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New Zealand's Colonial Defence Force (Cavalry) and its Australian Context, 1863-66.

This article is not designed to be a comprehensive history of New Zealand's Colonial Defence Force (CDF), but rather to provide an exploration into the history of a Corps rarely dealt with, and in this process shed light upon the significance and presence of Australian material and personnel contributions. (1) Australian manpower involvement or war material support greatly aided the formation and operations of this Corps, as it did so many other colonial units during the many conflicts that occurred in New Zealand during 1860 into 1872.

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Origins and Development of the Colonial Defence Force

New Zealand's CDF formally came into existence with a proclamation issued by Governor George Grey on 5 May 1863. This proclamation brought into operation the Colonial Defence Force Act, 1862, and was proclaimed and declared so as to raise "a Force for the internal Defence of the Colony". (2) On 14 August 1863, Grey authorised the following initial officer appointments in the CDF to be gazetted under the provisions of the Colonial Defence Force Act, 1862:
Marmaduke George Nixon (3), to be Commandant.
James Walmslcy, to be Inspector.
Charles Pye, to be Inspector.
Maurice Norman Bower, to be Sub-Inspector.
Archibald Cambell [sic.?] Turner, to be Sub-Inspector.
Charles James Wilson, to be Sub-Inspector.
Thomas McDonnell, to be Sub-Inspector.
Richard George Clarke Spence, to be Surgeon. (4)


In addition to these personnel, the following were also gazetted as CDF officer appointments:
Charles James Anderson, to be Sub-Inspector, on 24 August 1863. (5)
J.S. Wright, of Napier, to be Assistant Surgeon (commission dated 22
September 1863) (6)
Alexander Johnston, of Wellington, to be Assistant Surgeon (commission
dated 8 Aug 1863) (7)


On 5 October 1863, additional officer appointments were gazetted:
Chief Inspector George Stoddart Whitmore, to be Commandant (commission
dated 1 July 1863)
James Townsend Edwards, to be Commandant (commission dated 30 July
1863)
Richard Blackburn Leatham, to be Inspector (commission dated 15 July
1863)
William Robertson, to be Inspector (commission dated 14 August 1863)
Samuel Deighton, to be Inspector (commission dated 1 September 1863)
Herbert Vernon Lillicrap, to be Sub-Inspector (commission dated 31
July 1863) (8)
John Alexander Percy, to be Sub-Inspector (commission dated 2 August
1863)
Paul Kingdon, to be Sub-Inspector (commission dated 3 August 1863)
Maillard Noake, to be Sub-Inspector (commission dated 11 September
1863. (9)


Subsequent appointments into 1864 also included:
Assistant-Surgeon Clarence Hooper, of the Auckland Militia, to be
Assistant-Surgeon (commission dated 24 October 1863) (10)
Ensign Andrew Macpherson, of the Auckland Militia, to be Sub-Inspector
(commission dated 19 January 1864) (11)
Lieutenant David Hutchison, of the Howick Troop Royal Cavalry
Volunteers, to be Sub-Inspector (commission dated 20 January 1864) (12)
George Ross, to be Sub-Inspector (commission dated 3 May 1864) (13)


One aspect rarely noted or analysed is to ascertain the presence, significance, and contributions of personnel who had been former British officers, non-commissioned officers or men within the CDF. In both Australia and New Zealand, most Volunteers Units had a small cadre of retired or discharged Military personnel who provided the experience, enthusiasm, and military structure around which colonial units were formed, trained, and operated. In the Australian context, one of the few historians to draw attention to this phenomenon has been Peter Stanley in his "Heritage of Strangers". In discussing the impact of such former or seconded British personnel upon the development of the Australian Colonial Volunteers, Stanley has pointed out:
 The colonial volunteer forces were not established in emulation of the
 red-coated regular regiments which they supplemented and later replaced,
 but, rather, on the model of the British rifle volunteers, whose character
 and motivation was altogether different from those of the infantry of the
 line. The regulars drew on men who were supposed to have no option but to
 enlist, who served and fought under rigid unthinking discipline. ...
 Colonial Troops, respectable men, serving voluntarily and finding
 restrictive discipline and rigid tactics unnecessary, nevertheless still
 needed military skills, and called upon former regulars to provide both
 commissioned and non-commissioned direction. Of equal importance to shaping
 the military force ... [were] the non-commissioned officers and warrant
 officers who joined colonial forces after their retirement from the British
 Army. Other British NCOs sought or accepted secondment to the colonial
 forces, often becoming officers ... (14)


The CDF was one such Corps that gained invaluable knowledge, experience and leadership from personnel within its ranks who had such prior military service. One example of men in this category is of course Lieutenant-Colonel M.G. Nixon, a former Major in the 39th Regiment, who saw active service in India, before settling in New Zealand in 1852. With the rumours of war, the settlers in his immediate neighbourhood [Auckland district] looked to him as their leader in any defence they might be called upon to make; while he, on his part, as readily responded with all the energy and promptitude of his nature to their appeal. He quickly embodied and trained two troops of volunteer yeomanry cavalry, composed principally of the sons of country settlers, who were soon in a high state of efficiency; proud of their corps, and of their commanding officer. (15)

In 1863, Nixon was sought by the New Zealand government to enrol a slightly different body of mounted troops, the CDF, which he similarly launched himself into, taking an active roll in its expansion and operations up till his fatal wounding in action on 21 February 1864. (16)

Another example of a former British regular is Maurice Norman Bower. Bower had seen extensive service in the Crimea, before arriving in New Zealand in June 1863. Shortly after, he was appointed Sub-Inspector in the CDF, and served until the force was disbanded. (17) Bower "was [also] adjutant of the flying column under General Carey, accompanied the column, under General Cameron, from Te Rori to Te Awamutu; was present at the attack and capture of the village of Rangiaohia, and was with Colonel Nixon when wounded." (18) Bower later served with the 1st Waikato Regiment at Tauranga and Opotiki, as well as serving in other capacities and colonial forces into the late 1860s. (19) Another important example was Maillard Noake, a former British cavalryman and officer who had not only Crimean War service (serving in the Scots Greys), but in India in the latter stages of the Indian Mutiny. Whilst in India, Noake was invalided for the second time because of a re-occurring wound sustained back in the Crimea, and transferred into a home regiment, eventually leaving the service and deciding to settle in New Zealand in 1863. (20) Gudgeon records that:

Finding the war in the Waikato was likely to continue, he applied for service and was appointed captain of militia and transferred to the Wellington Defence Force (21), which company as adjutant he materially assisted in organising. ... Noake afterwards commanded the force stationed in Rangitikei, which command he retained until it was disbanded. (22)

After this Noake was appointed Resident Magistrate in the Upper Wanganui District, but saw additional active service in the relief of Pipiriki in 1865, and then again duirng 1868-69. (23)

Australian Logistic and Commissariat Support, 1863-64

On 19 October 1863, Governor Grey reported to the New Zealand Legislative Council on the military preparations being undertaken, including the CDF:
 ... active measures had been taken in the colony itself for the defence of
 the settlements of the Northern Island. The Militia and Volunteers have
 been called out, armed, and trained, to the number of upwards of nine
 thousand men. Volunteer companies, both in horse and foot, have been formed
 in the different provinces--some of them in Auckland and Taranaki--for the
 especial purpose of scouring the forest country. Mounted forces, under the
 Colonial Defence Force Act of last session, have been raised and stationed
 in Auckland, Hawke's Bay, Wellington, and Wanganui. (24)


