Negara Brunei Darussalam: obituaries 2004.
The obituaries appearing here deal not only with Bruneians, but also with foreigners who have had some connection with the sultanate. The domestic death roll includes two ceteria, one distinguished diplomat, a retired air force officer, and a menteri darat ('land chief').
The two ceteria comprise, first, YAM Pengiran Lela Wijaya Pengiran Dato Seri Laila Jasa Haji Yussof bin Pengiran Mohd Limbang (1917-2004) and, secondly, Pengiran Jaya Perkasa Pengiran Anak Haji Mohamed Hassan bin Pengiran Sabtu Kemaluddin; the diplomat was Dato Paduka Malai Haji Ahmad Murad bin Syed Haji Mashor; the retired air force officer Kolonel Mohd Radin bin Datu Maharaja Setia Dian; and the menteri darat Orang Kaya Indera Perkasa Awang Haji Zulkeflee bin Abdullah.
The list of foreigners connected to Brunei who departed includes some important British diplomats and colonial service officers with direct connections with the sultanate, notably Sir John Peel, Mr. Eric Bevington, Dr. J. A. R. Anderson and Commander J. A. Davidson, whose combined careers in Brunei virtually furnish us with a history of the country for the first three decades after the Second World War. The NBD Government might well view with mixed feelings the demise of Tan Sri Khoo Teck Puat, who had proved to be a little too smart for anyone in Bandar Seri Begawan. The geologist Professor N. S. Haile also died.
Miscellaneous other personages are mentioned to round off the list. This category includes President Arafat and a host of British and Australasian diplomats and soldiers, particularly from the Confrontation Era, such as "Henry" Hall, the Duke of Devonshire, and Lord Hill-Norton, along with a former Director of the Special Air Service (SAS) Regiment.
The cut-off date is 20 November 2004.
YAM Pengiran Lela Wijaya Pengiran Dato Seri Laila Jasa Haji Yussof bin Pengiran Mohd Limbang (1917-2004) died on the morning of 14 Jamadilakhir 1425 (1 August 2004) to be survived by his widow, Pengiran Datin Hajjah Siti Hadizah binti PH Menudin. The marriage had been blessed with ten sons and five daughters (PB 4.8.2004: 16 *). PLW Yussof was a prominent nobleman, Privy Councillor, and sometime nominated Legislative Councillor in the sultanate. The award of the title YAM Pengiran Lela Wijaya on 12 August 1972 admitted him to the ranks of the lesser ceteria (WKNB 9.9.1972: 364; cf Brown 1970: 200, No 50). He was also decorated with the POAS in 1966 and the DSLJ in 1978.
Born at Kampong Kuala Sungai Sumbiling in Brunei Town in 1917, he was educated at Brunei Town Malay School and served in the Forestry Department before rising to become Assistant Minister of Social Welfare and Posts between 1965 and 1970. His other activities included membership in the Pilgrimage Advisory Council, the Municipal Council, and in the Majlis Kemajuan (Development Council). Alternative name spellings might be encountered, such as "Yusof" or "Yusoff"; and "Limbang" might be used instead of "Mohd Limbang."
Another of the lesser ceteria, Pengiran Jaya Perkasa Pengiran Anak Haji Mohamed Hassan bin Pengiran Sabtu Kemaluddin DSLJ SNB PHBS PJK, died on the evening of 8 October 2004 at the age of eighty-three (RTB, cited in BBO Sa.9.10.2004: h8.htm). During his early days of service with the government, he worked at the Workshop Unit of the Public Works Department before being employed as Ketua Kampung (Headman) of Kampong Bendahara Lama in Bandar Seri Begawan. He "was also a former member of [the] Adat Istiadat [Council]" (BBO Sa.9.10.2004: h8.htm). His decorations, besides those listed above, included the Long Service Medal and the Coronation Medal (according to BBO Sa.9.10.2004: h8.htm). "Hassan" is sometimes used instead of "Mohamed Hassan."
