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Nature of HIV / Aids infected patients in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India.


India has the second highest number of HIV-1 infected people next to South--Africa. HIV-1 was first reported in Tamil Nadu, India, in 1986 among female commercial sex workers (John et al. 1987 and Simoes et al 1987).

Since then, HIV-1 has spread rapidly throughout the country and has been reported in every major city. Today, India has the second largest number of HIV-1 infected individuals in the world, next to South--Africa (UNAIDS and WHO. 2004).

Genetic analyses of HIV-1 sequences circulating in different parts of India have shown that the predominant proportion of HIV-1 circulating in India, the phenotypic and genotypic analyses of HIV-1 in India Indicates that they are isolated from late stage of infection.

The Tamil Nadu is one of the southern most state of India which carriers the percentage of HIV-1 patients is of second in the country, that is next to the Maharastra. The population of the state is nearly 6 crores, but the population of the AIDS patients is more when compared to other states.

The co-infections of HIV-1 is of mainly bacterial groups such as tuberculosis. The viral infections are of viral fever, viral hepatitis etc. The fungal infections may be oral candidiasis, lymphadenopathy etc.

However, the study have shown various types of infections in HIV-1 infected individuals. They may be visible or unvisible but, there co-infections cause severe healthy problems to the infected individuals.


The study was conducted over a period of three months (May to July 2007) in the out patients who were visiting to the private clinic in Salem, Salem district, Tamilnadu. They were randomly selected for the study by their full satisfactory mind. For the ethical considerations the Identification of the patients were kept secrete.

These patients were studied by oral interview technique with the support of medical report already tested and given to them. Totally 50 number of patients were interviewed personally in the present study, in which 35 are males and 15 are females. All of them were married and ranged between the age group of 20-45 years.

These patients were of different types of co-infections and also responsible for the transmission of the disease to other individuals


The total number of patients take part in the study is fifty only; among them, they are having different types of infections. They are almost the bacterial infection namely tuberculosis is found as major co-infection in the HIV infected patients.

Even though they are of different types of infection like viral and fungal, they are of less in number. Tuberculosis found is of pulmonary. T.B. which is higher in 28 number of patients among the 50 patients investigated.

This shows that the tuberculosis major types is of pulmonary which is found predominantly in HIV patients. The other infection like pneumonia, Hepatitis, viral fever, oral candidasis of fungal, they are found in least number among the HIV infected patients. This shows that the Tuberculosis is of major co-infection of the HIV--infected patients.


Person with latent tuberculosis infection may be more likely to develop over tuberculosis of they are infected with HIV (Rieder and Snider, 1986 and Quinn, 1993).

Reactivation of tuberculosis infection tends to occur relatively early (often as a sentinel disease) in the course of HIV immuno suppression, before the invasion of other opportunistic infection and other overt manifestation of AIDS and AIDS--related complex (ARC) (Theuer et al 1988). Although reactivation of previously acquired tuberculosis in HIV--infected individuals, the disease may also develop from recent primary infection and possibly from exogenous re-infection.

Classical tuberculosis upper lobe infiltrates and cavitary lesions are frequently seen among patients who have contracted tuberculosis in the earlier stages of HIV infection (Pitchenik 1987 and Theui 1990).

Successful outcome of pregnancy does occur in women with B. Talassimia and also in those with asymptomatic HIV disease. Idealy, pregnancy in HIV--positive women with transfusion--depent thalassemic major should be avoided. Associated AIDS indicator conditions cause appreciable perinatal and maternal and mortality. Proconception counseling is essential for these patients.

Impact HIV--coinfection may have on the morbidity and mortality in HIV--infected persons better understanding of the pathogenesis of liver disease and the impact immune response have on the progression of fibrosis is clearly needed (Kishore et al 2006).

Cardiac manifestations in form of diastolic dysfunction as well as systolic dysfunction are with HIV who otherwise do not have any clinical evidence of cardiac disease.

Salivary gland disease is partly common in HIV--infected patients. Oral candidiasis (thrush) is the most common oral condition of HIV infection. Silverman et al (1986) have also opined that Oral herpex simplex is frequently associated with HIV diseases.


The authors were thankful to Dr. A. Ponnambalanathan, Senior Dermatologist, Salem and also for Dr. A.V.Matheswaran Ponni Hospital, Salem for their kind cooperation, by providing their out patients through the study period.


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S. Sathiyavathi, V. Mathivanan and Selvi Sabhanayakam

Department of Zoology, Annamalai University

Annamalai Nagar--608002, Tamil Nadu, India


Age group of patients 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45

 Number of patients 3 14 13 12 8


S.No Types of infection No of patients

 1 Pulmonary T.B. 31
 2 B. Thalassemia major 2
 3 Hepatitis C. 3
 4 Pneumonia 4+1=5
 5 Associated T.B. 3
 6 Viral fever 2
 7 Cardiac dysfunction 1
 8 Cervical lympadenopathy 1
 9 Herpex virus 1
 10 Fungal infection 1
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Author:Sathiyavathi, S.; Mathivanan, V.; Sabhanayakam, Selvi
Publication:Bulletin of Pure & Applied Sciences-Zoology
Date:Jul 1, 2007
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