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New data on the ecology and geographic distribution of Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae)/Novos dados sobre a ecologia e distribuicao geografica de Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae).

1. Introduction

Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951) is one of the least studied Neotropical primates. According to the literature, the species has been found in only 16 sites (Hershkovitz, 1977; Hernandez-Camacho and Defler, 1993; Barnett et al., 2002; Defler, 1983, 2004; Iwanaga, 2004; Palacios et al., 2004; Souza, et al. 2004) and only 16 individuals have been deposited in scientific collections. The distribution of the species ranges from the north of the Solimoes Rivers, between the Negro and Japura Rivers in Brazil, and Guayabero-Guaviare Rivers in Colombia (Hershkovitz, 1977; Hernandez-Camacho and Defler, 1993; Defler, 2004; Souza et al., 2004). Nevertheless, due to the low number of specimens collected from the lower Japura and lower Negro Rivers areas, the geographic distribution is so far poorly delineated.

In 1980, Rylands (unpubl., reported in Barnett et al., 2002) carried out the first record of the species in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR) area, sighting a group of S. inustus along the north margin of Amana lake. Iwanaga (2004) confirmed through local reports the presence of the species in two localities of the Jau National Park: the "Janela Monteiro" site and the "Janela Floresta", both along the Jau River.

Souza et al. (2004) collected a male adult killed by local residents of the Boa Esperanca community, located at Amana lake (02[degrees] 28'12" S and 64[degrees] 44' 27" W), and deposited it at Mamiraua Institute's collection (IDSMasto-001). Souza et al. (2004) also observed groups of the species in terra-firme forest, close to the community area. Souza et al.'s observations were made at the opposite margin of that of the recordings carried out by Rylands (Barnett et al., 2002).

All sightings of S. inustus described in literature were made in terra-firme forest (Defler, 1983; Hernandez-Camacho and Defler, 1983; Barnett et al., 2002; Iwanaga, 2004; Souza et al., 2004). The aim of this study is to update the information on the geographic distribution and use of habitat by S. inustus, reporting new occurrences and sightings in habitats different from those recorded in literature.

2. Methods

Secondary data was obtained through literature review (Hershkovitz, 1977; Hernandez-Camacho and Defler, 1991; Barnett et al., 2002; Defler, 1983; 2004; Iwanaga, 2004; Palacios et al., 2004; Souza et al., 2004) and records of Brazilian scientific collections (IDSM and MPEG). Field data was composed by sightings and collection of specimens during a survey of mammal diversity in the ASDR (IBAMA no. 086/2004--CGFAU/LIC). For this survey, two 40-day expeditions were carried out in 2004. The first one occurred during the flooded season in June and July, and the second was during the peak of the dry season in October. Direct sightings were made through hiking along transects, navigation along water channels with a 30-hp speedboat, and gliding along flooded trails in the forest.

Two monitoring trails were opened: the Ubim trail located on the left margin of Ubim creek at the left bank of Amana lake (02[degrees] 30' 37" S and 64[degrees] 36' 40" W), and the Bacaba trail on the right margin of Amana lake (2[degrees] 30' 37" S and 64[degrees] 36' 40" W). Using line transect sampling methods (Emmons, 1984; Buckland et al., 1993) observations were made about group size and habitat use. Stomach and bowel contents of specimens collected were deposited in the Mamiraua Institute scientific collection, whereas furs, skulls and skeletons were deposited in the MPEG. Two individuals were later donated to IDSM. Tissues for DNA extraction were deposited in the Universidade Federal do Para, Molecular Biology Laboratory.

3. Results and Discussion

New records of S. inustus were made in 11 different localities in ASDR (Figure 1, Table 1). Two sites were located on the vicinities of Amana lake, at the Jua Grande/ Jaquirana creek (2[degrees] 28' 11" S and 64[degrees] 49' 33" W) and Urucurana, Boa Esperanca community (02[degrees] 29' 07" S and 64[degrees] 44' 53" W), characterising terra firme and igapo habitats. Two other collection sites were located at the Coraci sector, one near Nova Canaa community, on the margins of Coracizinho River (02[degrees] 35' 27.4" S, and 64[degrees] 53' 10,6" W and 02[degrees] 35' 42.4" S and 64[degrees] 52' 56.7" W), and the other on Sao Bento channel (02[degrees] 37' 36.0" S and 64[degrees] 51' 57.7" W), characterising varzea habitats.

