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New data on the jumping spiders of South Africa (Araneae: Salticidae).

Massagris honesta Wesolowska, 1993

Figs 19, 90, 91, 107-113

Massagris honesta: Wesolowska 1993: 140, figs 18-20.

Massagris regina: Wesolowska 1993: 138, figs 15-17. Syn. n.

Wesolowska (1993) described both sexes; general appearance of male as in Figs 19 & 90, female as in Fig. 91; male cheliceral dentition as in Fig. 107, first leg as in Fig. 108; structure of copulatory organs as in Figs 109-113.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 1[female] Amatola Mtns, Hogsback, 32[degrees]36.285'S 26[degrees]56.580'E, active searching, 27.iii.2007, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/1209); 1[male] same locality, Amatola Forestry Company Offices, 32[degrees]35.276'S 26[degrees]55.911'E, 1270 m, under overhanging vegetation, 22.iv.2012, C. Haddad (NMBA). Western Cape: 2[male] 1[female] De Hoop Nature Reserve, Lekkerwater road, 34[degrees]24.023'S 20[degrees]33.189'E, under Thamnochortis restios, 26.iii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA); 1[male] same locality, De Hoop Vlei, 34[degrees]29.425'S 20[degrees]25.762'E, under rocks, 25.iii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA); 1[female] same locality, Koppie Alleen, 34[degrees]28.534'S 20[degrees]30.349'E, rocky shore, retreats in intertidal zone, 10.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NMBA); 6[female] same locality, Potberg, 34[degrees]22.487'S 20[degrees]31.980'E, Eucalyptus forest, leaf-litter, 4.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NMBA); 2[male] 2[female] Grootvadersbosch Forest Station, 20 km WNW of Heidelberg, 34[degrees]00'S 20[degrees]47'E, 1600 ft, indigenous forest, 8-10.xi.1985, C. Griswold, J. Doyen & T. Meikle-Griswold (NMSA, 26454).

Distribution: Species previously known only from the vicinity of Cape Town, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa only (Fig. 114); recorded here for the first time from the Eastern Cape.

Habitat and biology: Based on published records (Wesolowska 1993) and the new records presented above, it seems as if M. honesta is endemic to the Fynbos and Forest biomes in southern South Africa. Specimens were collected from leaf-litter and low-growing vegetation.

Remarks: M. honesta was originally described from the male only and M. regina from the female only. Both males and females were collected together at De Hoop Nature Reserve, enabling us to recognize these species as synonyms.

Genus Mogrus Simon, 1882

Mogrus mathisi (Berland & Millot, 1941)

Fig. 20

Philaeus mathisi: Berland & Millot 1941: 341, fig. 46.

Philaeus senilis: Denis 1955: 126, figs 26-28.

Mogrus dillae: Proszynski 1989: 40, figs 18-20; Wesolowska & van Harten 1994: 56, figs 115, 116; Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 70, figs 185-187.

Mogrus mathisi: Wesolowska 2003: 426, figs 1-10; 2011: 333; Logunov 2004: 88; Wesolowska & van Harten 2007: 235, figs 131-134; Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz 2008: 28.

Wesolowska (2003) described both sexes; male chelicerae clothed in dense white hairs, contrasting with the dark colouration of the carapace (Fig. 20).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 3[male] 1[female] Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]35.558'S 26[degrees]26.032'E, 1427 m, grassland, canopy fogging Acacia karroo, 25.xii.2010, V. Butler (NCA, 2011/915).

Distribution: Species widely distributed in Africa and the Middle East, recorded from South Africa for the first time here (Fig. 114).

Habitat and biology: The record presented here is derived from fogging a sweet-thorn (Acacia karroo tree) in open grassland.

Genus Pignus Wesolowska, 2000

Pignus pongola Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009

Fig. 92

Pignus pongola: Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 73, figs 147-151.

Wesolowska & Haddad (2009) described the male, general appearance as in Fig. 92 (female unknown).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1[male] iSimangaliso Wetlands Park, St Lucia, 28[degrees]23.072'S 32[degrees]24.400'E, 22 m, coastal forest, canopy fogging Trichilia emetica, 13.v.2012, J. Neethling & C. Luwes (NMSA, 26453); 1[male] Tembe Elephant Park, 27[degrees]03'S 32[degrees]25'E, iii.2003, A. Honiball & S. Otto (NCA, 2006/1287). Western Cape: 1[male] De Hoop Nature Reserve, Potberg, 34[degrees]22.719'S 20[degrees]32.216'E, sifting leaf-litter, transition between Eucalyptus plantation and fynbos, 24.iii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA).

Distribution: Species previously known only from the type locality (Ndumo Game Reserve); two additional records from northern KwaZulu-Natal are added here, as well as the first records from the Western Cape Province (Fig. 114).

Habitat and biology: Known only from forest habitats and fynbos.

Genus Pseudicius Simon, 1885

Pseudicius africanus Peckham & Peckham, 1903

Figs 93, 94, 115-118

Pseudicius africanus: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 212, pl. 26, figs 2-2a.

Diagnosis: The species is closely related to Pseudicius maculatus Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011, but can be recognised by the abdominal pattern, which comprises a light median band in P. africanus as opposed to spotted in P. maculatus. Males of both species have a very similar palpal organ, but in P. africanus the embolus is slightly shorter and the tibial apophysis has an additional ventral tooth. Females differ in the position of the copulatory openings, which are placed in the edge of the epigynal depression in P. africanus but posteriorly within a deep pocket in P. maculatus (see Haddad & Wesolowska 2011: fig. 198).

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Cephalothorax: length 2.5/2.0, width 1.5/1.3, height 1.0/0.8. Abdomen: length 2.5/2.2, width 1.8/1.3. Eye field: length 1.4/0.8, anterior width 1.3/1.0, posterior width 1.2/1.1.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 93. Small spider with slender, flattened body; carapace oval, dark brown, with darker eye field; eyes encircled by black rings, with brown bristles near eyes. White hairs form thin median band starting from anterior median eyes to posterior edge of carapace. Clypeus low, clothed in white hairs; stripes composed of white hairs extending along lateral margins of carapace. Stridulatory apparatus present. Mouthparts and sternum dark brown. Abdomen ovoid, slightly elongated, dark brown, with median broad streak composed of whitish hairs; sides of abdomen with white stripe running from anterior to spinnerets. Venter grey, with two pale lines. Anterior spinnerets dark, posteriors paler. Legs brown, first pair darker, stouter and longer than others. Leg hairs and spines brown. Pedipalp brown; tibial apophysis broad, with additional ventral tooth (Figs 115, 116); embolus curved towards retrolateral margin of cymbium (Fig. 115).

