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New data released to enhance CO2 pipeline design.

First-of-its-kind data relating to the depressurisation of CO2 pipelines builds on the success of previous experimental data released by DNV GL and can be used by the CCS industry to validate computer simulations used in CO2 pipeline design

With energy security and climate change high on the international agenda, Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) is again gaining momentum. The DNV GL-led CO2Pipetrans joint industry project (JIP) that is now releasing new data focuses on the transportation component of CCUS projects.

First-of-its-kind data relating to the depressurisation of CO2 pipelines is being made freely available through industry cooperation. This will help fill knowledge gaps associated with the safe and reliable pipeline transport of CO2 and result in cost efficiencies through a significantly improved design basis for CO2 pipelines, says DNV GL in a release.

Computer simulations of gas dispersion are used to assess the consequences of an accidental release from a pipeline. "Previously, CO2 pipelines have been designed using unvalidated computer simulations of CO2 dispersion due to the lack of experimental data. This uncertainty contributes to an unnecessary gold-plating of the pipelines," says project manager Jock Brown, DNV GL -- Oil & Gas, speaking at the GHGT-12 conference in Austin, Texas.

"This new data is one step in the right direction. It builds on the success of previous experimental data released by DNV GL and can be used by the CCS industry and designers to validate computer simulations used in CO2 pipeline design, thus optimising the design process," he continues.

The datasets contain the results of depressurisation tests on a CO2 pipeline collected at the DNV GL Spadeadam test site in the UK as part of the second phase of the CO2Pipetrans JIP started in 2011. In addition to making datasets for model validation publicly available, the JIP also involves work to improve the understanding of CO2 pipeline propagating cracks and corrosion rates with various CO2 stream impurities.

"This project is one of around 30 joint industry projects we run annually, bringing together industry players in a neutral environment to close technical knowledge gaps and fast track innovation. We have a strong track record of industry collaboration on CCUS, for example through the CO2Riskman. The CO2Pipetrans project will drive the technology price curve down and help speed up the roll out of CCUS technology," says Elisabeth Taaerstad, CEO of DNV GL -- Oil & Gas.

The CO2Pipetrans JIP consists of 15 partner organisations: Arcelor Mittal, BP, DNV GL, Endesa, ENI, EON Ruhrgas, Gassco, Gassnova, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) UK, Maersk Oil, Petrobras, Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) Norway, Shell, V&M Deutschland, and Vattenfall.

The DNV GL Recommended Practice (RP) 'DNV-RP-J202 Design and Operation of CO2 Pipelines' will be updated to reflect the new knowledge and help ensure that the highest safety standards are met when transporting CO2. This RP is one of a number of widely-adopted industry guidelines developed by DNV GL for CO2 handling, such as Recommended Practices for CO2 Capture, CO2 Pipelines and CO2 Geological Storage.

RISKS FROM OFFSHORE CO2 PIPELINES

Offshore carbon dioxide (CO2) pipelines could potentially pose a risk for offshore infrastructures, ships and the marine environment. To demonstrate that CO2 pipelines can be operated safely and to ensure the risks are well understood, industry stakeholders have asked DNV GL to initiate a Joint Industry Project (JIP) "CO2 Subsea Releases -- Small Scale Experimental Programme''. Several major operators have already joined the 'Sub-C-O2' JIP including: National Grid, ENI, and Petrobras, but there is still time for others to join. The number of offshore CO2 pipelines is expected to grow significantly in the future, as CCUS technology is deployed to mitigate CO2 emissions from power plants or other large industrial sources such as steel or cement factories.

"CCUS is again gaining momentum as part of the solution in meeting climate goals while also securing sufficient energy. As fossil based fuels continue to be part of the energy mix in the foreseeable future, CCUS will be critical particularly for redusing emissions from coal fired power plants. With this JIP DNV GL aims to bring together industry players to ensure that this technology can be used safely and with a full understanding of associated risks," says Taaerstad.

"The Joint Industry Project will explore CO2 subsea releases by generating data from well-defined experiments under different conditions of leak size, pressure, water depths and direction of the release. We will simulate punctures as well as rupture in offshore pipelines at DNV GL's world-class Spadeadam Test Site," says Dr Mohammad Ahmad, project manager, DNV GL.

A pipeline

State-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models will be employed to investigate the applicability and accuracy of current modelling techniques against the recorded experimental data. The purpose of this is to identify opportunities for modelling improvement and to provide guidance for modellers undertaking leak consequence assessments.

Information is needed about what happens when CO2 is released underwater, the behaviour of plumes and bubbles and how the CO2 disperses above water. Better understanding is also needed of the CO2 outflow at the leak point for different sizes of release, at different release depths. The effect of CO2 release on water acidity will be measured in various failure scenarios including different release rates and water depths. Measurements will also be used to validate and further develop CFD models, as appropriate.