The death of Tuan Yang Terutama Dato Paduka Malai Haji Ahmad Murad bin Syed Haji Mashor, Ambassador of NBD to the United Arab Emirates from August 2001, had to be deduced from an application for probate dated 25 February 2004 by his widow, Datin Hajjah Rafeah binti Dato Haji Md Yassin, published in Pelita Brunei (Iklan section) on 17 March 2004 (page 7, column three, paragraph 6). The exact date of death is not given. The last reference I have for him as Ambassador to the UAE is PBA 13.8.2003: 9; his successor, TYT Awang Haji Adanan Zainal, was appointed in April 2004 (GBOW ON Tu.13.4.2004).
Born in 1943, Dato Ahmad Murad was educated at Al-Azhar University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Islamic Law, Birmingham University (Diploma of Education), and at the University of Oxford (diplomatic course). He joined government service in 1971, initially as a lecturer at the Hassanal Bolkiah Arab Secondary School (PB 13.8.1997: 1). He succeeded Dato Haji Othman Bidin as Principal of the Seri Begawan Sultan Teacher Training College in 1975 (Brunei Annual Report 1975: 274). Switching to the diplomatic corps in 1981 (PB 13.8.1997: 1), he was a Senior Administrative Officer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs between 1981 and 1984 (PB 13.3.1996: 4). He then became Ambassador to Egypt (1984-1986) and to Saudi Arabia (1987-1989), before being appointed to posts in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Bandar Seri Begawan, first as Director of the Political Department and then as Director of Administration (Pengarah Pentadbiran). This was followed by Ambassadorships in the Philippines (1993-1996) and Japan (1997-2001), sandwiched by a spell as High Commissioner in Canberra (1996-1997). A member of HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah's entourage during the haj of 1987 (Abdul Aziz Juned 1990: 10), his awards included the DPMB, Order of the Republic, PIKB (Abdul Aziz Juned 1990:10), with the PKL following in 1996 (PBA 24.1.1996: 7). He was presented with his letters of appointment as NBD Ambassador to the UAE by HM Sultan Bolkiah in a ceremony held at the Istana Nurul Iman on 15 August 2001 (PBA 22.8.2001: 4). The name variations "Masshor" and "Mashore" might be encountered.
Orang Kaya Indera Perkasa Awang Haji Zulkeflee bin Abdullah died at the age of sixty-four on 4 January 2004 at his home in Skim Tanah Kurnia Rakyat Jati Lorong Tiga Selatan. His funeral was held in Seria on 5 January 2004 (BBO Tu.6.1.2004: h8.htm). Appointed headman of Lorong Tiga in October 1992, he was appointed Orang Kaya Indera Perkasa in May 1996 (PB 5.6.1996: 16). This is a title held by menteri darat (land chiefs) in Belait District (Brown 1970: 205). "Zulkeflee" appears in various alternative forms, such as "Zolkeeflee," "Zolkeflee," "Zolkiflee," and "Zulkifli." The application for probate by his widow, Hajjah Kasmah binti Abdullah, reveals that he was a convert to Islam, originally known as Numba bin Elai (PBI 20.10.2004: 3a #2).
Kolonel Mohd Radin bin Datu Maharaja Setia Dian, a retired officer of the Royal Brunei Air Force, was killed in a road accident on the evening of 21 February 2004 at the age of fifty-four (BBO Th.26.2.2004: h35.htm). He had been run over by a car along the highway near Kampong Madang when he was on his way home from Muharram prayers at the Jame Asr' Hassanil Bolkiah in Kiarong (BBO M.23.2.2004: h10.htm). He was buried at the Muslim cemetery near the said mosque on the morning of 22 February 2004 (BBO M. 23.2.2004: h10.htm). A former Deputy Commander of the Royal Brunei Air Force doubling as Officer Commanding Training Branch (PB 4.1.1995: 14), he had ended his career as a military attache at the NBD Embassy in Indonesia (BBO M.23.2.2004: h10.htm).
Dato Sir John Peel, Mr. Eric Bevington, Dr. Robb Anderson, and Commander James Davidson are taken in chronological order of their appearance in Borneo. Their combined obituary provides us with a thumbnail sketch of the history of Brunei from 1946 until 1978, whilst the career of Tan Sri Khoo Teck Puat takes us forward into the 1980s. Mention is also made of Mr. Nigel Nicolson and Professor N.S. Haile.