Female.

Shape of body and colouration as in male, general appearance as in Fig. 94. All legs pale brown, first pair similarly thick as others (not stouter as in male). Epigyne with large central depression (Fig. 117), with copulatory openings placed on posterior margin of the depression. Internal structure as in Fig. 118.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: 1 imm. 1[male] 1[female] De Hoop Nature Reserve, Potberg, 34[degrees]22'S 20[degrees]32'E, Eucalyptus forest, beating shrub foliage, 4.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NMBA); 1 imm. 1[male] same locality, De Hoop Vlei, 34[degrees]29.425'S 20[degrees]25.762'E, under rocks, 8.iv.2004, C. Haddad (NMBA).

Distribution: Western Cape Province (Fig. 139); originally described from the "Cape Colony", presumably in the vicinity of Cape Town (33[degrees]55'S 18[degrees]25'E).

Habitat and biology: A foliage-dwelling spider collected in fynbos habitats.

Remarks: The male is described here for the first time.

Pseudicius dentatus sp. n.

Figs 119-124

Etymology: From Latin dentatus (toothed), in reference to the distinct series of denticles on the male palpal tibial apophysis.

Diagnosis: This species is closely related to Pseudicius dependens Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011 from central South Africa. The male is easily distinguished by the clearly broader embolus and the absence of a curved tegular lobe. The shape of the pedipalp tibial apophysis is also distinct. In the retrolateral view of the palp it is flabellate with a serrated end comprising many distinct denticles and a smaller lobe on its dorsal surface, whereas in P. dependens it is narrowed towards the bifid tip, has smaller denticles and lacks a dorsal lobe (see Haddad & Wesolowska 2011: figs 166, 167). The female differs by the presence of epigynal pockets (absent in P. dependens) and the position of the gonopores (low, at epigastric furrow in the new species, versus central in P. dependens).

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Cephalothorax: length 1.7-1.8/1.7-2.0, width 1.1-1.2/1.1-1.4, height 0.6/0.6. Abdomen: length 1.7-2.1/2.3-2.9, width 1.0-1.2/1.3-1.5. Eye field: length 0.7-0.8/0.7-0.8, anterior width 0.9-1.0/0.9-1.1, posterior width 1.0-1.1/1.0-1.2.

Male.

Small spider with slender and flattened body. Carapace oval, chocolate brown, with black line along margins; white hairs forming streak on sides, extending onto clypeus. Eyes surrounded with black rings; eye field pitted, some white hairs on it, with long brown bristles near eyes; anterior median eyes encircled by small fawn scales. Stridulatory apparatus present. Chelicerae unidentate, retromarginal tooth large. Labium, endites and sternum dark brown. Abdomen slightly elongated, dark greyish brown with pattern composed of four pairs of whitish patches posteriorly and narrow white margins in anterior half. Venter greyish. Spinnerets dark. First pair of legs long and robust, with slightly swollen tibiae; only single stout short tibial spine present, metatarsi I with one pair of ventral spines. Other legs yellow, femora tinged with grey. Leg hairs and spines brown. Pedipalp brown, clothed in long dense dark hairs. Palpal tibiae short, with serrated apophysis, its upper surface with several small denticles and denticulate lobe on its dorsal surface (Figs 119-122); bulb small, oval; embolus long, its basal % broad, tip fine and directed retrolaterally; tip of cymbium curved towards retrolateral side (Figs 119-122).

Female.

Similar to male, slightly paler in colour, with whitish scales surrounding all eyes of anterior row. Pattern on abdomen more contrasted than in male, white margins broader and median spots larger. Abdomen clothed in greyish hairs, longer at anterior edge. Venter of abdomen pale. Legs yellow. Epigyne wider than long, with two lateral pockets at epigastric furrow and large shallow central depression (Fig. 123). Copulatory openings placed in posterior part of epigyne; seminal ducts wide and weakly sclerotized in inlet parts, narrowed distally; accessory glands very large, spherical (Fig. 124).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Ophathe Game Reserve, 28[degrees]23.202'S 31[degrees]24.077'E, 505 m, rocky mountainside, active searching, 1.x.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/4058).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1[male] 3[female] Ndumo Game Reserve, near main camp, 26[degrees]55.221'S 32[degrees]18.560'E, broadleaf woodland, canopy fogging Combretum molle, 29.vi.2010, C. Haddad, D. Fourie & J. Saaiman (NCA, 2012/1815); 1[male] 1[female] same data (MRAC); 3[male] 4[female] Ophathe Game Reserve, 28[degrees]25.344'S 31[degrees]23.957'E, 897 m, montane grassland, beating short shrubs, 4.x.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/3966). Mpumalanga: 1[male] Kruger National Park, Satara, N'wanetsi, 24[degrees]24.120'S 31[degrees]44.700'E, ii.2009, B. Reynolds (NCA, 2010/2722).

Distribution: Species distributed in eastern South Africa (Fig. 139).

Habitat and biology: This species was collected from subtropical savanna by beating short shrubs and canopy fogging.

Pseudicius elegans Wesolowska & Cumming, 2008

Figs 125, 126

Pseudicius elegans: Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 208, figs 135-143.

Wesolowska & Cumming (2008) described the female; structure of epigyne as in Figs 125, 126.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 1[female] Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]35.631'S 26[degrees]26.380'E, grassland, canopy fogging Acacia karroo, 23.xii.2010, V. Butler (NCA, 2012/1821).

Distribution: Previously known only from the type locality in Zimbabwe, recorded for the first time in South Africa (Fig. 139).

Habitat and biology: The specimen was collected by fogging in Acacia woodland in the Grassland Biome.

Pseudicius femineus sp. n.

Figs 127, 128

Etymology: From Latin femineus (womanly), referring to discovery of the female only.

Diagnosis: The female is slightly similar to that of Pseudicius maculatus Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011 from the Free State in South Africa, but may be recognized by the position of the epigynal depression, which is placed posteriorly (versus medially). Male unknown.

Description:

Female.

Measurements. Cephalothorax: length 2.1, width 1.6, height 0.7. Abdomen: length 3.4, width 2.2. Eye field: length 0.8, anterior width 1.0, posterior width 1.1.