Further elaboration upon the scale of military mobilisation being undertaken by New Zealand during 1863 can be gauged from a `Ministerial Statement' by Mr Fox to the House of Representatives on 3 November. This speech also made reference to the CDF, not only indicating the size of the force at that time, but also the Australian origins of many of its personnel. It should be pointed out here that there is no evidence of any formal recruiting mission carried out for the CDF in any of the Australian colonies during 1863 or 1864. Although there was no formal recruiting for the CDF in Australia, the press definitely informed the public early in 1863 of the measures associated with the expansion of this force, conditions of service and pay, and enlistment. (25)

These "Australian" personnel either arrived in New Zealand on their own initiative, or else had actually transferred from those who had already arrived as part of the military settler recruiting mission in late 1863 or early 1864:
 In Auckland there are 5,937 men, including the Waikato Volunteers, under
 the command of Colonel Pitt; in Wellington, including Wanganui, 1,768 men
 armed--leaving a balance of a few hundreds more, who are not, I believe,
 yet armed and trained, but who will be speedily so; in Taranaki, the whole
 of the male population, numbering 812; in Hawke's Bay, also, the whole of
 the male population, about 750; and the Colonial Defence Force, which has
 been enlisted in the Australian colonies, and numbers 375 men, chiefly
 mounted. (26)


In the process of rapid militarisation of forces in the North Island in 1863, the New Zealand government found itself deficient in a whole range of military materials such as uniforms, tentage, weaponry, accoutrements and ammunitions. The Australian colonies became the logical and convenient locale from which to obtain the requisite military materials to supply the newly created and expanded New Zealand colonial forces including the CDF:

Among the difficulties which embarrassed the Government at the commencement of hostilities, the want of arms for upwards of three thousand men, of suitable clothing,--such as boots, trousers, great coats, and other necessaries--for the Militia and Volunteers on active service, was especially felt. It was impossible to procure these supplies by the ordinary means of purchase. All that could be got, in Auckland, were procured; and additional supplies of the best available substitutes were obtained from Dunedin and the Australian Colonies. (27)

William Fox, in The War in New Zealand, published in 1866, commented upon this situation:
 One hears of large fortunes made in England by contracts for victualling
 and clothing Her Majesty's forces, and furnishing other supplies for the
 public service; but military expenditure is to the bulk of the population
 of New Zealand a thing never thought of, or wished for. Indeed if the
 colonists had been more anxious for it than they were, they would have been
 much disappointed; for great part of the supplies were got direct from
 other countries by the commissariat; flour from Adelaide, horses from
 Sydney, hay (much of it worthless) and com from England, while the meat
 contract was held for a long time by a grazier in Gipps' Land, Victoria. A
 very small number of persons in the Colony could derive any pecuniary
 advantage from the expenditure of troops. (28)


Examples of New Zealand turning to the Australian colonies to supply some of these vast military needs are evident with the tenders published in the Sydney Morning Herald in September 1863 for 3000 forage caps and 100 military circular tents. (29) Similarly, the New Zealand Office in Melbourne in January 1864 authorised the publication of tenders for the New Zealand Local Forces for 7000 pair boots, 6000 blankets, 3000 pair blue serge trousers, 5000 blue serge shirts, 5000 haversacks, 2000 forage caps, 500 waterproof coats, and 200 tents. (30)

Australian colonies such as South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales in 186364, as in 1860-61, were also the locale from which quantities of commissariat stores, ammunitions, thousands of rifles, carbines, pistols and revolvers, and associated accoutrements were made available to the war effort in New Zealand. Tasmania supplied around 100 tons of Commissariat stores including tents to New Zealand per the vessel Louisa in June 1863. (31) In August 1863, Tasmania was also able to provide 500 short dries and accoutrements and a quantity of smooth-bore pistols via the Reliance. (32) In November 1863 the South Australian government consented to supply 500 long Enfield rifles following a written request from the New Zealand government (33); and then in January 1864, a further 120 rifles were despatched to New Zealand via Melbourne. (34)

In August 1863, the New South Wales government directed the Colonial Storekeeper to despatch 1000 dries and 200 breech-loading carbines following a request from the New Zealand government. (35) These weapons appear to have been despatched aboard the Claud Hamilton which was also conveying Lieutenant-Colonel Carey as passenger, and a detachment of fifty-three rank and file of the 12th Regiment for active service in New Zealand, commanded by Lieutenant Phillips and Ensign Bolton. "Before proceeding to sea one hundred and fifty barrels of cartridge powder were taken on board ... from the powder magazine at Goat Island." (36) Amongst the cargo listed for New Zealand aboard the Claud Hamilton there was "1 case revolvers, 56 cases arms, 30 cases accoutrements, 102 cases rifles, 21 cases carbines, [from the] Colonial Storekeeper; ... [&] 3 cases ammunition, 200 barrels powder, 12 cases, [from the] Commissariat". (37) On 24 September 1863 the Novelty departed Sydney for Auckland with "72 packages ammunition" (38), and then on 25 September the Lord Ashley, apart from conveying the New Zealand government officials and recruiters, the "Hon. F.D. Bell, Mrs. Bell, and family (7), Captain Harrison, Messrs. Brown, Hubbard, Manvary, and 40 [Sydney military settler] Volunteers", also carried forty cases of firearms. (39) These examples provide some idea of the variety and magnitude of arms, ammunitions and accoutrements that were being despatched to New Zealand from Australia during 1863-64.

Australian Military Horse Trade with New Zealand, 1863-64

Apart from these crucial military materials, in relation to the CDF and the Imperial Commissariat Transport Corps (CTC) especially, the Australian colonies were also the place from which both draught and cavalry homes were sought and procured. In late 1863 a contract was also let to a Sydney saddlery firm to supply saddles and other associated mounted troop equipment to compliment this availability of horses. (40)

The New Zealand government selected Edward Mayne in Sydney to be their remount agent. He commenced this work in August 1863 by attending the "Burt & Co's Horse Bazaar" on Thursdays and Saturdays. The initial advertisement in the Sydney Morning Herald on 20 August sought "Troop Horses", noting Mayne's job to select for purchase horses suited for "cavalry work", with "Geldings preferred; must be quiet to fide, sound, not under fifteen hands high, or over seven years old". (41) Further advertisements over the ensuing days continued to seek such "Troop Homes", but at the same time also sought "Cavalry Horses for New Zealand". This separate advertisement stated: "Wanted to purchase, for the Government of New Zealand, horses adapted for cavalry purposes. They must be broken to saddle, up to weight, with good action, sound, and ages ranging from 4 to 6 years." (42) Here Mayne directed attention that he would inspect such horses when attending the "Martyn's Horse Bazaar, 246, Pitt-street", Sydney, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, until further notice. (43)

Apart from these advertisements, one other appeared at the same time that sought "100 Horses" for the New Zealand government. Here the requirements were stated as: "They must be well bred, active and compact, sound, and quiet to fide, 15 hands to 15 hands 2 inches high, and from 5 to 7 years old." Persons with such horses were invited to apply daily to "Mr. Armstrong, veterinary surgeon, [located at] 260, Pitt-street", Sydney. (44)

On 15 September 1863 the vessel Claud Hamilton (45) departed Sydney for Auckland with part of its cargo consisting of eighty horses exported under the name of "F.D. Bell", one of the New Zealand government representatives sent to assist in the initial military settler recruiting. (46) Such horses were made available for the CDF, or similarly the large needs of the CTC. William Morgan's journal entry dated Drury, Saturday night, 31 October 1863, for instance recounted:

A long procession of horses and drays arrived this evening. On enquiry I found it was No. 5 company of the Transport Corps on the march from Penrose with commissariat stores. There were 131 men, 140 horses, 43 drays, and they were in command of Lieut. Lawry of the 2nd, and Lieut. Hay of the 3rd Waikato Regiment. Most of the horses seemed first class, many of them being those lately imported from Sydney. (47)

To assist in the purchase of suitable horses for the requirements of the Imperial government in New Zealand, "Mr. Anderson, Veterinary Surgeon, R.A." arrived in Sydney from Auckland aboard the Claud Hamilton on 5 October 1863. (48) The arrival of such individuals did not always sit well with Sydney residents associated with or already accredited and engaged in such work. In a letter to the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald on 24 December 1863, "S. Wooller" expressed concerns, whilst also indicating fraudulent horse selling practices which had taken place with the inexperienced or unwary:
 The latest advices acquaint us of the dispatch hither of an officer from
 home for the purpose of purchasing horses for an additional mounted force
 that is under orders to proceed at once to New Zealand, from which colony
 we have already had two officials accredited for a like duty.