Dato Setia Sir William John Peel MA Cantab (1912-2004) was British Resident in Brunei (1946-1948) upon the resumption of civilian administration after the Second World War. Peel, always helpful to students of Brunei history, was also a member of a British Parliamentary delegation to the sultanate in 1959. Knighted in 1973, he also held two Brunei datoships, the DSNB 1971 (WKNB 25.8.1973: 401) and the DSLJ 1969 (WKNB 26.12.1970: 316). Sir John, who died at his London home on 8 May 2004 aged ninety-one, was survived by his widow, three daughters (Joanna, Alethea, and Lynda), one son (Quentin), and various grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The family funeral was due to take place at Putney Crematorium on 18 May 2004 (DTM.12.5.2004: 24h #8ff). A wealthy gentleman, he left an estate valued at 681,057 [pounds sterling] net (DT Sa.7.8.2004: 22c #3).
Born on 16 June 1912, he was the son of Sir William Peel KCMG KBE (1875-1945), who rose to become Chief Secretary of the Federated Malay States and then Governor of Hong Kong ("a dignified personage unlikely to cause nervousness at Whitehall," Welsh 1994: 390). In 1936 W. J. Peel married Rosemary Mia Minka Redhead. Educated at Wellington and Queen's College, Cambridge (DT W.12.5.2004: 25 *), he served in the Colonial Administrative Service from 1933 until 1951, including three years as a prisoner of the Japanese (1942-1945), and ending as Resident Commissioner, Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1949-1951).
"Within six months of returning home [from Japanese POW camp], Peel was appointed British resident in the sultanate of Brunei, then a British protectorate. It was regarded as an auspicious sign that a mango tree in the residency's grounds flowered for the first time since the Japanese occupation. While in Brunei he became friendly with Omar Ali Saifuddin, father of the present Sultan, who later made a point of summoning old friends to his personal suite at the Dorchester; in 1969 he made Peel an honorary member of the Brunei nobility [sic]" (DT W.12.5.2004: 25 *).
Peel was Member of Parliament for Leicester South-East constituency between 1957 and 1974. A parliamentary private secretary from 1958 until 1960, he was an Assistant Government Whip in 1960-1961 and a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from November 1961 until the Conservative Party lost power in October 1964. Among his many later appointments, Sir John was a Member of the British Delegation to the European Parliament in Strassburg in 1973-1974, a Member of Council of the Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship from 1974 until 1983, and honorary Director of the Conservative Party's International Office in 1975-1976 (WW 2002: 1668). Sir John was the last-surviving former British Resident of Brunei by the time of his death, albeit not the longest-lived; that distinction belonged to his immediate successor, Mr. L. H. N. Davis CMG, who died on 16 June 2003 at the age of ninety-four (DT W.18.6.2003: 24f #4ff).
Eric Raymond Bevington CMG CEng MIMechE (1914-2004), who departed this life on Friday 30 April 2004, had been Commissioner of Development in Brunei between 1954 and 1958, when he was responsible for the implementation of the first National Development Plan. He was acting British Resident for a few weeks from 18 December 1955 until 11 January 1956 whilst J. O. Gilbert was on leave (BGG 31.1.1956, BGG 29.2.1956). He also doubled on occasion as Controller of Civil Aviation (BGG 31.12. 1954). A volume of his memoirs, The Things We Do For England, appeared in 1990; a manuscript version, dated 1970, is held at Rhodes House Library in Oxford.
Educated at Cambridge University, Mr. Bevington worked for HM Overseas Service for twenty-six years between 1937 and 1963, originally in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Much of his career was spent in Fiji, where he became a District Officer in 1942 and an Administrative Officer in 1950. In 1951 he was appointed Assistant Colonial Secretary (Development) there. After leaving Brunei he returned to Fiji as Finance Secretary (1958-1961) and then as Commissioner of Development (1962-1963). He had spent an interval in Nigeria (1945-1946) as Secretary of the Commission of Enquiry into cost of living allowances. Back in the United Kingdom, Mr. Bevington served as Senior Housing and Planning Inspector at the Department of the Environment (1970-1978) and as a member of the New Forest District Council (1979-1983). Husband, father, grandfather and great-grandfather, his funeral was held at Burley Parish Church on 14 May 2004 (DT M.10.5.2004: 22e #6).