Carapace oval, flat, brown, with black eye field; surface clothed in dense grey hairs, with longer brown bristles only near eyes. Anterior median eyes encircled by creamy-white scales. Lateral carapace margins fringed with thin black lines, with white stripes above these lines. Stridulatory apparatus present. Sternum and mouthparts dark brown, tips of endites paler, clypeus with white hairs. Abdomen elongate, dark grey, with pattern composed of four pairs of transverse patches submarginally and ill-defined paler median area in anterior half of abdomen. Venter pale. Spinnerets grey. Legs yellow, bearing darker hairs. Epigyne very broad, with deep posterior excavation plugged with waxy secretion; anterior part of excavation forming a deep pocket, with gonopores placed laterally in excavation (Fig. 127); seminal ducts short, spermathecae strongly sclerotized, single-chambered (Fig. 128).

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Port Elizabeth, Lovemore Park, 34[degrees]00.282'S 25[degrees]31.597'E, night collecting, bark and foliage, 1.i.2010, C. Haddad (NMBA).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 139).

Habitat and biology: The holotype was collected in a suburban garden at night, hanging from the bark of a tree by a silk dragline.

Pseudicius flabellus sp. n.

Figs 129-132

Etymology: Derived from Latinflabellum (a fan), in reference to the shape of the male palpal tibial apophysis.

Diagnosis: This species is closely related to Pseudicius dependens Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011 from central South Africa and P. dentatus sp. n. described above. The male differs from both by the shape of the cymbium tip (without the retrolateral outgrowth that is present in the other two species). The tibial apophysis of this species is larger and has a unique shape, with a broad, blunt end and some small denticles on the upper surface. Female unknown.

Description:

Male.

Measurements. Cephalothorax: length 2.0, width 1.4, height 0.6. Abdomen: length 2.3, width 1.4. Eye field: length 0.8, anterior width 1.1, posterior width 1.2.

Shape of body typical for the genus, elongate and flattened. Carapace brown, brilliant, eyes surrounded by black area; traces of paler median streak on posterior part of thoracic area. Carapace covered in adpressed colourless hairs, with long brown bristles near eyes and some whitish hairs on eye field. White hairs form clypeal mat and pale stripes on sides of carapace. Stridulatory bristles present on sides of carapace. Sternum, chelicerae and labium brown, endites slightly paler. Abdomen elongate, brown, clothed in colourless hairs, with longer brown setae at anterior edge; sides streaked with white, with traces of paler median belt. Venter dark. Spinnerets brownish. Legs greyish yellow (partially damaged, first pair missing). Femur of pedipalp slightly longer than in P. dependens, with small outgrowth on ventral surface (Fig. 132). Tibial apophysis flabelliform, with broad blunt end, inner and dorsal surface of apophysis dotted with minute denticles (Figs 129-131); embolus attached to bulb prolaterally, with sharp initial and distal bends, gradually narrowing from base to tip (Fig. 129).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Malmesbury, Rondeberg, 33[degrees]24'S 18[degrees]16'E, 25.x.1987, R. Wels (NMBA).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 139).

Habitat and biology: The type locality is in the Fynbos Biome.

Pseudicius imitator sp. n.

Figs 95, 133-138

Etymology: From Latin imitator (one that imitates, a resembler), in reference to the similarity of this species to P. venustulus.

Diagnosis: Closely related to Pseudicius venustulus Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009 from the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The male differs by the shape of bulb and the shorter embolus (its base is placed prolaterally, whereas proximally in P. venustulus). Females of both species are very difficult to recognize; P. imitator sp. n. has shorter seminal ducts and long accessory glands.

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]): Carapace length 1.6-1.7/1.9-2.0, width 1.0-1.2/1.1-1.3, height 0.5/0.6. Abdomen length 1.9-2.0/1.9-3.6, width 1.2-1.3/1.2-2.3. Eye field length 0.6-0.7/ 0.7-0.8, anterior width 0.9/1.0, posterior width 1.0/1.1.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 95; body elongate. Carapace low, flattened, dark brown, eye field black with metallic shine. Short greyish hairs on carapace, with brown bristles in vicinity of eyes; some white and fawn scale-like hairs at anterior median eyes. Mouthparts and sternum brown. Stridulatory apparatus of the carapace-leg type. Abdomen elongated, black, with three pairs of small white spots. Venter greyish brown. Spinnerets dark. First pair of legs stout, dark brown, tibiae slightly swollen; tibiae with single short spine prolaterally, metatarsi with two pairs of ventral spines. Other legs brownish, with fine, long brown hairs on legs. Pedipalps brown; palpal tibia with forked retrolateral apophysis, ventral prong longer and with curved tip, and smaller tooth-like dorsal apophysis (Figs 133-136); embolus originating proximally on prolateral side, tip directed retrolaterally (Fig. 133).

Female.

Similar to male but slightly paler in colour. Carapace with pale hairs forming patch near fovea and fringe along lateral margins. Abdominal pattern composed of cream band along anterior edge and four pairs of spots on a brown background, with brown and whitish hairs on abdomen. All legs yellow, first pair similar in build to others (not stouter as in male). Epigyne oval, with two rounded depressions anteriorly and pair of pouches posteriorly (Fig. 137); internal structure as in Fig. 138, accessory glands long.

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Amatola Mountains, Hogsback, Tyume forest, 32[degrees]36.195'S 26[degrees]56.308'E, 1180 m, Afromontane forest, canopy fogging mixed trees, 29.ix.2011, J. Neethling & C. Luwes (NCA, 2012/1824).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 4$ 11[female] Amatola Mtns, Hogsback, Ashfield-on-Hogsback, 32[degrees]34.993'S 26[degrees]55.472'E, 1330 m, Afromontane forest, canopy fogging mixed trees, 30.ix.2011, J. Neethling & C. Luwes (NCA, 2012/1825); 1[male] 1[female] same data (MRAC).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 139).

Habitat and biology: The species was collected by canopy fogging mixed forest.

Pseudicius maculatus Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011

Pseudicius maculatus: Haddad & Wesolowska 2011: 115, figs 193-198.

Haddad & Wesolowska (2011) described both sexes.

Material examined. SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 2[male] Addo Elephant Park, 33[degrees]35'S 25[degrees]40'E, M. Meyer (NCA, 76/1950); 2[male] 2[female] Amatola Mtns, Hogsback, 32[degrees]34.635'S 26[degrees]56.610'E, 1520 m, open grassland, rocky hillside, under rocks, 24.iv.2012, C. Haddad (NMBA).

Distribution: A species described from the central part of South Africa, recorded from the Eastern Cape for the first time (Fig. 139).