 Now, without insinuating anything against the fitness of these gentlemen,
 giving them indeed every credit for the performance of their arduous task,
 under (to them) peculiarly adverse circumstances, I am desirous of asking,
 through the instrumentality of your pages, whether the expensive absurdity
 of these reiterated arrangements ever struck the promoters of them? ...

 It must be patent to the employers of these gentlemen that our Government
 are large purchasers of horses for their own requirements, and they are, or
 should be, aware that like them we obtain the needed animals finally
 through the auxiliary agency of a resident and duly appointed veterinary
 surgeon, enquiry should have satisfied them that the individual at present
 thus serving acquits himself to the satisfaction of his superiors, has long
 held his present situation, and has passed nearly a lifetime in this city.
 I unhesitatingly affirm that I write the sentiment of all whose opinions on
 the matter are worth having, when I declare that, from his intimate
 acquaintance with every important breeding stud, and his knowledge of the
 exact description of horse to be desired for all military purposes, his
 matured judgement and superiority to all the artful, and in some cases
 purely local, dodges of the coper tribe, the veterinary surgeon of our
 police is the gentleman on whose shoulders should have devolved the nice
 task of procuring suitable animals for the New Zealand Government.

 ... If the Government concerned are anxious to expend their money to the
 best advantage, let them take the hint now offered in all sincerity, keep
 their immediate servants at home to do good service in the field; through
 and with the sanction of our authorities, employ our police veterinary
 surgeon to supply the war demands, and in lieu of the halt, the lame, and
 the blind, so craftily prepared and so unsuspiciously purchased of late by
 the gentlemen in question, a sort of animal will be forwarded that cannot
 fail to give unbounded satisfaction. (49)


In early 1864, the Commissariat Department at Melbourne, Sydney and at Hobart Town were notified of the requirements for "Sound Horses" for both draught and lighter types for riding or pack animals for the Commissariat Department in New Zealand. (50) The extent of the trade which emerged out of Tasmania, is not clear, but it may have been effected by the stipulation that horse "purchases would be made in New Zealand, the owners shipping at their own risk, the Department not being bound to purchase. (51) It was reported though that the barque Chrishna at Hobart had been "rapidly fitted up for the conveyance of horses &c., to New Zealand." (52)

In February-March of 1864, advertisements in the Sydney Morning Herald authorised by Edward Mayne again reappeared seeking "Troop Horses For New Zealand". These advertisements specifically sought horses for the requirements of the CDF:
 TROOP HORSES FOR NEW ZEALAND.--The Inspector of Horses for the Colonial
 Defence Force at Auckland, New Zealand, begs to notify that he will be
 prepared to purchase animals suitable for ther above service, viz.:-
 Geldings, not under 4 or over 7 years old, over 15 hands high, sound, quiet
 to ride, and with good action, and will attend at Messrs. BURT and CO.'S
 stables, 272, Pitt-street [Sydney], every day after Monday, the 15th
 instant, to inspect horses as may be offered.

 Parties having suitable horses may communicate with Messrs. BURT and CO.,
 Mr. CHARLES MARTYN, 240, Pitt-street; or, Mr. ARMSTRONG, V.S., Pitt-street.
 (53)


As evident here, the trade and supply of various types of horses from Australia was considerable and obviously of enormous value to the scale of military operations then being undertaken in New Zealand during 1863-64. The size of this trade out of Sydney alone can also be ascertained from a summary of the "Sydney Horse Market" in the Sydney Morning Herald on 23 May 1864:
 MESSRS. BURT and CO. notice that with the approach of winter the supply of
 broken-in horses is fast decreasing below the demand, and fresh lots in
 good condition readily bring top market rates. At present there are
 numerous orders for horse teams to go north ... It is, however, difficult
 to meet these requirements, nearly all our available cart stock having been
 cleared off to meet the New Zealand demand in the summer months, and our
 own carriers who were tempted by prices then to sell out have a difficulty
 to replenish their teams. We estimate that one thousand horses were shipped
 to New Zealand in the first four months of the present year, of which 800
 were cart stock, and would leave 30 [pounds sterling] per head here. The
 other 200 would cost about 20 [pounds sterling]; adding freight and forage,
 not less in round numbers than 30,000 [pounds sterling] for horse stock
 alone. (54)


Enlistment, Numbers, and Australian derived Personnel

From a "Return of Militia, Volunteers, Military Police, and Other Forces (Exclusive of Regular Troops) in New Zealand, Made Up to 31st December, 1863", the number of troops and horses of the CDF can be ascertained. In the province of Auckland there were 117 officers and men and 112 horses; in the province of Wellington there were 179 officers and men and 172 horses; whilst in Napier the CDF consisted of 115 officers and men and 102 horses. These CDF elements were all remarked upon as being part of the "Permanent force" of the Northern Island serving under the Colonial Defence Force Act, 1862. The CDF within these three provinces at this juncture therefore totalled 411 officers and men and utilised some 386 horses. (55) Overall command of the CDF was by Major-General T.J. Galloway ha Auckland (commission dated 20 September 1863). The commandants in these three provinces were M.G. Nixon in Auckland (commission dated 4 June 1863), G.S. Whitmore in Napier (commission dated 1 July 1863), and J.T. Edwards in Wellington (commission dated 30 July 1863). (56)

On 29 September 1864, the following Colonial Defence Force Regulations were approved and gazetted. These outlined the pay scale as: Troop Serjeant-Major 13s. 6d. per diem; Serjeant 12s. 6d. per diem; Corporal 10s 0d. per diem; and Troopers and Trumpeters 7s. 6d. per diem. These regulations also set out:

The men will be expected to bear the whole expense of subsistence for themselves and their horses, of providing and maintaining their uniform, equipments (except arms and ammunition), and horses; and will be liable to the Mutiny Act and Articles of War, and such regulations as may from time to time be authorised by the Government.

When forage and provisions cannot be otherwise obtained, the Government will supply the regulated Military ration of each, and the men will be placed under a stoppage, to be fixed from time to time by a Board of Officers appointed by the Government for that purpose, but until the 1st January next to be Three Shillings per diem.

Should the men desire to purchase their horses from the Government, or to obtain advances for the purchase of horses, or saddlery, uniform, &c., they will be permitted to do so, refunding the amount by monthly instalments--which may vary at their own option, from 2 [pounds sterling] 10s. to 5 [pounds sterling] per month.

When convenient, working passes, and furloughs, will be granted to men of good character, on their private affairs. While so absent, if for more than three days in any one month, they will receive half-pay only.

Men will not be discharged with less than three month's notice, except as an indulgence at their own request, or unless physically unfit for service or of a bad character. They will be enlisted for any period for which they may be required, not exceeding three years, and will be liable to serve, if required, in any part of New Zealand.

On being attested for the force, the men will sign the engagement attached hereto.

Declaration.