Dr. James Aidan Robb Anderson OBE MC PBS (1922-2004), who died on 25 May 2004 (Sarawak Association Newsletter 2004: 3), was a member of the Sarawak Civil Service for two decades (1951-1971), acting as State Forest Officer in Brunei between in 1956-1957 whilst B. E. Smythies was on leave. As Deputy Conservator of Forests in Sarawak, he visited Brunei, for example on 1 February 1966 (Brunei Annual Report 1966: 89). His doctoral thesis on "The Ecology and Forest Types of the Peat Swamp Forests of Sarawak and Brunei in relation to their Silviculture" was accepted by the University of Edinburgh in 1961.
Born at Bamburgh in Northumberland (England) on 11 July 1922, Robb Anderson was educated at Durham School and gave distinguished war service (MC and bar) with the Black Watch in the Second World War. After demobilization in 1946, he studied forestry at Edinburgh University and undertook post-graduate research in Finland. He joined the Colonial Office in 1951 and was immediately posted to Sarawak. In 1972 he founded a private forestry consultancy with David Marsden, and in this capacity, "he conducted the first full survey of the forests of Brunei, commissioned by the Sultan of Brunei. This was to be his last major achievement before the contraction of Weil's Disease forced his early retirement in 1984." He is survived by his widow, Anne, whom he married in 1963, and by three sons (DT 21.6.2004: 21).
Commander James Alfred Davidson OBE RN (1922-2004) was British High Commissioner in Brunei in the mid-1970s (1974-1978), when he took part in negotiations for a new Brunei-UK Treaty, eventually signed on 7 January 1979, sometime after he left Bandar Seri Begawan. He also wrote articles about the sultanate, such as "Postal Services in Brunei's Water Town" (Brunei Museum Journal 1976) and "Brunei Coinage" (BMJ 1977). He was a Fellow of the Royal Numismatic Society.
Educated at Christ's Hospital and at the Royal Navy College in Dartmouth, Commander Davidson served with the Royal Navy for more than twenty years (1939-1960), including spells in the Far East during the Pacific War and again during the 1950s (BMJ 1977: x). Called to the Bar at Middle Temple in 1960, he joined the Commonwealth Relations Office that same year. He served as British High Commissioner in Dacca (1972-1973) and as Governor of the British Virgin Islands (1978-1981). After retirement from the diplomatic service, he became, among other things, a Visiting Fellow at the Centre for International Studies, London School of Economics (1982-1984) and Chairman of the Pensions Appeals Tribunals (1984-1995) (WW 1998: 492).
Davidson died on 8 May 2004 at the age of eighty-two. He is survived by his widow (Daphne), four children (Duncan, Gavin, Caroline, and Emma), and a multitude of grandchildren (DT Tu.11.5.2004: 22e #4). His photograph appears in the Brunei Annual Report 1975, facing page 360.
Tan Sri Khoo Teck Puat (1917-2004) was born in Singapore on 13 January 1917 and died on 21 February 2004, by which time, reportedly with a little help from the now-defunct National Bank of Brunei, he had amassed a fortune estimated at 1,500m [pounds sterling] (137th richest person in the world, according to Forbes magazine). The Khoo family were "involved, from 1965, in the setting up and running of the National Bank of Brunei. But in 1986 it was alleged that they had siphoned off more than 300 million [pounds sterling] from the bank by means of undocumented and unsecured loans to private investment companies. Khoo Teck Puat was never charged, but in later years he adopted a lower profile in the business world." Despite the alleged scandal, "Khoo retained the admiration of his South-East Asian peers as a supremely shrewd investor and trader: he put his own success down to luck, timing and a knack of spotting undervalued assets no one else wanted to buy" (DT Tu.2.3.2004: 23 *).