Collections were made along Jua Grande creek, in terra firme and igapo habitats, near Boa Esperanca community. Three observations were made in flooded areas in ASDR, two in varzea forests on the margin of Coracizinho Rivers, and another one on Bacaba trail, in igapo forest. Three observations were made in terra firme forest, in monitoring trails (one group was observed in Ubim trail, and two other groups were observed in Bacaba trail). Other records came from observations on trails located near Boa Esperanca community (02[degrees] 44' 43" S and 64[degrees] 33' 26" W), Bom Jesus do Bare community (02[degrees] 28' 37" S and 64[degrees] 42' 30" W), Belo Monte community (02[degrees] 44' 33" S and 64[degrees] 33' 26" W), Sao Jose do Urini community (02[degrees] 43' 47" S and 64[degrees] 44' 53" W), Boa Vista do Calafate community (02[degrees] 39' 35" S and 64[degrees] 36' 23" W) and Nova Jerusalem community (02[degrees] 49' 12" S and 64[degrees] 37' 07" W).

Not much difference was observed between male and female sizes collected in ASDR (Table 2). Females were 4.5% taller and 2.5% heavier than males. Only two males were collected and their weight and length did not differ from those collected by Souza et. al. (2004) (TL 670 g, n = 1).

Four groups were sighted on monitoring trails, three in terra firme forest and one in igapo forest, on the right margin of Amana lake (Table 3). These groups were composed of two, three, and four individuals (2.75 average, n = 4, sd = 0.96). Due to the small number of sightings on monitoring trails, it was not possible to estimate abundance of the species in the area. Nevertheless, it seems that groups sighted at Amana were smaller from those sighted in the Caqueta Rivers region, in Colombia. In that area, Palacios et al. (2004) sighted groups that varied from three to eleven individuals (06 average, n = 5, sd = 2.7), and Defler (2004) reported the existence of groups with three, seven and eight individuals.

Two out of four groups sighted were in association with double-toothed kites (Harpagus bidentatus). Although local people affirmed that these birds follow S. inustus to predate them, field sightings suggested foraging associations. This avian species is predominantly insectivorous, but may also feed from small vertebrates (Fontaine 1980; Boinski and Scott, 1988). Previous records show that insectivorous birds may benefit from association with primates, capturing prey trying to escape from predation. This behaviour helps them catch previously inaccessible prey, raising foraging efficiency and protection against other predators (Boinski and Scott, 1988; Egler, 1991). This type of association has been observed in other species of Saguinus (Egler, 1991; Haymann, 1992) and other genus of primates (Greenlaw, 1967; Fontaine 1980; Boinski and Scott, 1988; Marsh, 2004; Hankerson, 2006).


Saguinus inustus is categorised as least concern in the IUCN red list (2009), but in Amana the species is relatively abundant, often sighted around manioc gardens and in transects for biodiversity monitoring. No hunting event was recorded for the species, and local people affirm that S. inustus is not hunted for subsistence due to one of its characteristics--its low weight. The species is, nevertheless, used as a pet, and in some rare cases it is commercialised, as observed by Souza et. al. (2004).

4. Conclusions

Although this study has almost doubled the number of records of S. inustus, much more data is needed to better understand its geographical distribution. The study has confirmed the presence of the species in the Amana area, carrying out the first records of the species in flooded forest habitats. The expected geographic distribution of the species covers 23,464,000 ha, 61% of which are protected, either in indigenous land or protected areas (Figure 1). The assumption that it occurs along all lower Japura-Negro interfluve remains to be confirmed. The correct delimitation of its range is of fundamental importance for its conservation. Further studies are urgently needed to assess the status of S. inustus, besides longterm research on its ecology and behaviour.

Recived July 15, 2008--Accepted June 30, 2009--Distributed May 31, 2010 (With 1 figure)


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GREENLAW, JS., 1967. Foraging behavior of the Double-toothed Kite in association with white-faced monkeys. Auk, no. 4, p. 296-597.

HAYMANN, EW., 1992. Associations of tamarins (Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicolis) and Double-toothed Kites (Harpargus bidentatus) in Peruvian Amazonica. Folia Primatologica, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 51-55.

HERNANDEZ-CAMACHO, J. and DEFLER, TR., 1991. Algunos aspectos de la conservacion deprimates no-humanos en Colombia. In SAAVEDRA, CJ., MITTERMEIER, RA. and SANTOS, IB. (Eds.). La Primatologia en Latinoamerica. Washington: World Wildlife Fund. p. 67-100.

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PALACIOS, E., RODRIGUEZ, A. and CASTILLO, C., 2004. Preliminary observations on the ottledface tamarin (Saguinus inustus) on the Lower Rio Caqueta, Colombian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 123-126.