I, -- hereby engage to serve in the Colonial Defence Force, for the daily pay of Seven Shillings and Sixpence, in any part of New Zealand, and for such period as the Government may require my services, not exceeding three years; to bear the whole expense of providing my uniform, saddlery, equipment, and maintaining them in a state of efficiency; of providing my own provisions; of providing, feeding, and maintaining a horse, subject to the approval of my Commanding Officer; and, should my horse become non-effective, I engage to replace it at my own cost, unless captured, injured, or killed by the enemy, in which case the Government will bear the cost of replacing the animal,
 I fully understand that, while serving in the above Force, I render myself
 liable to the Mutiny Act and Rules and Articles of War, for the time being
 in force in this Colony, and to such Laws, Rules, and Regulations as may be
 authorized for the better government of the Force.

 Furthermore, I understand that, if under exceptional circumstances, or in
 the field, I am unable to obtain supplies of provisions and forage, the
 Government will supply these requisites at a price to be fixed, from time
 to time, by a Board of Officers appointed by the Governor for that purpose;
 that if I absent myself without permission, or am sentenced to imprisonment
 by Court Martial, my pay will cease during such period of absence or
 confinement; that I shall be entitled to half pay only when absent on leave
 or furlough, while undergoing minor punishment by order of my Commanding
 Officer, or, if my horse becomes non-effective, until it is recovered or
 replaced. (57)


The well-known historian of the New Zealand wars, James Cowan (1922), described the CDF Cavalry as a "highly useful arm of the colonial service ... armed with sword, carbine, and revolver. There were two troops of Nixon's Cavalry, as this corps was locally known, in the Auckland District. There were also troops in Hawke's Bay, at Wellington, and at Wanganui". (58) At least seventy Australian Waikato military settler volunteers applied to join the Defence Force Cavalry in late 1863. They did this in order to try and see early action, as well as to escape the mundane routine of redoubt life and garrison duties which most military settlers found they faced upon arrival in New Zealand. Small numbers similarly transferred to the Forest Rangers, (59) while the largest number volunteered for service with the Imperial CTC. (60) Of those seventy who tried to enlist with the Defence Force Cavalry, some were rejected as this force enlisted personnel under far different terms to the military settlers and were not entitled to land grants. The only applicants that were accepted from these military settlers volunteers were those who were willing to surrender their rights to land grants for which they were initially enlisted. (61)

One of these individuals was William Fraser (also as Frazer), (62) former Drill-Instructor of the Reedbeds Cavalry, a South Australian volunteer unit, who went on to serve in the New Zealand. On 28 September 1863, the South Australian Register reported that Fraser "has shipped for the seat of war in the Tomatin, and Captain Egerton and Serjeant-Major Hawke, formerly of the Kapunda Rifles, are said to have left with the same gallant intention." (63) These individuals left Adelaide on their own initiative, as no formal military settler recruiting took place in Adelaide until January 1864. This particular band of South Australian volunteer officers and noncommissioned officers therefore provide an excellent example of the military fervour of some Australian colonial volunteers who saw the wars in New Zealand as their opportunity of seeing real action and doing their part for Empire. It was not uncommon for Australian volunteers personnel to enlist in the military settlers, or else depart for New Zealand on their own initiative. Many examples of such persons are known to have left who had been members of the Queensland, New South Wales, Victorian, South Australian and Tasmanian volunteer forces.

In New Zealand in late 1863, William Fraser wrote back to South Australia with information that he had "joined the No.5 Company, 2nd Regiment of the Waikato Militia, in which he had been promoted to be Sergeant." (64) A later letter dated 27 June 1864, received by the South Australian Register, published an account of Fraser's service and experiences, under the caption of "A South Australian in the New Zealand War", indicating that he was now serving in the CDF:
 Mr. Fraser was then at Tauranga, and in his letter gives a spirited account
 of the affair of the 20th June [presumably referring to the engagement at
 Te Ranga, on 21 June 1864], in which the Maories, having acted on the
 offensive, sustained a signal defeat. ... After they were driven into their
 pa, many of their dead were recognised as soi-disant friendly natives, to
 whom arms and ammunition had been served out by the Government. Mr.
 Fraser's horse was shot under him in the engagement, but he managed to
 extricate himself and joined the infantry until the fight was finished. The
 Colonial Defence Force are armed with Terry breech-loaders, which are
 stated to be nearly useless in actual warfare, as they get clogged after
 having been discharged 20 or 30 times, and cannot be loaded again until
 they are cleaned. They answer admirably for holiday work, when they can be
 cleaned after each discharge, but for active service the men rely upon
 their revolvers. As a large number of the force were about to leave, their
 time having expired, Mr. Fraser entertained expectations of promotion,
 which we trust will be speedily realized. (65)


Another example of an Australian colonial in the CDF, was Private Alexander (also as Edward) McHale. He enlisted as a military settler in Melbourne on 14 September 1863, and was later killed in action at Rangiaowhia on 21 February 1864 as a member of the CDF Cavalry. (66) The former Forest Ranger, William Race, makes reference to Trooper McHale in his circa 1895 reminiscences. Race remembered the "melancholy affair" of McHale's death at Rangiaowhia, and noted him as having been a "shipmate from Victoria" aboard the Star of India, part of the first Victorian detachment of military settler recruits in 1863. (67)

In a report on "The New Zealand War" by the Sydney Morning Herald's own correspondent, dated Auckland, 9 February 1864, the origins and the value of the CDF were further elaborated:
 The Colonial Defence Force Cavalry are of great service to the General
 [Cameron], who expresses himself highly delighted with their efficiency,
 and relies much upon them in case of the natives taking to flight for
 following up and cutting off the retreat of many. I observe that a false
 impression has got abroad in Australia to the effect that this is part of
 the volunteers from your colonies formed into a cavalry force. The mistake
 is a natural one, but its nature will be apparent when I say that the
 Colonial Defence Force is a permanent body of troops enrolled under an Act
 of the Assembly of 1862, as a body of military police I suppose, although
 in all respects like soldiers in their organisation and equipments. They
 are now enrolled in this province to the number of some three hundred men,
 while there are about two hundred more in the other provinces of Wellington
 and Hawke's Bay. In addition to this force, of cavalry, there are now no
 less than about a hundred and thirty men of the Artillery force, well
 mounted and trained, to act as cavalry. All are under command of Colonel
 Nixon, who is now at Piko-Piko with the General. (68)


Field Service, 1863-66

One of the earliest involvements of the CDF in the field was the participation of one captain, two subalterns, three sergeants and forty-nine rank and file as a component of the Thames Expeditionary Force in November-December 1863. (69) This force was commanded by Colonel George J. Carey and also contained detachments of Imperial troops from the Royal Engineers and the 12th, 70th and 18th Regiments, and colonial troops from the 1st Waikato Military Settler Regiment and Auckland Naval Volunteers. This expedition sought to, and accomplished, the establishment of a line of military posts and communications between the Firth of the Thames and the Waikato River. (70)

The Defence Force Cavalry commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel M.G. Nixon was also an important element in the invasion of Rangiaowhia, which commenced on the 20 February 1864. This was part of a campaign to outflank the heavy Kingite Maori defences at Paterangi and Rangiatea:

Soon after the fall of Rangiriri the Kingites began work on their third line for the defence of Waikato. This ambitious complex of fortifications was located about twenty-five miles south of Ngaruawahia, and for convenience we may call it the Paterangi Line, after its largest pa. The purpose of the Line was, in general, to stop the British advance and, in particular, to protect the agriculturally rich Rangiaowhia district. Rangiaowhia ranked with the Hangatiki and Matamata-Peria districts as a major economic base for the core Kingite tribes, and its loss would be a considerable blow. (71)

In recent years, another historian of the New Zealand wars, James Belich, has reassessed this campaign and its objectives, and provides an interpretation of events:
 Historians imply that the British simply aimed to seize the Rangiaowhia
 district, and indeed this area was sufficiently important to be an object
 of attack in itself. But [General] Cameron's primary objective was nothing
 less than the destruction of the Kingite army. By outflanking the Line, he
 hoped he could force the Maori to fight a pitched battle for Rangiaowhia.
 In daylight, on open ground, and with his men prepared, Cameron was
 understandably convinced that he could win such a battle so decisively as
 to end the war. ...