He was the son of Khoo Yan Thin, a rice merchant, landowner and stakeholder in several small Hokkien banks amalgamated in 1933 to form the Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC). Educated at St. Joseph's Institution, Khoo Teck Puat joined OCBC as a clerk shortly after its formation, rising to becoming deputy general manager by the time he left in 1959. A founder of Malayan Bank in Kuala Lumpur, he was pushed out after Singapore separated from Malaysia in 1965. He then took over some of Malayan Bank's assets in Singapore, including a hotel. Meanwhile, he had been a Senator in Malaysia during the years 1964-1965. In 1986 he acquired a 13.5% stake in Standard Chartered Bank and helped to block a hostile takeover bid by Lloyds Bank. A prominent philanthropist, he had two wives (both of whom predeceased him) and fourteen children (DT Tu.2.3.2004: 23 *).
This is a suitable place, perhaps, to remember Nigel Nicolson MBE (1917-2004), a co-founder in 1949 of the publishing firm of Weidenfeld and Nicolson, whose catalogue includes Lord Chalfont's biography of HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (By God's Will, 1989). Nicolson died on Hari Guru (23 September) 2004.
Finally, Professor Dr. Neville Seymour Haile (1928-2004) died on 20 June 2004 (Sarawak Association Newsletter 2004: 3). Born in the United Kingdom in 1928, and educated at the University of Oxford, he worked for the British Borneo Geological Survey for fifteen years between 1949 and 1964, when he was appointed Professor of Geology at the University of Malaya (JMBRAS 1975/1: 134). A Memorial Service was due to be held at St. Andrew's Church, Oxford, on 29 June 2004 (DT W.23.6.2004: 24f #11ff).
This section includes sundry British and Australasian diplomats and military men, but begins with a Palestinian leader with connections to Negara Brunei Darussalam.
President "Yasser Arafat" (1929-2004), nom de guerre of Mohammed Abed Ar'ouf Arafat, President of the Executive Committee, Palestine Liberation Organisation (Al Fatah) from 1968, was born on 24 August 1929. He visited NBD in July 1984, when he was granted an audience with HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah. He also held an unofficial meeting with HRH the Pengiran Perdana Wazir at the twelfth Non-aligned Movement Summit in Durban in early September 1998 (PB 9.9.1998: 5). Known to his supporters as "Abu Amar," Mr. Arafat died in Paris on 11 November 2004 (BBC R4 News, Th.11.11.2004: 0730h GMT); his funeral in Cairo, on 12 November 2004 (BBC R4 News, F.12.11.2004: 0855h GMT), was attended by HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah and HRH the Perdana Wazir, who had both been performing the umrah at the time (GBOW ON F. 12.11.2004). "Allahyarham will be fondly remembered by Bruneians as the leader and hero of the Palestinians and their struggle for an independent state of Palestine," Radio-Televisyen Brunei reported. "Many Bruneians had the chance to meet him when he made a short trip to Bandar Seri Begawan twenty years ago" (cited in BBO F.12.11.2004: h3.htm).
Of diplomats, mention might quickly be made, first, of Sir Horace Phillips KCMG (1917-2004), who was Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Indonesia from 1966 to 1968 (DT F.26.3.2004: 29 *). Secondly, the eleventh Duke of Devonshire (1920-2004), a major grandee who died on 3 May 2004 (DT W.5.5.2004: 25 *), served (1960-1964) as a minister in Macmillan's government "first as parliamentary undersecretary, then as Minister of State for Commonwealth Relations and later as Minister of State for Colonial Affairs" (DT W.5.5.2004: 25 *). Thirdly, Lieutenant-General Sir John Charles Chisholm Richards KCB KCVO (1927-2004) was Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps in the United Kingdom between 1982 and 1992. As such, he escorted TYT Pengiran Haji Mustapha bin Pengiran Metassan (NBD High Commissioner to the UK) when the latter presented his letters of credence to HM the Queen at Buckingham Palace on 20 November 1990 (PB 19.12.1990: 11). He was also present at a reception in London in February 1992 marking NBD's eighth national day (PB 29.4.1992: 11). He died on 5 October 2004 in Aix-en-Provence (DT Tu.18.10.2004: 22f #8).