SOUZA, LL., QUEIROZ, HQ. and AYRES, JM., 2004. The mottled-face tamarin, Saguinus inustus, in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Neotropical Primates, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 121-122.

Valsecchi, J. (a) *, Vieira, TM. (a), Silva Junior, JS. (b), Muniz, ICM. (b) and Avelar, AA. (b)

(a) Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua--IDSM, Av. Brasil 197, Jurua, CP 38, CEP 69470-000, Tefe, AM, Brazil

(b) Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi--MPEG

* e-mail:
Table 1. Update of records of Saguinus inustus.

Localities                            Coordinates

1. Colombia, Alto Cano              2[degrees]N and
Itilla, upper Rio Vaupes           72[degrees] 47' W

2. Colombia, Cano Grande,         2[degrees] 10' N and
upper Rio Inirida                  72[degrees] 20' W

3. Colombia, San Jose             2[degrees] 34' N and
del Guaviare                       72[degrees] 39' W

4. Colombia, Angostura,         2[degrees] 34' 31" S and
right marging of Guayabero       72[degrees] 52' 57" W
River, Guaviare

5. Colombia, Cano Yaviya,       0[degrees] 00' 10"S and
Yari River, Caqueta              72[degrees] 11' 58" W

6. Colombia, Miriti-Parana      01[degrees] 11'44" S and
River, Amazonas                  69[degrees] 53' 26" W

7. Colombia, vicinity of          1[degrees] 17'S and
Comeyafu, 19,000-ha                69[degrees] 34' W
indigenous reserve on the
left margin of the Rio
Caqueta in the state of

8. Brazil, Amazonas,              0[degrees] 38' N and
Provacao Santa Cruz,               69[degrees] 22' W
Igarape Turi, right bank
Rio Papuri (Uaupes)

9. Brazil, Amazonas, Mouth        0[degrees] 36' N and
of Papuri River, Rio               69[degrees] 13' W

10. Brazil, Amazonas,             0[degrees] 36' N and
Uaupes River; opposite             69[degrees] 11' W
side of Tahuapunta;

11. Brazil, Amazonas,             0[degrees] 48' N and
Tabocal, Negro River               67[degrees] 14' W

12. Brazil, Amazonas,             0[degrees] 32' S and
Jauanari                           64[degrees] 49' W

13. Brazil, Amazonas, on                   -
the north margin of Amana

14. Brazil, Amazonas, Near     02[degrees] 28' 12" S and
Boa Esperanca community          64[degrees] 44' 27" W

15. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 36' 22" S and
Janela Monteiro--Parque           63[degrees] 21' 27"W
Nacional do Jau

16. Brazil, Amazonas,          01[degrees] 58' 24" S and
Janela Floresta--Parque          62[degrees] 43' 19' W
Nacional do Jau

17. Brazil, Amazonas,             1[degrees] 50' S and
Maraa, Maguari, on the             65[degrees] 12' W
left margin or Japura

18. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 28' 11" S and
Igarape Jua Grande /             64[degrees] 49' 33" W
Jaquirana, Amana Reserve.

19. Brazil, Amazonas,         02[degrees] 35' 27.4" S and
Margins of Coracizinho          64[degrees] 53' 10.6" W;
River, Amana Reserve.         02[degrees] 35' 42.4" S and
                                64[degrees] 52' 56.7" W
20. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 44' 43" S and
Boa Esperanca community          64[degrees] 33' 26" W

21. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 28' 37" S and
Bom Jesus do Bare                64[degrees] 42' 30" W

22. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 44' 33" S and
Belo Monte community.            64[degrees] 33' 26" W

23. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 43' 47" S and
Sao Jose do Urini                64[degrees] 44' 53" W

24. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 39' 35" S and
Boa Vista do Calafate            64[degrees] 36' 23" W

25. Brazil, Amazonas,          02[degrees] 49' 12" S and
Nova Jerusalem community.        64[degrees] 37' 07" W

26. Brazil, Amazonas, UBIM      2[degrees] 30' 37" S and
transect, on the right           64[degrees] 34' 41" W
margin of Igarape Ubim.

27. Brazil, Amazonas,           2[degrees] 33' 54" S and
BACABA 01 transect.              64[degrees] 42' 17" W

28. Brazil, Amazonas,           2[degrees] 33' 32" S and
BACABA 02 transect.              64[degrees] 42' 44" W

Localities                     Habitats          References

1. Colombia, Alto Cano            -          Hershkovitz, 1977;
Itilla, upper Rio Vaupes                    Hernandez-Camacho and
                                                Defler, 1983.