Habitat and biology: A tree- and shrub-dwelling species from the Grassland Biome, recorded from the Thicket Biome for the first time.

Genus Rhene Thorell, 1869

Rhene amanzi sp. n.

Figs 140, 141

Etymology: From Amanzi Private Game Reserve, where the holotype was collected; a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis: The species is easily recognised by the characteristic embolus, which forms a large triangular plate. Female unknown.

Description:

Male.

Measurements. Carapace length 1.5, width 1.6, height 0.6. Abdomen length 1.7, width 1.5. Eye field length 1.1, anterior width 1.0, posterior width 1.6.

Small, robust, flat spider. Carapace trapezoid, short and wide, eye field pitted; dense dark fine hairs cover carapace. Eye field very large, trapezoid, occupying most of dorsum. Whole body uniformly coloured, dark brown, almost black. Abdomen very flat, with dorsal scutum; anterior edge with fringe of dense hairs. All legs dark brown, clothed in dense hairs. First legs stouter than others, without plumose setae (characteristic for the majority of congeners). Pedipalps dark, tibiae very short, tibial apophysis curved (Fig. 141); bulb dark brown, anterior haematodocha clearly separated; embolus somewhat triangular, very large and broad, slightly curved (Fig. 140).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: Brandfort district, Amanzi Private Game Reserve, 28[degrees]36.115'S 26[degrees]26.014'E, grassland, sweeps, 19.xii.2010, V. Butler (NCA, 2012/1822).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: In contrast to the majority of South African congeners, which are associated with woody vegetation, the holotype of this species was collected in open grassland.

Rhene facilis Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000

Figs 96, 97, 142-145

Rhene facilis: Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 93, figs 251-255.

Diagnosis: The male can be easily recognised from South African congeners by the distinctive markings on the body and the fine, slightly curved embolus. Females can be distinguished by the weakly sclerotized epigyne with an anterior arch and S-shaped copulatory openings.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Carapace length 1.9/1.6, width 2.0/1.5, height 0.7/0.6. Abdomen length 2.2/2.5, width 1.9/1.5. Eye field length 1.3/1.0, anterior width 1.3/1.0, posterior width 2.0/1.5.

Male.

General appearance as in Fig. 96. Robust, flattened spider, with trapezoid carapace; carapace almost black, eye field pitted, some colourless hairs on carapace; white hairs forming thin line along anterior margin of eye field and median streak near posterior of carapace. Eye field large, trapezoid, eyes of last row placed on small tubercles. Chelicerae dark brown; labium and endites with narrow paler line along tips. Sternum brown. Abdomen dark brown, its anterior edge with median patch of white hairs, and fine transverse white band in posterior half (Fig. 96). Venter brownish grey. Spinnerets dark. Legs brown, only tarsi slightly lighter, with some white scales on femora. First pair stouter and longer than others, with dense hairs on ventral surfaces of tibiae. Pedipalps dark, tibial apophysis curved (Fig. 143); embolus thin and slightly curved (Fig. 142).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 97. Carapace reddish brown; eye field black, pitted; colourless delicate hairs cover carapace. Mouthparts and sternum pale brown. Abdomen more elongate than in male, ovoid, flat, greyish brown; dorsum covered with scutum, with delicate hairs on it. Spinnerets dark. First pair of legs orange-brown, with black tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi; tibiae and metatarsi of other legs with black tips (Fig. 97). Pedipalps yellowish orange. Epigyne very small, weakly sclerotized (Fig. 144), with broad anterior arch, posterior notch, and S-shaped copulatory openings; internal structure as in Fig. 145.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1[female] iSimangaliso Wetlands Park, near Mission Rocks Beach, 28[degrees]15.885'S 32[degrees]28.880'E, 83 m, indigenous bush, canopy fogging Albizia adianthifolia, 12.V.2012, J. Neethling & C. Luwes (NMSA, 26449); 3[male] 2[female] same locality, St Lucia, 28[degrees]23.038'S 32[degrees]24.428'E, 21 m, coastal forest, canopy fogging Trichilia dregeana, 13.v.2012, J. Neethling & C. Luwes (NMSA, 26458); 1[female] same locality, Crocodile Centre, 28[degrees]21.407'S 32[degrees]25.183'E, 24 m, wetland, canopy fogging Breonadia salicina, 14.v.2012, J. Neethling & C. Luwes (NMSA, 26493); 1[female] Ndumo Game Reserve, Shokwe Pan, 26[degrees]52.424'S 32[degrees]12.652'E, 43 m, Ficus forest, canopy fogging Kigelia africana, 5.vii.2009, C. Haddad, R. Lyle & V. Butler (NCA, 2012/1816); 2[male] same data (NCA, 2012/1817).

Distribution: Described from Tanzania, found for the first time in South Africa (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: Collected by canopy fogging various trees in forest and savanna woodland habitats.

Remark: The female is described for the first time.

Rhene lingularis Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011

Rhene lingularis: Haddad & Wesolowska 2011: 121, figs 207-209.

Haddad & Wesolowska (2011) described the male; female unknown.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: 1[male] Malmesbury, 33[degrees]24'S 18[degrees]16'E, beating, 25.X.1987, A. Wels (NMBA).

Distribution: Described from the Free State Province in South Africa, recorded from the Western Cape for the first time, extending the range by approximately 1000 km westwards (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: Previously collected by sweep-netting in grassland habitats, recorded here by beating vegetation in the Fynbos biome.

Rhene punctatus sp. n.

Figs 146-148

Etymology: From Latin punctus (a point), in reference to the dotted pattern on the abdomen.

Diagnosis: This species can be distinguished by the abdominal pattern, comprising of a series of black dots on a pale brown dorsum. The structure of the male palp is similar to that in another southern African congener, R. lingularis, but differs in having a clearly longer tibial apophysis and by the shape of the membranous apophysis accompanying the embolus. Female unknown.

Description:

Male.

Measurements. Cephalothorax: length 1.8, width 1.8, height 0.8. Abdomen: length 2.1, width 1.8. Eye field: length 1.0, anterior width 1.2, posterior width 1.8.