 On the night of 20 February, with a column of 1,230 men, he set off ... A
 masking force of about the same strength was left in front of Paterangi,
 and 600 men of the supply column held themselves ready to move. ... Cameron
 reached Te Awamutu at day break and immediately pushed on to Rangiaowhia.
 He found the town `nearly deserted'. The few people in the place were
 mainly women and children, but a dozen warriors put up a gallant fight ...
 before being overwhelmed. Having made his presence felt, Cameron withdrew
 to Te Awamutu to await the Maori reaction. (72)


The CDF component of General Cameron's column consisted of: one field officer (Nixon), two captains, three subalterns, two staff, three sergeants and thirty-six rank and file. This mounted force was also complimented with a Royal Artillery Mounted Corps comprising one subaltern, one staff, three sergeants, one drummer and thirty-five other ranks. (73) The CDF suffered a number of casualties in the engagement at the Maori settlement of Rangiaowhia on 21 February. (74) Those killed were Corporal H. Alexander, aged 24, with seven months service ("gunshot wound of head"), and Private Alexander McHale, aged 20, with two months service ("gunshot wound of head"). Three other members of the CDF were wounded in this engagement: Private Brady, aged 20, with seven months service ("gunshot wound of hand", "slight"); Corporal Dunn, aged 20, with seven months service ("gunshot wound of body", "severe"); and Lieutenant-Colonel Nixon, aged 50. (75) Nixon later died from the severe wounds ("penetrating wound of chest, lungs injured") sustained at Rangiaowhia. (76)

On the following day the Defence Force Cavalry was also involved in what became known as the battle of Hairini, near Rangiaowhia. The CDF component in the advance on Hairini consisted of two captains, three subalterns, two staff, four sergeants and thirty-eight rank and file, with this mounted force again complimented by "Royal Artillery Cavalry" of one subaltern, one staff, three sergeants, one drummer and thirty-one rank and file. (77) On this engagement Belich has stated:
 As Cameron had hoped, a Maori force left Paterangi and reoccupied
 Rangiaowhia early on the morning of 22 February. With Paterangi virtually
 emptied, Cameron ordered up strong reinforcements from the masking force.
 But before these could arrive, his scouts reported that the Maoris had
 begun entrenching a position--Hairini Ridge--between the British and
 Rangiaowhia. Cameron decided to attack before this defensive works could
 progress too far, ...

 Cameron launched his cavalry (forty Colonial Defence Force and thirty-five
 men seconded from the Artillery) in pursuit. These were checked by the
 disciplined volleys of the Maori reserve, ... The Maoris then withdrew.
 Though some British commentators tried to make a notable victory of it, the
 `Battle' of Hairini was an anti-climax. ...

 It seems clear that in entrenching at Hairini the Maoris simply intended to
 delay the British, while Rangiaowhia and the Paterangi Line were evacuated
 with all supplies that could be carried. (78)


During this engagement the Defence Force Cavalry carried out one of the few practicable cavalry charges of the New Zealand wars. (79) Two members of the CDF were wounded on this day--Corporal E.B. Gilmer ("flesh wound of fore-arm", "slight"), and Corporal Thomas Little, whose "severe" wound ("gunshot wound of thigh") later proved to be fatal. (80)

A few weeks later (30 March to 2 April 1864), elements of the CDF were also involved at the siege at Orakau. Brigadier-General Carey was shortly after to speak "highly of the conduct and gallantry of all the officers and men engaged, both of the regular and colonial forces, who appear to have vied with each other in the zealous discharge of their duty". (81) On the last day of the siege (2 April) the surviving Maori defenders, which included women and children, abandoned their fortifications and attempted to reach safety. Many though were to be cut down in the charge by the Defence Force Cavalry and mounted Royal Artillery troopers, who were also followed up by the Forest Rangers and other troops all vying to cut off this mass escape. (82) In a report dated 3 April 1864, Carey detailed this particular incident with its appropriate' excuse for the casualties amongst the Maori women:
 As it was known that women and children were in the pa, the enemy was
 called upon to surrender, previous to the concentrated fire of the
 Armstrong gun and hand grenades on their work; they were told that their
 lives would be spared, and if they declined, they were requested at least
 to have compassion on their women and children, and send them out. They
 replied that they would not do so, but would fight to the last. The pa was
 then carried; the enemy effecting his escape from the opposite side of the
 work, dashed through a space from which the troops had been thrown back
 under cover, to enable the gun to open. They were however speedily followed
 up, and suffered a severe loss during a pursuit of nearly six miles.
 Lieutenant Rait, Royal Artillery, with his troopers, and Captain Pye,
 Colonial Defence Force, with a small detachment, having headed them and
 kept them back until the infantry came up.

 I regret to say that in the pa and in the pursuit some three or four women
 were killed unavoidably, probably owing to the similarity of dress of both
 men and women, and their hair being cut equally short, rendering it
 impossible to distinguish one from the other at any distance. (83)


In reference to this Maori break-out from Orakau and the bloody pursuit which followed, Belich's reassessment looks at this event in more sobering terms. "The British, enraged at losing their prey at the last moment, followed the fugitives with all possible energy. Though they had split up, the Maoris continued to resist in an organized fashion. ... the British--particularly the small force of cavalry and the fast-moving Forest Rangers--did considerable execution. The Maoris suffered most of their losses during this pursuit."(84) The "Nominal Return of Killed and Wounded of the Troops at Orakau, from March 31st to April 2nd, 1864", shows that the CDF sustained three casualties: Sergeant Richard Kendwick [sic. Kenrick?] ("left knee, severely"), Private William Coady ("left temple, slightly"), and Private James Tully ("right thigh, slightly"). (85)

On the East Coast in the Bay of Plenty, a small detachment of the CDF and Forest Rangers had been garrisoned at Maketu since March 1864. Following the attempted ambush of Major Colville, 43rd Regiment, and Ensign Way, 3rd Waikato Regiment, at Waihi Lagoon near Maketu on 21 April 1864, skirmishing took place for several days after involving both Imperial and Colonial troops including Forest Rangers and the CDF. (86) On 27 April a Maori attack upon Fort ColviUe, Maketu, led to further retaliatory operations and pursuit by colonial forces including the Forest Rangers, CDF, and Native Contingent of Arawa Maori ("friendly Natives") over 28-29 April. Major G.D. Hay, Commanding the Native Contingent, noted in his report on 1 May: "The men of the Defence Force and Forest Rangers attached to the Native Contingent were so fatigued with the march, having far more than the natives to carry, that they were only able to join in the pursuit." (87)