2. Colombia, Cano Grande,         -          Hershkovitz, 1977;
upper Rio Inirida                           Hernandez-Camacho and
                                                Defler, 1983.

3. Colombia, San Jose             -          Hershkovitz, 1977;
del Guaviare                                Hernandez-Camacho and
                                                Defler, 1983.

4. Colombia, Angostura,       Terra Firme   Hernandez-Camacho and
right marging of Guayabero                      Defler, 1983.
River, Guaviare

5. Colombia, Cano Yaviya,     Terra Firme   Hernandez-Camacho and
Yari River, Caqueta                             Defler, 1983.

6. Colombia, Miriti-Parana    Terra Firme       Defler, 1983;
River, Amazonas                             Hernandez-Camacho and
                                                Defler, 1983.

7. Colombia, vicinity of      Terra Firme   Palacios et al., 2004.
Comeyafu, 19,000-ha
indigenous reserve on the
left margin of the Rio
Caqueta in the state of

8. Brazil, Amazonas,              -             Hershkovitz,
Provacao Santa Cruz,                           1977; MPEG-8789
Igarape Turi, right bank
Rio Papuri (Uaupes)

9. Brazil, Amazonas, Mouth        -           Hershkovitz, 1977
of Papuri River, Rio

10. Brazil, Amazonas,             -           Hershkovitz, 1977
Uaupes River; opposite
side of Tahuapunta;

11. Brazil, Amazonas,             -           Hershkovitz, 1977
Tabocal, Negro River

12. Brazil, Amazonas,             -           Hershkovitz, 1977

13. Brazil, Amazonas, on      Terra Firme   Barnett et al., 2002
the north margin of Amana

14. Brazil, Amazonas, Near    Terra Firme    Souza et al., 2004
Boa Esperanca community

15. Brazil, Amazonas,         Terra Firme       Iwanaga, 2004
Janela Monteiro--Parque
Nacional do Jau

16. Brazil, Amazonas,         Terra Firme       Iwanaga, 2004
Janela Floresta--Parque
Nacional do Jau

17. Brazil, Amazonas,             -              MPEG: 21840
Maraa, Maguari, on the
left margin or Japura

18. Brazil, Amazonas,             -           This study: MPEG
Igarape Jua Grande /                        36621; 36622; 36623;
Jaquirana, Amana Reserve.                    36626;36627;36628;
                                               36632 e 36633.

19. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Margins of Coracizinho
River, Amana Reserve.

20. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Boa Esperanca community

21. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Bom Jesus do Bare

22. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Belo Monte community.

23. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Sao Jose do Urini

24. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Boa Vista do Calafate

25. Brazil, Amazonas,             -         This study (sighting)
Nova Jerusalem community.

26. Brazil, Amazonas, UBIM    Terra Firme   This study (sighting)
transect, on the right
margin of Igarape Ubim.

27. Brazil, Amazonas,         Terra Firme   This study (sighting)
BACABA 01 transect.

28. Brazil, Amazonas,           Igapo       This study (sighting)
BACABA 02 transect.

Table 2. General characteristics of specimens collected in
Amana Sustainable Development Reserve.

Specimens collected      Date            Sex         TL (mm)

MPEG 36621            13/6/2004        female         681
MPEG 36622            13/6/2004        female         633
MPEG 36623 *          13/6/2004        female         602
MPEG 36628            14/6/2004        female         635
MPEG 36632            14/6/2004        female         625
MPEG 36633 *          15/6/2004        female         656
MPEG 36626            14/6/2004        male           590
MPEG 36627            14/6/2004        male           630
Averages [??]                                         610.00
Averages [??]                                         638.67

Specimens collected   CC (mm)       Weight (g)

MPEG 36621              407            650
MPEG 36622              381            550
MPEG 36623 *            374            400
MPEG 36628              380            530
MPEG 36632              380            440
MPEG 36633 *            407            560
MPEG 36626              343            510
MPEG 36627              370            560
Averages [??]           356.50         535.00
Averages [??]           388.17         521.67

* Fur donated to the Mamiraua Institute collection.

Table 3. Groups of S. inustus sighted in monitoring

Group #     Transect       Habitat       # of individuals

1             Ubim       Terra firme            03
2          Bacaba 01     Terra firme            04
3          Bacaba 02        Igapo               02
4          Bacaba 01     Terra firme            02
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Title Annotation:ECOLOGY
Author:Valsecchi, J.; Vieira, T.M.; Silva, J.S., Jr.; Muniz, I.C.M.; Avelar, A.A.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Date:Apr 1, 2010
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