Very flat, stocky, hairy spider. Carapace flat, very broad, almost square; carapace dark brown, densely clothed in long whitish hairs. Eye field large, trapezoid; first and second rows of eyes close to each other. Clypeus very low, brown. Chelicerae unidentate; labium and sternum dark brown, endites with slightly paler tips. Abdomen rounded, strongly flattened, its anterior edge extending over posterior part of carapace; abdomen pale brown, with numerous black dots scattered on whole dorsum and large trapezoid black patch in anterior part; dense white hairs cover abdomen. Venter dark brown. Spinnerets dark. First pair of legs blackish, metatarsi and tarsi lighter, distinctly thicker than others, their tibiae slightly swollen, with long dense hairs on ventral surface; legs II-IV orange, only femora darker, distal ends of remaining segments with a dark ring.

Metatarsi of first legs with two pairs of ventral spines. Pedipalps dark; bulb large, very convex (Fig. 146); embolus long and broad, linguliform, with large accompanying membranous conductor (Fig. 146); palpal tibia short, with hooked apophysis, longer than in congeners (Fig. 147); cymbium with basal retrolateral cavity corresponding to the tibial apophysis (Fig. 148).

Holotype: S SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Cathedral Peak Nature Reserve, Rainbow Gorge, 28[degrees]56.982'S 29[degrees]13.874'E, 1400 m, base of grasses and ferns, 19.i.2011, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/2719).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: Found close to the soil surface in Afromontane grassland.

Rhene timidus sp. n.

Figs 98, 149, 150

Etymology: From Latin timidus (cautious), in reference to the very delicate sclerotization of the epigyne.

Diagnosis: The species may by recognized by the structure of the epigyne, with characteristic spiralling ridges around the copulatory openings and the seminal ducts broader than in other African congeners. Male unknown.

Description:

Female.

Measurements. Cephalothorax: length 2.4, width 2.5, height 0.9. Abdomen: length 3.5, width 2.8. Eye field: length 1.5, anterior width 1.4, posterior width 2.5.

General appearance as in Fig. 98. Larger than female of R. facilis; shape of body typical for members of the genus, flat and robust. Carapace greatly broadened, with large trapezoid eye field; dorsum of carapace brown, eyes with black rings, dense whitish hairs cover whole surface. Clypeus very low, dark. Chelicerae unidentate; labium, endites and sternum brown. Abdomen slightly lighter than carapace, brownish fawn, unicoloured, with three pairs of sigilla. Venter brown. Spinnerets dark. Legs brown, first pair stouter than others, with blackish metatarsi and tarsi; long dense black hairs cover ventral surface of tibiae; tibiae I short, with single short prolateral spine; metatarsi I very short, with two pairs of ventral spines; legs with scattered whitish hairs. Epigyne weakly sclerotized, with notch at posterior edge (Fig. 149); copulatory openings surrounded by spiralling ridges; seminal ducts broad, similarly broad along their length, with accessory glands present (Fig. 150).

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Amatola Mtns, Hogsback, Never Daunted Guest House, 32[degrees]35.702'S 26[degrees]55.815'E, 1250 m, canopy fogging, mixed garden shrubs, 7.i.2010, C. Haddad, C. Griswold & H. Wood (NCA, 2012/1101).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: Collected by fogging mixed broadleaved shrubs in a garden.

Genus Sibianor Logunov, 2001

Sibianor victoriae Logunov, 2000

Figs 151-154

Sibianor victoriae: Logunov 2000: 276, figs 292-293.

Diagnosis: The male is similar to Sibianor kenyaensis Logunov, 2000, but the position of the tegular knob of the palp is different. The female may be distinguished by the multi-chambered spermathecae.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Cephalothorax: length 1.0-1.2/1.1, width 0.7-0.8/0.9, height 0.5-0.6/0.6. Abdomen: length 1.0-1.3/1.5, width 1.3/1.1. Eye field: length 0.5-0.7/0.7, anterior width 0.7-0.9/0.8, posterior width 0.8-1.1/1.1.

Male.

Description in Logunov (2000). Endites with small tooth. First legs with slightly swollen tibiae, their ventral surface with feathery bristles. Fourth pairs of legs with two ventro-apical spines on metatarsi. Pedipalps with round bulb and retrolateral swelling; embolus originating basally on retrolateral side, fine, curving around prolateral side of bulb (Fig. 151); palpal tibia with single simple apophysis (Fig. 152).

Female.

Very small spider, ranging from 2.0-2.6 mm. Carapace oval, widest at last row of eyes; carapace dark brown, densely covered in very small white scales and short hairs, with some brown bristles among them. Clypeus with dense white hairs. Chelicerae unidentate. Sternum brown, labium and endites with paler tips. Abdomen brown, with white hairs and scales and brown bristles on dorsum. Venter dark. Spinnerets brownish. Legs and pedipalps dark yellowish; last pair of legs without spines. Epigyne typical for Harmochireae, with central pocket (Fig. 153); spermathecae strongly sclerotized, multi-chambered (Fig. 154).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Mpumalanga: 1[female] Kruger National Park (KNP), Mopani, Dzombo, 23[degrees]26.700'S 31[degrees]22.860'E, sweepnetting, xi.2003, B. Reynolds (NCA, 2010/2729); 1[male] same data but iii-iv. 2008 (NCA, 2010/2723); 1[male] KNP, Mopani, Mooiplaas, 23[degrees]34.920'S 31[degrees]27.840'E, sweepnetting, xi.2008, B. Reynolds (NCA, 2010/2726); 1[male] KNP, Satara, 24[degrees]24.060'S 31[degrees]44.460'E, sweepnetting, ix.2008, B. Reynolds (NCA, 2010/2728); 1[female] KNP, Pretoriuskop, Kambeni, 25[degrees]09.180'S 31[degrees]15.840'E, sweepnetting, ix-x.2008, B. Reynolds (NCA, 2010/2724); 1[male] same data (NCA, 2010/2730); 1[male] KNP, Pretoriuskop, Numbi, 25[degrees]07.380'S 31[degrees]12.480'E, sweepnetting, ix-x.2008, B. Reynolds (NCA, 2010/2727).

Distribution: Species previously known only from the type locality in Kenya, recorded for the first time in South Africa (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: Species collected close to the ground by sweepnetting grasses and herbs in savanna habitats. Its small size, somewhat rounded body and dark colouration suggest that this species may mimic ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

Remark: The female is described here for the first time.

Genus Thyenula Simon, 1902

Thyenula fidelis Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009

Thyenulafidelis: Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 90, figs 196-199.