Another instance of the role and service of the CDF is evident in the reconnaissance on 20 June 1864 by Sub-Inspector A.C. Turner and three troopers beyond the area of the Gate Pa, Tauranga, the scene of the military disaster on 29 April. "He returned late in the afternoon, reporting a large number of natives near the Waimapu fiver, transporting supplies. This resulted in an order being given after tattoo for a march out in the morning [21 June], consisting of Artillery, portions of the 68th, 43rd, and 1st Waikato Regiments, Flying Column, and Mounted Colonial Defence Force." (88) This force was commanded by Colonel H.H. Greer, 68th Regiment, and it advanced to [Te Ranga] where it "found a large force of Maoris (about 600) entrenching themselves about 4 miles beyond Pukehinahina [Gate Pa]. They had made a single line of rifle-pits ... across the road, in a position exactly similar to Pukehinahina-the commencement of formidable pa." (89) CDF troops were involved initially by being "dismounted and flanked to the left, until relieved by a company of the 68th; while the remaining portion of the 68th and 43rd [Regiments], supported by the 1st Waikato Regiment, formed the attacking party." (90) Following the bayonet charge by elements of these three regiments, the rifle-pits were carried after a few minutes of desperate struggle that left sixty-eight Maori dead in the trenches alone, before the Maori defenders were routed. The Maori position at Te Ranga was favourably placed to allow their retreat, though the "Defence Force pursued them several miles, but could not get well at them, owing to the deep ravines with which the country is everywhere intersected." (91)

Following this Te Ranga engagement the CDF continued to play a vital reconnaissance role. Colonel Greer, Commanding the Tauranga District, elaborated upon this in a report from Camp Te Papa, Tauranga, dated 4 July 1864:
 ... since the engagement at Te Ranga, on the 21st ultimo, I have constantly
 patrolled both on this and the Wairoa side without seeing any signs of
 hostile natives in either direction.


On the 23rd ultimo, Captain Pye, whilst patrolling with his Defence Force, came upon a large and very strong pa, situated about 14 miles clue south of this station. It was an old one repaired and strengthened with a palisading of ti tree and post and mils, and an embankment of about 20 feet high and rifle-pits between it and the palisading. The pa extended completely across a tongue of land with a ravine on either side of it, and from the rear of it there was a path leading direct to the woods, which were distant about half-a-mile.

Captain Pye had the whole of the wood-work pulled up and burned. (92)

The New Zealand government reduced the size of the CDF in the Provinces of Auckland and Hawke's Bay in October of 1864, and then in the Province of Wellington in November 1864. (93) The Australian press also informed its readership of the reduction or disbandment of the various detachments of the CDF in the provinces of Auckland and Wellington. In respect to the situation in the province of Wellington, on 25 November 1864 the Sydney Morning Herald reported:

The sudden disbanding of some 125 officers and men of the Defence Force in Wellington is still much talked of, and a very strong feeling is manifested against the Government for pursuing such an unjust course towards men who had acted all along in good faith. Some try to put the blame on Sir G. Grey's shoulders, but the general impression is that the Ministry alone are responsible. The men held a meeting, and they have determined to petition the Assembly with a view to obtaining compensation for the treatment they have received. (94)

As of 30 November 1864, the CDF was still commanded overall by Major-General Thomas James Galloway. (95) The commandants of the CDF at Napier and Wellington remained the same as in 1863, but in Auckland, James Walmsley (commission dated 2 June 1864) replaced the mortally wounded Nixon. (96)

From a government return on expenditure for the purpose of colonial defence, dated 23 October 1865, it is possible to gauge the reduced size and distribution of personnel associated with the CDF in this late 1865 period. Personnel were recorded as being employed in the following districts at this time: Auckland--twenty-six; Wairarapa--twenty-seven; Poverty Bay--twenty-seven; and at Opotiki--fifty-three. (97) Despite the diminishing size of the CDF, elements were to continue to provide both a mobile force capability, as well as the crucial communications and reconnaissance role on the East Coast into 1865-66 in districts such as the Bay of Plenty and Poverty Bay. (98) Similarly, the CDF also continued to play a role in operations on the West Coast. Colonel H. Weare, 50th Regiment, and Commanding the Patea District Field Force, reported upon one West Coast engagement at Te AWI on 13 March 1865:
 ... the Field Force under my command moved out from our position on the
 Patea fiver at 7 a.m., on the 13th instant, with the object of advancing to
 this village. After advancing some three miles the right flank of our line
 of march was commanded by a range of hills, affording a very strong
 position, which the enemy did not fail to occupy and from which they opened
 fire. The advance guard, ... advanced upon the enemy and drove them from
 their position, after a stout resistance, ...


During the whole of the skirmish the Mounted Military Train and the few Wanganui Defence Corps attached to them, under the command of Captain Witchell, were to be seen with the advance availing themselves of all ground that admitted of their closing with the enemy. (99)

On 2 October 1866, one captain, one sergeant and ten rank and file of the Wanganui Defence Force were a component in the force assembled by Major Thomas McDonnell, Commanding the Colonial Forces in the Patea District, which took part in an engagement at Pungarehu. This force also included Patea and Wanganui Rangers, Wanganui Yeomanry Cavalry, and the Native Contingent. (100) In this action, McDonnell formed a rear-guard under Captain Leatham of the Wanganui Defence Force, for which he was to later submit in a despatch dated 4 October 1866, that the "behaviour of Captain Leatham and his detachment of the W.D.F. was most praiseworthy." (101)

Conclusion

This article has sought to provide an historical framework around which to show the context and importance of the CDF in the military operations in New Zealand in the period 1863 to 1866. This force also had significant elements of its personnel who derived from the Australian colonies, either born, or else the locale from which they departed for New Zealand shores, such as via the military settlers volunteers of 1863-64. The other crucial Australian contribution here was of course the supply of a vast array of military equipment, stores and uniforms, as well as arms, ammunitions and accoutrements, and especially draught and cavalry horses. All of these elements were essential to the formation and expansion of New Zealand colonial forces such as the CDF. It was not only the personnel from Australia which assisted in these wars, it was also the logistic staging point and military storehouse and commissariat function of the Australian colonies that were so crucial to military operations, which so often get ignored or passed over as irrelevant or minor. This article has therefore attempted to rectify this historiographical myopia and show that Australia was in fact significantly involved in the wars that occurred in New Zealand during the 1860s, as evident in this case study of the CDF.

(1) This author's article is an edited version of the original previously published in New Zealand as: "A History of the Colonial Defence Force (Cavalry): and the Australian Context", The Volunteers: The Journal of the New Zealand Military Historical Society, Vo1.26, No. 1, (July 2000), pp. 5-25. Also refer to, Jeffrey Hopkins [now Hopkins-Weise], Further Selected New Zealand War Medal Rolls of Applications Granted up to 1900: Volume 2 (Brisbane, Qld: J.E. Hopkins, & supported by the Victoria Barracks Historical Society, Brisbane, Qld, 1998), pp.14-24. This 1998 source provides New Zealand War Medal recipient rolls compiled from published government sources from 27 March 1871 to 24 September 1896, which indicate that at least 125 men who were associated with sometimes indicate service with other New Zealand colonial units.

(2) The New Zealand Gazette [hereafter abbreviated as NZG], No. 17, 12 May 1863, p. 167.

(3) On 14 July 1863, the Governor had included amongst the appointments in the `Royal Cavalry Volunteers', "Lieutenant-Colonel Marmaduke Nixon, to be Lieutenant-Colonel. Date of Commission-3rd April, 1860." NZG, No.31, 22 July 1863, p.286.

(4) NZG, No.41, 19 August 1863, p.344,

(5) NZG, No.43, 27 August 1863, p.360. Sub-Inspector C.J. Anderson was subsequently appointed to the rank of Inspector on 2 September 1863. NZG, No.46, 12 September 1863, p.380.

(6) NZG, No.51, 30 September 1863, p.434. Assistant Surgeon J.S. Wright's resignation of his commission in the CDF was formally cancelled on 22 January 1864. NZG, No.3, 26 January 1964, p.22.

(7) NZG, No.51, 30 September 1863, p.434.

(8) The resignation of the commission of Sub-Inspector H.V. Lillicrap, was formally cancelled on 3 May 1864. NZG, No. 16, 6 May 1864, p. 189.