Quite a few persons connected with the Confrontation Era have departed the scene. Let us start with the diplomat Harold Percival Hall CMG MBE (1913-2004), known as "Henry," a "Colonial Office 'troubleshooter' who travelled widely to ease the winding down of the Empire" (DT Th.18.11.2004: 31 *). For four decades, the report continues, "he served in the Indian Army and the Indian Political Service; he was a Colonial Office official and deputy high commissioner for Eastern Malaysia, Kuching and Sarawak [sic]." He was secretary to the Commonwealth Royal Commission on Malaysia's constitution, when "the Indonesians attacked Brunei [sic]. To the astonishment of all, Hall had an amiable working relationship with the fiery Major-General Walter Walker, in charge of the Borneo operations, thanks to their earlier acquaintance in India."
A veritable platoon of military personnel reached "the last post" during 2004 (or late 2003). First to be mentioned is Group Captain "Bill" Sise (1917-2003), a "Beaufighter pilot who enjoyed a reputation as a 'ship buster' for leading torpedo attacks on German convoys" during the Second World War, and also served at the headquarters of the Far East Air Force in Singapore between June 1960 and September 1963. A New Zealander born on 22 January 1917, he died on 23 December 2003 (DT W. 18.2.2004: 25 *).
Secondly, Wing Commander George Walter "Johnnie" Johnson (1923-2004) was born on 8 January 1923 and died on 28 July 2004. In February 1962 "he was appointed to command the Operations Wing at RAF Tengah, Singapore, the home of four RAF squadrons of Hunters, Javelins and Canberras and a RNZAF bomber squadron. In November 1963 [thus] the generally even tenor of station life overseas was interrupted by the 'confrontation' with Indonesia. With detachments of his squadrons in Malaysia, Kuching and Labuan [sic], Johnson had a hectic time, commenting that 'confrontation' became 'a way of life, never reaching a climax but causing a good deal of frustration, proving that 'action stations' with no subsequent action is extremely debilitating" (DT Tu.14.9.2004: 23 *). Serving with the RAF from 1941 until 1969 and then with Hawker Siddeley Aviation marketing team (1969-1988), he wrote a memoir, Three Greens (2000), and is survived by a daughter.
Thirdly, Lord Hill-Norton GCB (1915-2004), Freeman of the City of London, was Second in Command, Far East Fleet (1964-1966) and in 1969 went back to the "Far East" for a while as Commander-in-Chief. He was the author of No Soft Options, published in 1978 (DT W.19.5.2004: 25 *).
Fourthly, Lieutenant-General Sir John Peter Barry Condliffe Watts Kt CB CBE MC. (1930-2003), born on 27 August 1930, died on 10 December 2003. Educated at the elite Westminster School and Sandhurst, he served with the world's most famous regiment (22 SAS) in Malaya (1955-1957) and then in Borneo (1964-1965) during the "Confrontation" era. "The task of maintaining surveillance along nine hundred miles of border, combined with carrying out cross-border raids to damage the enemy's forward bases, had overstretched the regiment, and another squadron was essential. Watts raised and trained 'B' Squadron and, within a few months, it was not only fully operational but was the first unit to be allowed to penetrate up to six miles into enemy territory--three times the previous limit--in a conflict which became public knowledge only a decade later." In a distinguished military career Watts rose to become Director of the SAS (1975-1978) before moving to Arabia, where he became Commander of the Sultan of Oman's Land Forces between 1979 and 1984 (DT M.15.12.2003: 27 *).
Fifthly, Marshal of the RAF Sir John Grandy GCVO GCB KBE CB DSO (1913-2004), born on 8 February 1913, was involved immediately after the Second World War in the evacuation of civilians during the fighting in the Dutch East Indies. His "appointment in 1965 as the Commander-in-Chief of Far East Command during the period of confrontation with Indonesia gave him responsibility for the three British services and several Commonwealth countries" (DT Tu.6.1.2004: 25 *). Grandy subsequently became Governor of Gibraltar (1973-1978) and then Constable of Windsor Castle for ten years. He died on 2 January 2004.