Wesolowska & Haddad (2009) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 1[female] Kei Mouth, 32[degrees]41'S 28[degrees]22'E, coastal dune forest, 6.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA). KwaZulu-Natal: 1[male] Gilboa Plantation, Karkloof Midlands, 29[degrees]18'S 30[degrees]04'E, pitfall traps, grassland, 26.iii.2009, J. Pryke (NCA, 2010/5775); 1 [male] Midlands, Boston, Good Hope Plantation, 29[degrees]39'S 29[degrees]58'E, sweepnetting, indigenous forest, 23.ii.2009, J. Pryke (NCA, 2010/5660); 1[female] Ophathe Game Reserve, 28[degrees]25.344'S 31[degrees]23.957'E, 897 m, montane grassland, sifting leaf-litter, 4.x.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/3914); 2[male] 2[female] Pietermaritzburg, 29[degrees]37'S 30[degrees]23'E, in humid forest, town bush, 18.iv.1976, A. Russell-Smith (BMNH); 1[male] 2[female] same locality, 15.ix.1976, ground layer, A. Russell-Smith (BMNH); 7[male] Vryheid, Ngome State Forest, 27[degrees]46'S 31[degrees]27'E, pitfall traps, ecotone pine, 1.xii.1992, M. van der Merwe (NCA, 97/563); 1[male] same data (NCA, 97/562). Limpopo: 1[female] Bela-Bela/Warmbaths, Klein Kariba Holiday Resort, 24[degrees]17'S 28[degrees]06'E, sweep-netting grass, 22.xi.1996, J. Leeming (NCA, 97/583).

Distribution: Species known only from the type locality (Ndumo Game Reserve), recorded from several additional localities in KwaZulu-Natal, and also from the Eastern Cape and Limpopo Provinces for the first time (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: A ground-dwelling species known from subtropical forest and savanna habitats.

Thyenula magna Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009

Thyenula magna: Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 92, figs 200-202.

Wesolowska & Haddad (2009) described the male; female unknown.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 2[male] Kei Mouth, 32[degrees]41'S 28[degrees]22'E, coastal dune forest, 6.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA).

Distribution: Previously known only from the type locality (Ndumo Game Reserve), recorded from the Eastern Cape for the first time (Fig. 155).

Habitat and biology: A ground-living spider from savanna and forest habitats.

Genus Tomomingi Szuts & Scharff, 2009

Tomomingi szutsi sp. n.

Figs 21, 99, 100, 156-165

Etymology: The species is named after Tamas Szuts, one of the authors of the genus.

Diagnosis: This species is closely related to Tomomingi holmi (Proszynski & Zabka, 1983) from the Aberdare Mountains in Kenya. The male may be distinguished by the median apophysis of the bulb, which is bifid in T. szutsi sp. n. but hook-shaped in T. holmi, and by the shape of cymbium, which forms a retrolateral enlargement basally (without such an enlargement in T. holmi). The females are difficult to tell apart, but the course of the distal part of the seminal ducts and the shape of the spermathecae are different (compare Fig. 164 herein with fig. 32 in Proszynski & Zabka 1983).

Description:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Cephalothorax: length 2.0/2.2, width 1.4/1.6, height 0.8/0.8. Abdomen: length 1.9/2.4, width 1.3/1.4. Eye field: length 1.0/1.0, anterior width 1.3/1.4, posterior width 1.2/1.3.

Male.

General appearance as in Figs 21 and 99. Carapace oval (Fig. 156), moderately high, with constriction behind posterior median eyes (Figs 21, 157); posterior slope steep, fovea clearly visible, thoracic part with striae radiating from fovea (Fig. 156). Eye field occupying half of carapace length; eye pattern typical for Hisponinae: eyes on tubercles, posterior medians set very far to the anterior, on the same tubercles as the anterior laterals (Fig. 158). Colouration of carapace brown, slightly darker at margins, eyes with black rings; some brown bristles near eyes and sparse dark hairs on thoracic part. Clypeus low, with few white hairs. Chelicerae brown, pluridentati, with 5 or 6 teeth on both margins (Fig. 159); labium and sternum dark brown, endites slightly paler. Abdomen oval, greyish brown, with broad cream median stripe (Fig. 99); dorsum clothed in brownish hairs. Venter dark, paler along midline. Spinnerets long, dark. Legs brown, covered in dense dark hairs; first legs with three pairs of short ventral spines on tibiae and one pair on metatarsi. Pedipalps brown, with long, dense, dark hairs; palpal tibia without apophysis, cymbium narrow, with enlargement near base on prolateral side (Figs 161, 163); bulb rounded, with small median bicuspid apophysis; embolus with broad base, spirally coiled (Figs 161, 162).

Female.

Similar to male, but colouration clearly lighter and body less hairy (Fig. 100). Epigyne rounded, gonopores placed centrally (Fig. 164); seminal ducts weakly sclerotized, broad initially, forming a loop; accessory glands large (Fig. 165).

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Limpopo: Soutpansberg, Lajuma Mountain Retreat, 23[degrees]02.414'S 29[degrees]26.687'E, base of grass tussocks, 2.ii.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/535).

Paratype: 1[female] together with holotype (NCA, 2008/535).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 178). This is the first species in the genus recorded from subtropical southern Africa.

Habitat and biology: Similar to its congeners, T. szutsi sp. n. was also collected in montane habitats, but the two known specimens were collected in grassland patches within a savanna woodland and forest mosaic. This contrasts with the other species in the genus, which are primarily forest-dwelling.

Remarks: In their revision of the genus Tomocyrba Simon, 1900, Szuts and Scharff (2009) established the genus Tomomingi, containing six species distributed in the montane rain forests of East Africa (except for a single species known from Guinea). This species shares the obvious synapomorphies for Tomomingi: the absence of a retrolateral tibial apophysis in the male palp and the presence of three pairs of ventral spines on the first tibiae (fewer in the related genera Tomocyrba and Tomobella Szuts & Scharff, 2009).

Genus Ureta gen. n.

Etymology: The genus name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender feminine. Type species: Euophrys quadrispinosa Lawrence, 1938.

Diagnosis: Ureta is a medium-sized salticid with a body shape typical for the family. Both sexes have unidentate chelicerae with a large retromarginal tooth. The male has pedipalps with a short tibia, a tegulum with a large prolateral tooth-like apophysis, and a long, thin, whip-shaped embolus with a large tooth at its base. The female has an epigyne with a clearly developed double pocket at the epigastric furrow, and long seminal ducts that form several loops. The structure of the genitalia of both sexes is unlike those of other salticids. The subfamilial affinities of the genus remain unknown, although it clearly does not belong to Euophryinae, wherein the type species was previously placed, based on the genitalic structure of both sexes.