(9) NZG, No.52, 5 October 1863, p.339.

(10) NZG, No. 58, 7 November 1863, p.488.

(11) NZG, No.3, 26 January 1864, p.22.

(12) NZG, No.3, 26 January 1864, p.22. A later erratum gazettal stated that Sub-Inspector David Hutchison's commission date should be 26 October 1863, instead of 20 January 1864. NZG, No. 13, 16 April 1864, p. 166.

(13) NZG, No. 16, 6 May 1864, p. 190.

(14) Peter Stanley, "Heritage of Strangers: the Australian Army's British Legacy", Australian Defence Force Journal, No.87, (March/April 1991), p.24.

(15) T.W. Gudgeon, The Defenders of New Zealand: being a short biography of colonists who distinguished themselves in upholding her Majesty's supremacy in these Islands (Auckland, NZ: H. Brett, 1887), p. 157.

(16) M.G. Nixon was appointed Commandant of the CDF on 14 August 1863. NZG, No.41, 19 August 1863, p.344; & also see Gudgeon, op. cit., p. 157.

(17) M.N. Bower was appointed Sub-Inspector in the CDF on 14 August 1863. NZG, 19 August 1863, p.344.

(18) Gudgeon, op. cit., p.475.

(19) Ibid., pp.474-475.

(20) In 1860 Noake was recorded as the riding master, 3 years service, appointed 20 February 1857, with the 15th (The King's) Regt. of Lt. Drs. (Hussars). H.G. Hart, The New Annual Army List, and Militia List, for 1860 (London: John Murray, 1860), p. 152.

(21) Appointed Sub-Inspector in the CDF, commission dated 11 September 1863. NZG, No.52, 5 October 1863, p.339.

(22) Gudgeon, op. cit., p.342.

(23) Ibid., pp.340-342.

(24) New Zealand: Parliamentary Debates: 1861 to 1863 (Wellington: G. Didsbury, Government Printer, 1886), p.734. For other details pertaining to the expansion of the CDF in 1863 in the provinces of Auckland, Wellington, Wanganui, & Hawke's Bay, also refer to: "A.-No.6: Further Papers Relating to the Military Defences of New Zealand: Memorandum on Measures of Defence in Northern Island", pp.1, & 3-5. Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1863.

(25) An example of this can be found within the "New Zealand" news of the Sydney Morning Herald [hereafter abbreviated as SMH], entitled "Auckland Division Of The Colonial Defence Force". SMH, 24 July 1863, p.5.

(26) New Zealand: Parliamentary Debates: 1861 to 1863, op.cit., pp.759-760.

(27) "A.-No.6: Further Papers Relating to the Military Defence of New Zealand: Memorandum on Measures of Defence in Northern Island" p.1. Journal of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1863. Auckland. Also refer to, Frank Glen, For Glory and a Farm: The Story of Australia's Involvement in the New Zealand Wars of 1860-66 (2nd Edition. Whakatane, NZ: Whakatane & District Historical Society, 1985), p.38.

(28) William Fox, The War in New Zealand (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1866), p. 13.

(29) SMH, 12 September 1863, p. 9.

(30) Argus, 15 January 1864, p.7.

(31) Mercury, 10, 15 & 16 June 1863; & South Australian Register [hereafter abbreviated as SAR], 25 June 1863.

(32) Archives Office of Tasmania: CSD 4/85/411. Colonial Secretary: Gore Browne Period. Correspondence File: 411; & Mercury, 5 & 6 August 1863.

(33) SAR, 30 November 1863; & also refer to Proceedings of the Parliament of South Australia: 1866-7: Volume 1 (Adelaide: W.C. Cox, Government Printer, 1867), pp.2, 3, & 5; & Proceedings of the Parliament of South Australia: 1866-7: Volume II (Adelaide: W.C. Cox, Government Printer, 1867), "No.34. Receipt and Disposition of Small Arms".

(34) SAR, 13 January 1864.

(35) SMH, 17 August 1863, p.4.

(36) SMH, 20 August 1863, p.5.

(37) SMH, 20 August 1863, p.4.

(38) SMH, 25 September 1863, p.4.

(39) SMH, 26 September 1863, p.6.

(40) Glen, op. cit., p.24.

(41) SMH, 20 August 1863, p. 1.

(42) SMH, 24 August 1863, p. 1.

(43) Ibid.; & also see continuation of advertisements for "Troop Horses" & "Cavalry Homes for New Zealand" in Sydney in SMH, 25 August, p. 1; 26 August, p. 1; & 27 August 1863, p. 1. References to "Cavalry Horses for New Zealand" also found in SAR, 9 September 1863.

(44) SMH, 24 August, p.8; & 25 August 1863, p.8.

(45) The SMH was to later report (via account extracted from the Southern Cross) on this particular voyage & the reputation of this vessel in its transport of Horses to New Zealand: "The Claud Hamilton brings eighty horses for the Commissariat Department, that being the number shipped in Sydney. The "luck" this vessel has in the transport of horseflesh is something wonderful. Out of between three and four hundred shipped on board this vessel only one has been lost". SMH, 6 October 1863, p.4.

(46) SMH, 16 September 1863, p.5. This trip by the Claud Hamilton is also thought to have contained 25 Sydney enlisted Military Settler Volunteers. Forbes Eadie, Troopships Engaged in the Maori Wars ... 1840-1865, South African War ... 1899-1902, The Great War ... 1914-1918 (New Zealand: Auckland Historical Centennial Research Committee, [1940?], p.2.

(47) Nona Morris, ed., The Journal of William Morgan: Pioneer Settler and Maori War Correspondent (Auckland, NZ: Libraries Department, Auckland City Council, 1963), p.108.

(48) SMH, 6 October 1863, pp. 4 & 5. See also, Glen, op. cit., p.24.

(49) SMH, 24 December 1863, p.4.

(50) Argus, 15 January 1864, p.7, & 30 January 1864, p.7; SMH, 1 February 1864, p.2; & Mercury, 22 February 1864.

(51) Mercury, 22 February 1864.

(52) Mercury, 30 January 1864.

(53) SMH, 13 February 1864, p. 12. These advertisements for horses for the CDF continued in SMH, on 15 February, p.8; 18 February, p.2; 19 February, p.6; 22 February, p.2; 4 March, p.6; 7 March, p.6; & 14 March 1864, p.6.

(54) SMH, 23 May 1864, p.3.

(55) "E.-No.3: Further Papers Relative to the Native Insurrection", pp.34, 35, & 36. Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1864.

(56) "Colonial Defence Force.", New Zealand: Army List [1863], p. 10.

(57) NZG, No.38, 7 October 1864, p.385.

(58) J. Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Vol. 1 (1845-1864) (Wellington, NZ: W.A.G. Skinner, Government Printer, 1922), p.237.

(59) J.E. Hopkins [now Hopjkins-Weise], Selected New Zealand War Medal Rolls of Entitlements, Rejections, and Applications Granted up to 1900 (Brisbane, Qld: J.E. Hopkins & the Victoria Barracks Historical Society, Brisbane, Qld, 1997), pp.2-3 (see Footnote 2 on p.3 especially); & refer also to, R. Stowers, Forest Rangers: A History of the Forest Rangers during the New Zealand Wars (Hamilton, NZ: Richard Stowers, 1996).

(60) From assessment of official published New Zealand government papers, it seems that a total of 1,942 men served in the Imperial Commissariat Transport Corps. Of these, approximately 1,397 men came from one of the 4 Waikato Regiments & served in some role as part of the CTC. This was especially prevalent in the 3rd Waikato Regiment where at least 616 officers, non-commissioned officers & men volunteered their services for duty with this Corps. Hopkins (Vol.2, 1998), op. cit., pp.5-6 (& see Footnote 7 on p.6 especially).