Sixthly, Major-General Simon Lytle (1940-2004), who ended his career as Director of [UK] Army Aviation (1992-1995), "had been attracted to helicopter flying following his command of the Faughs' Air Platoon on operations in Borneo." Born on 1 October 1940 at Weybridge, he died on 17 October 2004, to be survived by a widow and three sons (DT Th.11.11.2004: 25 *).
Finally, Air Chief Marshal Sir David Lee GBE CB, who was born on 11 September 1912, and died on 13 February 2004, might be noted here as the author of an official history, Eastbound: A History of the RAF in the Far East (1984) (DT W.18.2.2004: 24f #5).
Symbols, Abbreviations, and Sources
* monochrome photograph.
24f #11ffpage 24, column six; paragraph eleven from foot of page.
BAR, Brunei Annual Report.
BBC R4, British Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Four.
BBO, Borneo Bulletin (online).
BGG, Brunei Government Gazette.
BMJ, Brunei Museum Journal.
Brown 1970, D. E. Brown, Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate (Brunei Museum, 1970).
BST, British Summer Time.
CB, Companion of the Order of the Bath.
CBE, Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
CEng, Chartered Engineer.
CMG, Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George.
DPMB, Darjah Seri Paduka Mahkota Brunei Yang Amat Mulia, Darjah Kedua / Crown of Brunei Order, second class (carrying the title Dato Paduka). Note that when an Awang Haji is awarded the DPMB, his new title becomes Dato Paduka Awang Haji; but when a Pengiran Haji receives the same award he is known as Pengiran Dato Paduka Haji (emphasis added).
DSLJ, Dato Seri Laila Jasa.
DSNB, Dato Setia Negara Brunei / Order of Setia Negara Brunei, instituted 1959, second class; carries title Dato Setia.
DSO, Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (UK).
DT, The Daily Telegraph (London).
fffrom foot (of page).
GBE, Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire.
GBOW ON, Government of Brunei Darussalam Official Website, online news.
GCB, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.
GCVO, Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order.
GMT, Greenwich Mean Time.
JMBRAS, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Kuala Lumpur).
KBE, Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
KCB, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.
KCMG, Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
KCVO, Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.
Kt, Knight Bachelor (i.e., a knight not belonging to any particular order of chivalry).
MBE, Member of the Order of the British Empire.
MC, Military Cross.
MIMechE, Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
NBD, Negara Brunei Darussalam (1984-); previously known as Brunei.
OBE, Officer of the Order of the British Empire.
PB, Pelita Brunei (Bandar Seri Begawan).
PBA, Pelita Brunei (Aneka section).
PBI, Pelita Brunei (Iklan section).
PBS, Pegawai Bintang Sarawak / Officer of the Order of the Star of Sarawak.
PHBS, Pingat Hassanal Bolkiah Sultan / Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (Coronation) Medal (est. 1968).
PIKB, Pingat Indah Kerja Baik / Meritorious Service Medal.
PJK, Pingat Jasa Kebaktian / Loyal Service Medal.
PKL, Pingat Kerja Lama / Long Service Medal.
POAS, Pingat Omar Ali Saifuddin III / Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III Medal.
RAF, Royal Air Force.
RN, Royal Navy (UK).
RNZAF, Royal New Zealand Air Force.
RTB, Radio-Televisyen Brunei.
SNB, Darjah Setia Negara Brunei Yang Amat Bahagia, Darjah Ketiga / Setia Negara Brunei Order, third class.
TYT, Tuan Yang Terutama / His Excellency.
Welsh 1994, Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong (HarperCollins Publishers, London, pbk, 1994; first published in 1993).
WKNB, Warta Kerajaan Negeri Brunei / State of Brunei Government Gazette.
WW, Who's Who (London).
YAM, Yang Amat Mulia (used for nobles, i.e. high-ranking pengiran).
A. V. M. Horton
180 Hither Green Lane
Worcestershire B98 9AZ
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Borneo Research Bulletin|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2004|
|Previous Article:||Notes from the editor.|
|Next Article:||Ibanic languages in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia: exploring nomenclature, distribution and characteristics.|