1      1

Passiflora edulis Sims            2      20     0      0
Persea americana Mill             4      12     0      0
Physalis angulata L.              0      0      0      0
Pourouma guianensis Aubl.         0      0      0      0
Pouteria caimito Radik.           1      10     0      0
Pouteria gardneri                 0      0      0      0
  (Mart. & Miq.) Baehni
Pouteria macrophylla              0      0      0      0
  (Lam.) Eyma
Protium heptaphyllum              0      0      0      0
  (Albl.) Marchand
Protium sp. Sandwith              0      0      0      0
Psidium guajava L.                12    120     7      13
Quararibea                        0      0      0      0
  guianensis Albl.
Rollinia mucosa                   0      0      0      0
  (Jacq.) Baill.
Solan um gilo L.                  0      0      0      0
Solanum paniculatum L.            4      60     1      2
Spondias dulcis Parkinson         0      0      0      0
Spondias mom bin L.               5      75     0      0
Spondias purpurea L.              0      0      0      0
Strychnos asperula                1      15     1      11
  Sprague & Sandwith
Symphonia globulifera Li          0      0      0      0
Syzygium jambolanum               1      15     0      0
  Skeels
Syzygium malaccense (L.)          2      20     0      0
  Merr. & L. M. Perry
Tapirira obtusa (Benth.)          3      45     0      0
  J. D. Mitch.
Theobroma cacao L.                0      0      0      0
Trattinnickia                     1      15     0      0
  rhoifolia Willd.
Trichilia rubra C. DC             0      0      0      0
Trymatococcus amazonicus          0      0      0      0
  Poepp.& Endley

No. of species = 78              129    1,535   19     43

NSC, number of samples collected; NFC, number of fruits collected;
NSI, number of samples Infested; NFI, number of fruits Infested.

Table 2. Lonchaeidae host plants, infestation rates of fruits, and
months of occurrence in Mazagao, Amapa, Brazil, Jan to Dec 2012.

                      Fruits          Mass
Plant species        (n) C/l        (g) C/l        P (n)

Psidium guajava        30/8      1,538.3/404.9       86

An nona mu ricota      3/1      3,654.6/1,554.9      39

Quararibea            45/23        504.7/71.8       118
guianensis

Calophyllum            15/1        441.7/27.9        4
brasiliensis

Solanum gilo           10/2        431.1/70.9        11

Metrodorea            20/14       240.6/193.8       148
fiavida

Passiflora edulis      10/2      1,180.5/190.9       16
(fruit)

Passiflora edulis      45/8        201.8/36.0        35
(flower bud)

Total                 178/59    8,193.3/2,551.1     457

                     Infestation        Month of occurrence
                     rates

Plant species        % FI    P/F (a)     J     F     M     A

Psidium guajava      26.7      10.8                        X

An nona mu ricota    33.3      39.0                        X
                                                           X

Quararibea           51.1      5.1                         X
guianensis

Calophyllum           6.7      4.0
brasiliensis

Solanum gilo         20.0      5.5

Metrodorea           70.0      10.6
fiavida

Passiflora edulis    20.0      8.0
(fruit)

Passiflora edulis    17.8      4.4                   X
(flower bud)

Total

                     Month of occurrence

Plant species         M     J     J     A

Psidium guajava       X     X
                            X

An nona mu ricota

Quararibea            X     X
guianensis

Calophyllum
brasiliensis

Solanum gilo                X
                            X

Metrodorea                  X     X
fiavida                     X
                                  X

Passiflora edulis           X
(fruit)

Passiflora edulis           X     X
(flower bud)

Total

                     Month of occurrence

Plant species         S     0     N     D       Lonchaeidae (n)

Psidium guajava                                N. zadolicha (22)
                                               N. glaberrima (2)
                                                  females (26)
An nona mu ricota                               N. zadolicha (3)
                                               Lonchaea sp.l(11)
                                                  females (18)
Quararibea                                     N. zadolicha (11)
guianensis                                        females (27)

Calophyllum                             X    N. pseudozadoiicha (1)
brasiliensis

Solanum gilo                                   N. glaberrima (2)
                                                 N. pendula (1)
                                                  females (6)
Metrodorea                                     N. zadolicha (26)
fiavida                                      N. pseudozadoiicha (2)
                                                  N. laura (1)
                                                  females (44)
Passiflora edulis                               N. zadolicha (4)
(fruit)                                           females (8)

Passiflora edulis                               D. inedulis (15)
(flower bud)                                      females (9)

Total

C, collected; I, infested; P, puparia; % FI, percentage of fruits
infested; P/F, puparia/fruit.

(a) Calculation based exclusively on infested fruits.

Table 3. Lonchaeidae host plants, infestation rates of fruits, and
months of occurrence in Porto Grande, Amapa, Brazil, Jan to Dec 2012.