(61) Glen, op.cit., p.39; & L.L. Barton, Australians in the Waikato War: 1863-1864 (North Sydney, NSW: Library of Australian History, 1979), p.25.

(62) This William Fraser was most likely the following individual who was entitled to the New Zealand War Medal: Sergeant William Fraser, Auckland Defence Force (issue of Medal approved 2 June 1871; Roll A: for Services prior to 31 Dec. 1866). Hopkins (Vol.2, 1998), op. cit., refer to Rolls on p.49.

(63) SAR, 28 September 1863.

(64) SAR, 29 December 1863.

(65) SAR, 19 July 1864.

(66) Barton, op. cit., p.32.

(67) Under The Flag; Reminiscences of the Maori Land (Waikato) War by a Forest Ranger [William Race, c. 1895]: CY POS 127: Mitchell Library: reel p. 124. In Race's reminiscences, he provides an account of the death of Trooper McHale, as well as the mortal wounding of Colonel Nixon who was commanding the CDF at Rangiaowhia on 21 Feb. 1864 (see reel pp. 124-126). There is also an overall account of the attack on Rangiaowhia (see reel pp. 127-130 & 132-140), He also provides information on the services & bravery of Sergeant Kenrick of the CDF in late February or early March 1864, as well as noting his later wounding at the siege at Orakau (see reel pp. 118-123).

(68) SMH, 20 February 1864, p.7.

(69) NZG, No.64, 16 December 1863, p.537.

(70) NZG, No.64, 16 December 1863, pp.535-537; Cowan, op. cit., pp.313-314; & Glen, op. cit., p.53.

(71) James Belich, The New Zealand Wars: and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (Auckland, NZ: Penguin Books, 1988), p. 160.

(72) Belich, op. cit., pp. 162-163.

(73) NZG, No.8, 3 March 1864, p.89.

(74) Another account of the engagement at the village of Rangiaowhia & the casualties sustained, entitled "The Fight At Rangiaohia. (By One Who Was There.)", was set down in later life by the then Sub-Inspector Charles James Wilson of the CDF, who was present during this engagement. Gudgeon, op. cit., pp. 175-177 (& also see "Mr. Rusden's Account Of The Rangiaohia Affair: With the Maori Contradiction.", on pp. 177-179).

(75) For distinguished services in the field, Lt.-Colonel Nixon's name was brought to the notice of the Governor, who directed the promotion (dated 9 April 1864) "In the Auckland Militia" of "Lieut.-Colonel Marmaduke George Nixon, of the Royal Cavalry Volunteers, and Commandant in the Colonial Defence Force, to be Colonel. Date of commission 21st February, 1864." NZG, No. 12, 9 April 1864, p. 157.

(76) NZG, No.8, 3 March 1864, pp.89-93; "G.-No.1a.: Further Papers Relative To The Issue Of The New Zealand War Medal: ROLL E: Nominal Return of Officers and Men of the Colonial Forces who have been Killed in Action or who have Died of Wounds prior to the 11th July, 1868", p.7. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: Vol. II: 1871; also in, NZG, No.55, 12 October 1871, p.553. Also see Australian press item entitled "Death Of Colonel Nixon", SMH, 8 June 1864, p.5.

(77) NZG, No.8, 3 March 1864, p.90.

(78) Belich, op. cit., pp. 163-164.

(79) For other accounts of the invasion of Rangiaowhia (including the engagements at the village of Rangiaowhia & Hairini), refer to: Belich, op.cit., pp.163-165; Cowan, op.cit., pp.341-351; & Barton, op.cit., pp.31-33. For Australian press coverage of the lead up to, & subsequent invasion of Rangiaowhia, refer to: Argus/Supplement To The Argus, 24 February, p.5; 5 March, p.5; 9 March, pp.5-6; & 16 March 1864, p.2; & also SMH, 5 March, p.5; 7 March, p.5; 22 March, p.2; & 29 March 1864, p.5.

(80) NZG, No.8, 3 March 1864, pp.89-93; "G.-No.1a.: Further Papers Relative To The Issue Of The New Zealand War Medal: ROLL E: Nominal Return of Officers and Men of the Colonial Forces who have been Killed in Action or who have Died of Wounds prior to the 11th July, 1868", p.7. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: Vol. II: 1871; also found in, NZG, No.55, 12 October 1871, p.553.

(81) NZG, No. 12, 9 April 1864, p. 153.

(82) Cowan, op. cit., pp.355-397.

(83) NZG, No.12, 9 April 1864, p. 155; refer also to pp. 153-157.

(84) Belich, op. cit., pp. 172-173.

(85) NZG, No. 12, 9 April 1864, pp. 156-157.

(86) NZG, No. 15, 27 April 1864, pp. 177-178; Cowan, op.cit., p.408; & Stowers, op. cit., p. 118.

(87) NZG, No. 17, 9 May 1864, p.211.

(88) Gudgeon, op. cit., p.320; & for an account of the action at Te Ranga on 21 June 1864, refer also to pp.319-321.

(89) NZG, No.23, 25 June 1864, p.277.

(90) Gudgeon, op.cit., p.320.

(91) NZG, No.23, 23 June 1864, p.277 (& refer to entire Report, pp.277-278). For other information or accounts of this engagement at Te Ranga, including mention of the role & service of the CDF, & as part of the reinforcements called for by Colonel Greer, refer to: NZG, No.26, 9 July 1864, pp.292-296; Fox (1866), op.cit., pp.118-120; R.G.A. Livinge, Historical Records of the Forty-Third Regiment, Monmouthshire Light Infantry, with a Roll of the Officers and their Services from the period of Embodiment to the Close of 1867 (London: W. Clowes & Sons, 1868), pp.287-289; & J. Featon, The Waikato War: 1863-4 (Reprint [1879]. Christchurch, NZ: Capper Press, 1971), pp.95-97.

(92) NZG, No.29, 30 July 1864, pp.316-317.

(93) "B.-No.11: Return Showing the Whole Cost of the Colonial Defence Force, for Provinces of Wellington, Auckland, and Hawke's Bay. [Return to an Order of the House of Representatives, dated 9th December, 1864.]." Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1865. Wellington.

(94) SMH, 25 November 1864, p.8. Other references to the reduction of the CDF can be found in the following press sources: Argus, 26 November 1864, p.5; & SMH, 21 November 1864, p.3.

(95) Major-General Galloway tendered his resignation of the command of the Local Forces in the province of Auckland in 1865 (officially accepted on 6 February). NZG, No.4, 6 February 1865, p.27.

(96) "Colonial Defence Force.", [New Zealand] Army List: Colonial Forces: Corrected to 30th November, 1864 (Auckland), pp.26-27.

(97) "B.-No.6: Return Showing the Existing Expenditure on account of Colonial Defence", p.3. Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1865. Wellington.

(98) See brief information on Lt. C.A.M. Hirtzel, CDF, 1863-66, & reference to service on East Coast & at Poverty Bay, 1865-66. Gudgeon, op.cit., p.215. Another example of a CDF officer, who saw service on the East Coast was F.W. Gascoigne. He joined the CDF as a lieutenant in 1863, served with the East Cape expedition in 1865, & "was present at the attack on Hatepe, and at the storming of Pakairomi-romi; assisted in the assault of Pukemaire and several other minor engagements." Gudgeon, op.cit., p.295.

(99) NZG, No.12, 8 April 1865, p.76 (& one member of the Military Train was also severely wounded, see p.77).

(100) NZG, No.54, 11 October 1866, p.379.

(101) Ibid., p.380.
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