Ureta quadrispinosa (Lawrence, 1938), comb. n.

Figs 53,101, 102, 166-175

Euophrys quadrispinosa: Lawrence 1938: 523, fig. 40.

Diagnosis: The species with sexually dimorphic colouration (Figs 101, 102) is recognisable by the form of the copulatory organs. The male has a very long embolus with a tooth at its base and a tegulum with a characteristic long prolateral tooth-like apophysis basally. The presence of two white lines along the body is also a useful distinguishing characteristic for the male. The female may be distinguished by the presence of a pair of large pockets close to each other along the epigastric groove and the looping course of the seminal ducts.

Redescription:

Measurements ([male]/[female]). Cephalothorax: length 2.5-2.8/2.7-3.0, width 2.0-2.2/2.0-2.1, height 0.8-1.0/0.9-1.1. Abdomen: length 2.8-3.1/3.2-4.0, width 1.7-2.2/2.2-2.7. Eye field: length 1.2/1.2-1.4, anterior width 1.6-1.8/1.7-1.9, posterior width 1.5-1.7/1.6-1.8.

Male.

General appearance as in Figs 53, 101 and 166. Carapace rectangular, narrowed posteriorly, moderately high; dark brown with large orange-brown area behind eye field; eyes surrounded by black rings; two thin streaks formed by white hairs run from eyes of row II to posterior edge of carapace; eye field clothed in golden gleaming hairs, with long brown bristles near anterior eyes and short whitish hairs around anterior median eyes. Eye field trapezoid, distance between anterior lateral eyes slightly larger than between posterior laterals. Clypeus very short, brownish. Chelicerae unidentate, tooth on retrolateral margin large (Fig. 167). Endites and labium brown with pale tips; sternum brown, paler centrally. Abdomen ovoid, generally greyish brown, chocolate brown centrally, with two thin light streaks composed of white hairs running from anterior margin and converging above spinnerets (Fig. 166); abdominal dorsum covered in delicate brown hairs, with some longer bristles at anterior margin. Venter and spinnerets brownish grey. Legs brown, distal segments of posterior legs slightly paler; spines brown, femoral spines thicker. Pedipalps brown, with dense white hairs on patella and femur dorsally; palpal tibia short, with single short apophysis (Figs 170-172); tegulum convex, with long thin tooth-like prolateral apophysis basally (Figs 168, 169, 172); embolus long and thin, with large tooth at its base (Figs 168-170).

Female.

General appearance as in Fig. 102. Shape of body as in male. Carapace dark brown, area behind eye field slightly paler; fovea clearly visible. Eyes surrounded by black rings. Some delicate hairs on carapace, long brown bristles at eyes. Mouthparts as in male; sternum yellow, tinged with grey. Abdomen ovoid, dorsum creamy-yellow, with a mosaic of small brownish grey patches; abdominal hairs delicate, brown, longer and denser on anterior edge. Venter similar in colouration to dorsum. Spinnerets brown. Legs dark yellow with brown rings or uniformly brown. Spination of leg I: femora 0-1-1-5 dorsally, tibiae with four pairs ventrally, metatarsi with two pairs ventrally. Epigyne rounded with pair of large pockets close to each other at epigastric furrow, and large rounded gonopores (Figs 173, 174); seminal ducts weakly sclerotized, forming several loops, spermathecae relatively small (Fig. 175).

Holotype (not examined): [female] SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Umhlali [29[degrees]32'S 31[degrees]13'E], R.F. Lawrence (NMSA).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1[male] 3[female] Ingwavuma, 27[degrees]07'S 31[degrees]59'E, vii.1938, R.F. Lawrence (NMSA, 2412); 6 imm. 1[female] Ophathe Game Reserve, 28[degrees]25.344'S 31[degrees]23.957'E, 897 m, montane grassland, active searching under rocks, 30.ix.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/3955); 1[male] same data but sifting leaf-litter, 4.x.2008 (NCA, 2008/3915); 7 imm. 1[male] 4[female] same locality, 28[degrees]23.202'S 31[degrees]24.077'E, 505 m, rocky mountainside, active searching under rocks, 1.x.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/4059); 1 imm. 1[male] 2[female] same locality, 28[degrees]23.727'S 31[degrees]23.643'E, 455 m, Ophathe R. bed, active searching under rocks, 2.x.2008, C. Haddad (NCA, 2008/4232); 1[male] 1[female] same data (MRAC); 2[male] same locality, Ophathe R. crossing, 28[degrees]23.727'S 31[degrees]23.643'E, under logs, 5.vii.2007, C. Haddad & R. Fourie (NCA, 2007/2947); 1[male] same locality, trail near Imfolozi R., 28[degrees]22.555'S 31[degrees]23.993'E, under rocks, 5.vii.2007, C. Haddad & R. Fourie (NCA, 2007/2992). Eastern Cape: 1[male] Silaka Nature Reserve, 31[degrees]39.069'S 29[degrees]30.517'E, 32 m, on outside walls of house, 11.i.2011, C. Haddad (NCA, 2010/2719).

Distribution: Species known only from eastern South Africa (Fig. 178). Described from KwaZulu-Natal, recorded from the Eastern Cape for the first time.

Habitat and biology: A ground-dwelling species most often found under rocks in mountainous areas in savanna habitats, and on one occasion recorded from coastal forests. Both sexes and the juveniles construct dense silk retreats on the underside of rocks.

Remarks: The male of the species is described here for the first time. Photographs of the holotype female were taken by Galina Azarkina and provided to us for study; we are certain that the specimens listed above are conspecific with the holotype of Euophrys quadrispinosa.

Genus Veissella Wanless, 1984

Veissella durbani (Peckham & Peckham, 1903)

Figs 176, 177

Portia durbani: Peckham & Peckham 1903: 183, pl. 19, fig. 2; Lawrence 1947: 36; Wanless 1978: 109, figs 13a-g.

Veissella durbani: Wanless 1984b: 190, figs 27a-g; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009: 95, figs 205-209.

Wesolowska & Haddad (2009) redescribed the male.

Female.

Measurements. Cephalothorax: length 2.6, width 2.0, height 1.4. Abdomen: length 2.9, width 1.9. Eye field: length 1.1, anterior width 1.5, posterior width 1.4.

Medium-sized spider, carapace high with abrupt slope posteriorly; carapace brown, eyes surrounded by black rings, some short greyish hairs on carapace, denser near eyes.