Key questions the JIP will seek answers to are:

Under what circumstances will a pipeline release break the water surface in sufficient quantity to be detected, what is the release area of influence on the surface, and how large is the zone above the water?

What size of release (and under what conditions) generates a sufficiently powerful jet to displace significant quantities of water to impact the stability of surface vessels?

How much CO2 is dissolved into the water? How does this vary between fresh water and sea water and what pH changes occur in the water?

How much solid CO2 and hydrates form around the release location and what are the conditions in the surrounding pipework during the release?

DNV GL has created a series of internationally recognised standards and recommended practices together with the pipeline industry. Since 1976, DNV GL has issued a number of pipeline codes, comprising service specifications, standards and recommended practices that are currently widely used by the industry.

It has also developed a number of widely-adopted industry guidelines for CO2 handling, such as Recommended Practices for CO2 Capture,CO2 Pipelines and CO2 Geological Storage.

The company has long experience in Joint Industry Projects and has led many specifically related to CCUS, such as the C02Capture, CO2Qualstore, CO2Wells, CO2Pipetrans, CO2Riskman and Cosher Joint Industry Projects.

ENHANCE CO2 PIPELINE DESIGN SAFETY

The subject of CO2 transportation by pipeline is of increasing importance as many governments and communities worldwide come to terms with the challenges of carbon capture and storage (CCS) for the mitigation of climate change. The transportation aspect, is however, often looked upon as the 'missing link'. The DNV GL led CO2Pipetrans joint industry project (JIP) has just released a third batch of valuable experimental data that will greatly assist in the design process of CO2 pipelines.

To assess the consequences of an accidental release from a pipeline, computer models for gas dispersion are used. To-date, such computer models have had little or no CO2-specific validation due to the lack of relevant experimental data. The data made available by the CO2Pipetrans JIP can be used to validate computer models used in CO2 pipeline design, thus strengthening the design process.

"The data and associated material made publicly available by the CO2Pipetrans JIP will enable CO2 pipelines to be designed using more robust computer modelling which will lead to reduced design conservatism whilst maintaining acceptable levels of safety", says Hamish Holt, senior principal consultant at DNV GL.

The data being released is the third batch of experimental material that has been publically shared by the CO2Pipetrans JIP. It was collected at the DNV GL Spadeadam test site in the UK in 2013 as part of the second phase of the CO2Pipetrans JIP. The data was collected during a programme in which liquid phase CO2 at initial pressures up to around 100 barg was released through release holes ranging in diameter from 25mm to 150 mm (1 -- 6 inches). The data and other material that support the use of the data can be downloaded freely here.

Also available from this website is the first batch which includes release and dispersion data from liquid and supercritical CO2 releases through holes diameters up to 25mm (1 inch), and the second batch which includes data from long pipe depressurisation experiments. The CO2Pipetrans JIP has also undertaken experimental work to improve knowledge and data availability within the important subject areas of CO2 pipeline propagating crack prevention and corrosion rates with various CO2 stream impurities.

The CO2Pipetrans JIP consists of 15 partner organisations: Arcelor Mittal, BP, DNV GL, Endesa, ENI, Eon Ruhrgas, Gassco, Gassnova, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) UK, Maersk Oil, Petrobras, Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) Norway, Shell, V&M Deutschland, and Vattenfall.

The DNV GL recommended practice 'DNV-RP-J202 Design and Operation of CO2 Pipelines' will be updated to reflect the new knowledge to help ensure the highest standards of safety are delivered in transporting CO2. This recommended practice is one of a number widely-adopted industry guidelines developed by DNV GL for CO2 handling which cover: CO2 capture, CO2 wells and storage, and CO2 safety.

CO2PIPETRANS

During execution of the CO2Pipetrans Phase 1, which resulted in the DNV-RP-J202, a number of significant gaps in knowledge were identified. If left unfilled these knowledge gaps will slow the implementation of CCS on an industrial scale. Phase 2 of the CO2Pipetrans project is aimed at filling these knowledge gaps through experimental research funded by a Joint Industry Project (JIP).

The CO2Pipetrans partners are: Arcelor Mittal, BP, DNV GL, Endesa, ENI, E.on Ruhrgas, Gassco, Gassnova, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) UK, Maersk Oil, Petrobras, Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) Norway, Shell, V&M Tubes, Vattenfall.

This would enhance the robustness of risk management of technical and safety risks related to the whole life cycle of pipeline transmission of CO2.

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Publication:Oil & Gas News
Date:Nov 30, 2015
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