Plant            Fruits
species         (n) C/l      Mass (g) C/l      P (n)

Eugenio          30/11      5,448.6/1,578.2      92
stipitata

Spondias          20/3       1,431.9/290.7       8
dulcis

Averrhoa         30/14        898.7/170.9        19
carambola

Pouteria          10/1        412.6/39.5         2
macrophylla

Artocarx          6/4       8,100.5/5,260.0      17
macrophylla

Annona            9/3       7,851.0/1,596.4      33
muricota

Syzygium          15/1        683.9/30.6         1
malaccense

Capsicumx         15/4        122.3/12.0         4
malaccense

Total            135/41    24,949.5/8,978.3     176

                Infestation        Month of occurrence
                rates
Plant                               J     F     M     A
species         % FI    P/F (a)

Eugenio         36.7      8.4       X
stipitata                                 X     X
                                                X

Spondias        15.0      2.7
dulcis

Averrhoa        46.7      1.4
carambola

Pouteria        10.0      0.5
macrophylla

Artocarx        66.7      4.3                         X
macrophylla

Annona          33.3      11.0                  X
muricota
                                                X

Syzygium         6.7      1.0
malaccense

Capsicumx       26.7      1.0             X
malaccense

Total

                Month of occurrence

Plant            M     J     J     A
species

Eugenio                            X
stipitata
                                   X

Spondias                     X
dulcis

Averrhoa                     X
carambola                          X

Pouteria
macrophylla

Artocarx         X
macrophylla

Annona
muricota               X
                       X

Syzygium
malaccense

Capsicumx
malaccense

Total

                Month of occurrence

Plant            S     O     N     D    Lonchaeidae (n)
species

Eugenio                                 N. g laber rima (3)
stipitata                               N. zadolicha (20)
                                        N. pseudozadolicha (1)
                                        females (20)

Spondias         X                      N. glaberrima (2)
dulcis                             X    N. pseudozadolicha (1)
                                   X    N. zadolicha (3)

Averrhoa                                N. bella (1)
carambola                               N. glaberrima (1)

Pouteria                           X    N. glaberrima (2)
macrophylla

Artocarx                                N. glaberrima (7)
macrophylla

Annona                             X    N. zadolicha (8)
muricota                                N. glaberrima (2)
                                        Lonchaea sp.1(5)

Syzygium         X                      N. pendula (1)
malaccense

Capsicumx                               N. pseudozadolicha (1)
malaccense

Total

C, collected; I, infested; P, puparia; % FI, percentage of fruits
infested; P/F, puparia/fruit.

(a) Calculation based exclusively on infested fruits.

Table 4. Lonchaeidae host plants, infestation rates of fruits, and
months of occurrence in Santana, Amapa, Brazil, Jan to Dec 2012.

Plant                      Fruits
species                   (n) C/l      Mass (g) C/l      P (n)

Licania                     15/2         76.4/16.9         1
macrophylla

Coffea                      15/1         18.0/0.9          1
arabica

Strychnos                  15/11         99.4/74.1         55
asperula

Psidium                    70/13      5,645.7/1,324.9      57

Annona                      3/2        1,191.1/562.9       7
muricota

Inga                        6/6       4,446.2/2,492.8      57
edulis

Solanum                     15/2         14.9/1.2          2
paniculatum

Citrus                      10/1        996.5/149.5        8
limonia

Passiflora edulis           15/1         94.0/5.3          3
(flower bud)

Eschweilera tenuifolia      15/1         59.2/4.2          1
(flower bud)

Manihotesculenta            15/2         45.7/9.3          22
(sprout)

Cucumis sativus             3/1         473.3/146.9        9

Total                      197/43    13,160.4/4,788.9     223

                       Infestation rates   Month of occurrence

Plant
species                 % FI    P/F (a)     J     F     M     A

Licania                 13.3      0.5                         X
macrophylla

Coffea                  6.7       1.0
arabica

Strychnos               73.3      5.0       X
asperula

Psidium                 18.6      4.4       X           X     X
guajava                                     X
                                                        X

Annona                  66.7      3.5       X
muricota

Inga                   100.0      9.5             X           X
edulis                                            X           X

Solanum                 13.3      1.0
paniculatum

Citrus                  10.0      8.0       X
limonia                                     X

Passiflora edulis       6.7       3.0       X
(flower bud)

Eschweilera tenuifolia  6.7       1.0                   X
(flower bud)

Manihotesculenta        13.3      11.0                  X
(sprout)

Cucumis sativus         33.3      9.0                         X

Total

                         Month of occurrence

Plant
species                    M     J     J     A

Licania
macrophylla

Coffea                     X
arabica

Strychnos
asperula

Psidium                                X     X
guajava                                      X

Annona
muricota

Inga
edulis

Solanum                                X
paniculatum

Citrus
limonia

Passiflora edulis
(flower bud)

Eschweilera tenuifolia
(flower bud)

Manihotesculenta
(sprout)