Eye field trapezoid, its anterior width slightly larger than posterior width; posterior median eyes relatively large, set on low tubercles. Clypeus low, chelicerae with three teeth on promargin and four on retromargin. Sternum brown, labium and endites with slightly paler margins. Abdomen ovoid, brownish, with traces of darker chevrons posteriorly; dorsum sparsely covered with grey hairs. Venter with broad dark median stripe. Spinnerets short, dark. Legs long and slender, brown with lighter tarsi, first pair longest; tibiae I with dense, long, black, feathery hairs on ventral surface. Epigyne with narrow median septum (Fig. 176); gonopores placed anteriorly; seminal ducts straight; spermathecae large, spherical, strongly sclerotized, thick-walled (Fig. 177).

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 6[male] 4[female] Coffee Bay, 31[degrees]58.862'S 29[degrees]09.119'E, coastal dune forest, beats, 2.xi.2006, R. Lyle & C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/408); 1[male] 1[female] Cwebe Nature Reserve, The Haven, 32[degrees]14.497'S 28[degrees]54.653'E, hedges near houses, beats, 30.x.2006, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/161); 1[female] same locality, 32[degrees]14.588'S 28[degrees]54.772'E, coastal dune forest, beats, 30.x.2006, R. Lyle & C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/354); 1[male] 1[female] Kei Mouth, 32[degrees]41'S 28[degrees]22'E, coastal dune forest, beats, 8.xii.2005, C. Haddad (NMBA); 3[male] 2[female] Mazeppa Bay, 32[degrees]28.476'S 28[degrees]38.873'E, coastal dune forest, beats, 28.x.2006, R. Lyle & C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/423). KwaZulu-Natal: 1[female] Tembe Elephant Park, open woodland/sand, near offices, 27[degrees]03'S 32[degrees]25'E, sweeping grass and herbs, 12.i.2002, C. Haddad (NCA, 2007/3559). Mpumalanga: 1[male] 1[female] Nelspruit, Schagen Farm, 25[degrees]25'S 30[degrees]48'E, macadamia orchards, branch beating, 9.xii.1997, M. van den Berg (NCA, 98/824); 1[female] same data but 17.iii.1998 (NCA, 98/873); 1[male] same locality, Glenwood Farm, 25[degrees]52'S 30[degrees]59'E, macadamia orchards, branch beating, 4.xii.1997, M. van den Berg (NCA, 98/825).

Distribution: Species known only from eastern South Africa (Fig. 178).

Habitat and biology: A foliage-dwelling species often collected in savanna and forests in subtropical eastern South Africa. As for other species of Spartaeinae, V. durbani is suspected to be arachnophagous, but has not yet been subjected to dietary analysis.

Genus Xuriella Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000

Xuriella prima Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2000

Xuriellaprima: Wesolowska & Russell-Smith 2000: 115, figs 318-320; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008: 224, figs 196-204.

Wesolowska & Cumming (2008) described both sexes.

Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: 1[male] Grootvadersbosch Forest Station, 20 km WSW of Heidelberg, 34[degrees]00'S 20[degrees]47'E, 1600 ft, indigenous forest, 8-10.xi.1985, C. Griswold, J. Doyen & T. Meikle-Griswold (NMSA, 26474); 1[female] Malmesburg, 33[degrees]24'S 18[degrees]16'E, on web under bark, 24.x.1987, L. Lotz (NMBA); 1[female] same locality, on web with imm. Sparassidae, 25.x.1987, L. Lotz (NMBA).

Distribution: Species known from Tanzania and Zimbabwe, recorded for the first time in South Africa (Fig. 178).

Habitat and biology: Previously known from equatorial and subtropical savanna habitats. Recorded here from Afromontane forest and fynbos habitats in south-western South Africa, where it is apparently a foliage-dwelling spider.

DISCUSSION

The current study has made a further contribution to our knowledge of the South African jumping spider fauna through the description of 19 new species and 12 new records for the country. It is clear that large areas of the country still need to be subjected to intensive sampling despite the recent efforts of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) to resolve this.

Based on results of the present study, intensive sampling of an area, especially when using methods such as canopy fogging to collect the fauna from otherwise inaccessible habitat strata, can yield a considerable number of new species and provide invaluable distribution data, especially for rare taxa. As such, the SANSA and other research initiatives would benefit greatly in achieving their goals of determining arachnid biodiversity through the use of canopy fogging as a method, although it certainly is a much more labour intensive and costly exercise than more conventionally used and more easily implementable methods (beating, sweeping, pitfalls and litter sifting, etc.).

Of significance in the current study, but also taking into account other recently published taxonomic papers on southern African salticids (Wesolowska 2006, 2011; Wesolowska & Cumming 2008, 2011; Wesolowska & Haddad 2009; Haddad & Wesolowska 2011), is a very poor knowledge of the fauna of certain genera, for which two examples should be mentioned here. In the case of Pseudicius, these studies have together contributed to the increase of the fauna from nine to 23 species in southern Africa, of which 10 species have been described from South Africa alone. For Rhene, seven species have been described from southern Africa recently (six from South Africa alone), and R. facilis has also been recorded from South Africa for the first time here, more than doubling the number of species known from the region to 14.

The preliminary results would indicate that revisionary studies for many genera are likely to uncover a large proportion of new species, thanks largely to recently collected material. Efforts should thus be made to more thoroughly sample the fauna of previously poorly sampled areas, particularly in the western and southern parts of South Africa, to enhance the results of taxonomic studies and make an even greater contribution to understanding the biodiversity of South African jumping spiders.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study was partially funded through a grant from the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF) in the Thuthuka programme (TTK2008050500003) to the second author. The curators of the various institutions are thanked for the loans of material that made this study possible, as well as for the rapid processing of deposited material. Galina Azarkina kindly provided some records ofHasariusadansoni, Thyenula fidelis and Veissella durbani for inclusion in this paper. Galina Azarkina and Dmitri Logunov are thanked for their constructive comments that helped improve this paper.

REFERENCES

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Wanda Wesolowska (1) and Charles R. Haddad (2) *

(1) Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Taxonomy, Wroclaw University, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, PL 51-148 Wroclaw, Poland; tomwes@biol.uni.wroc.pl

(2) Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of the Free State, P. O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 South Africa; haddadcr@ufs.ac.za

* Corresponding author

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Title Annotation:p. 211-240
Author:Wesolowska, Wanda; Haddad, Charles R.
Publication:African Invertebrates
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6SOUT
Date:Jun 1, 2013
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