Cucumis sativus

Total

                          Month of occurrence

Plant
species                    S     I     N     D    Lonchaeidae [n)

Licania                                           N. bella (1)
macrophylla

Coffea                                            N. bella (1)
arabica

Strychnos                                         N. zadolicha (22)
asperula                                          females (24)

Psidium                          X                N. zadolicha (16)
guajava                                           N. globerrima (2)
                                                  N. pseudozadolicha
                                                  (2)
                                                  females (13)

Annona                                            N. glaberrima (1)
muricota                                          females (1)

Inga                                              N. zadolicha (9)
edulis                                            N. glaberrima (10)
                                                  females (18)

Solanum                                           N. pendula (1)
paniculatum

Citrus                                            N. glaberrima (3)
limonia                                           N. zadolicha (10)
                                                  females (4)

Passiflora edulis                                 D. in edulis (2)
(flower bud)

Eschweilera tenuifolia                            N. parapeltae (1)
(flower bud)

Manihotesculenta                                  N. perezi (4)
(sprout)                                          females (2)

Cucumis sativus                                   N. zadolicha (2)

Total

C, collected; I, infested; P, puparia; % FI, percentage of fruits
infested; P/F, puparia/fruit.

(a) Calculation based exclusively on infested fruits.

Table 5. Lonchaeidae species and their hosts in 3 municipalities of
the state of Amapa, Brazil, Jan to Dec 2012.

                                  Host

Lonchaeidae             Family             Species

Dasiops            Passifloraceae      Passiflora edulis
inedulis *

Lonchaea sp.1      Annonaceae          Annona muricata

Neosilba bella     Chrysobalanaceae    Licania macrophylla ***
                   Oxalidaceae         Averrhoa carambola ***
                   Rubiaceae           Coffea arabica ***

Neosilba           Anacardiaceae       Spondias dulcis ***
glaberrima         Annonaceae          Annona muricata
                   Fabaceae            Inga edulis
                   Moraceae            Artocarpus altilis
                   Myrtaceae           Eugenia stipitata ***
                                       Psidium guajava
                   Oxalidaceae         Averrhoa carambola
                   Rutaceae            Citrus limonia ***
                   Sapotaceae          Pouteria macrophylla
                   Solanaceae          Solanum gilo ***

Neosilba           Rutaceae            Metrodorea flavida ***
laura **

Neosilba           Lecythidaceae       Eschweilera tenuifolia ***
parapeltae **

Neosilba           Myrtaceae           Syzygium malaccense ***
pendula            Solanaceae          Solanum gilo ***
                                       Solanum paniculatum ***

Neosilba           Euphorbiaceae       Manihot esculenta
perezi *

Neosilba           Anacardiaceae       Spondias dulcis ***
pseudozadolicha    Calophyllaceae      Calophyllum brasiliensis ***
                   Myrtaceae           Eugenia stipitata ***
                                       Psidium guajava ***
                   Rutaceae            Metrodorea flavida ***
                   Solanaceae          Capsicum chinense ***

Neosilba           Anacardiaceae       Spondias dulcis ***
zadolicha          Annonaceae          Annona muricata
                   Cucurbitaceae       Cucumis sativus ***
                   Fabaceae            Inga edulis
                   Loganiaceae         Strychnos asperula ***
                   Malvaceae           Quararibea guianensis
                   Myrtaceae           Eugenia stipitata ***
                                       Psidium guajava
                   Passifloraceae      Passiflora edulis ***
                   Rutaceae            Citrus limonia ***
                                       Metrodorea flavida

Lonchaeidae          Municipality

Dasiops            Santana and Mazagao
inedulis *

Lonchaea sp.1      Mazagao and Porto Grande

Neosilba bella     Santana
                   Porto Grande
                   Santana

Neosilba           Porto Grande
glaberrima         Santana and Porto Grande
                   Santana
                   Porto Grande
                   Porto Grande
                   Santana and Mazagao
                   Porto Grande
                   Santana
                   Porto Grande
                   Mazagao

Neosilba           Mazagao
laura **

Neosilba           Santana
parapeltae **

Neosilba           Porto Grande
pendula            Mazagao
                   Santana

Neosilba           Santana
perezi *

Neosilba           Porto Grande and Santana
pseudozadolicha    Mazagao
                   Porto Grande
                   Santana
                   Mazagao
                   Porto Grande

Neosilba           Porto Grande
zadolicha          Mazagao and Porto Grande
                   Santana
                   Santana
                   Santana
                   Mazagao
                   Porto Grande
                   Santana and Mazagao
                   Mazagao
                   Santana
                   Mazagao

* First report in Amapa.

** New report in the Brazilian Amazon.

*** New association with host for this lonchaeid species in
the Amazon.


----------

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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Papers
Author:Lemos, Lailson do Nascimento; Adaime, Ricardo; Costa-Neto, Salustiano V.; de Deus, Ezequiel da Glori
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:7524
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