Natural enemies of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a recent invasive pest on maize in South India.
Surveys for the occurrence of S. frugiperda were conducted in different maize growing areas of Karnataka and Karur District of Tamil Nadu. An attempt was made at each site, e.g., Shivamogga, Davanagere, Chitradurga, Chikmagaluru, Chamarajanagar, Bellary and Belagavi districts of Karnataka, to collect at least 100 larvae of different stages; however, greater numbers of larvae were collected in only a few locations. In the infested field, feeding injury in the leaf whorl and the presence of fresh frass were used to identify the infestation of 5. frugiperda larvae. Larvae were pulled from the whorl and placed in a circular insect breeding dish (Himedia TCP030, HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 90 mm diam, 40 mm height) containing cut maize leaf bits, brought to the laboratory and maintained at 26 [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C, 75 to 80% relative humidity, and 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod. These were observed for the emergence of parasitoids; parasitoids emerging from fall armyworm at different stages (larval and pupal) were preserved in 70% ethanol and later identified taxonomically. Larvae from 2 unsprayed maize fields were brought to the laboratory in 25 mL plexiglass vials, and reared individually in the laboratory until the emergence of the parasitoids. Observations were recorded on the number of adult parasitoids that emerged from larvae, and the percentage parasitization and sex ratio were calculated. For the entomofungal pathogens, numbers of field-infected larvae and total larvae were recorded and converted to percentage infection.
In total, we recorded 5 larval parasitoids, 3 predators, and 1 entomopathogenic fungus in our surveys (Table 1), of which 3 parasitoids, namely Coccygidium melleum (Roman) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) (Fig. 1), Odontepyris sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) (Fig. 2), and Eriborus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), are reported for the first time on 5. frugiperda in the world. The single female specimen reared from 5. frugiperda matched the description of C. melleum by Achterberg (2011). Coccygidium melleum is "common in the Afrotropical region (from South Africa up to Senegal and Somalia) and reaching Yemen and the United Arab Emirates" (Achterberg 2011), but it has not been recorded so far in the Indian subcontinent. Coccygidium spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to parasitize Noctuidae, including Spodoptera spp. (Achterberg 2011). Sisay et al. (2018) reported Coccygidium luteum (Brulle) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a parasitoid of 5. frugiperda in Ethiopia. Three species of Coccygidium (C. luteum, C melleum, and Coccygidium sissoo [Wilkinson]) have been known to parasitize 5. exigua (HCibner). This is the first report of C. melleum as a parasitoid of S. frugiperda in the world. We recorded 2 more larval endoparasitoids, Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Eriborus sp. on S. frugiperda in Karnataka. The extent of parasitism by C. chlorideae was 2 to 3% in 2 untreated maize fields monitored at Shivamogga and Davanagere districts of Karnataka. Shylesha et al. (2018) also recorded it on S. frugiperda. Campoletis chlorideae and Eriborus argenteopilosus (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) are responsible for the regulation of 2 major noctuid pests in India, S. litura and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctudae). Both parasitoids attack the host larvae in the first or second instar stage (Bajpai et al. 2006). About 6 species of Campoletis have been known to parasitize S. frugiperda in the Americas and the Caribbean (Molina-Ochoa et al. 2003). Species of Odontepyris are known to be ectoparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae belonging to Noctuidae, Pyralidae, Oecophoridae, and Tortricidae (Lim & Lee 2013), and this is the first report of it as a parasitoid of S. frugiperda. We recorded negligible levels of parasitism of fall armyworm by a tachinid, Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Predators such as earwigs and coccinellids (Harmonia octomaculata [F.] and Coccinella transversalis [F.]) (both Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) also were found to be active in fall armyworm infested maize fields in the surveyed locations. Harmonia octomaculata and C. transversalis, which were found to be abundant in fall armyworm infested maize fields, may play a significant role in controlling the early stage larvae. Various larger species of Coccinellidae attack caterpillars and other beetle larvae (Hodek et al. 2012), and several genera feed on various insects or their eggs. For instance, in India, Micraspis vincta (reported as Veraniavincta) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was found feeding on the egg masses of S. litura on a groundnut crop (Rajasekhara Rao 1997), and S. exigua on an onion crop (Subba Rao 1998; Sailaja Rani 2004). Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to feed on eggs and larvae of S. exigua in China (Liu et al. 2016), and Coccinella sp. is a predator of S. exigua in Vietnam (Chau 1995). Shylesha et al. (2018) recorded earwigs (Forficula sp.) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) as predators of fall armyworm on maize. The entomofungal pathogen Nomuraea rileyi (Clavicipitaceae), was found to be associated commonly with fall armyworm and caused 10 to 15% larval infection in August.
The present study reports new associations of natural enemies with fall armyworm in India. A wide range of parasitoids has been recorded on fall armyworm worldwide as shown by the inventory of parasitoids and parasites of fall armyworm in the Americas and the Caribbean basin that included approximately 150 species of parasitoids and parasites from 14 families (Molina-Ochoa et al. 2003). Our results clearly indicate that native parasitoids of other Spodoptera spp. in India, such as C chlorideae and E. argenteopilosus, may also adapt to S. frugiperda in due time. It would be worthwhile to evaluate indigenous parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. that known to be effective in India against S. frugiperda. For instance, Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), an effective egg parasitoid of S. litura, is known to parasitize S. frugiperda as well (Molina-Ochoa et al. 2003). Nomuraea rileyi was found to be very effective against S. litura (Padanad & Krishnaraj 2009) in Karnataka.
Further information on the occurrence and rates of parasitism of indigenous natural enemies is of paramount importance in designing a biological control program for fall armyworm, either through conservation of native natural enemies or the introduction of new species for augmentative release. The current blanket recommendation and indiscriminate use of pesticides against the fall armyworm may have a negative impact on natural enemies. Application of insecticides that are less toxic to natural enemies should be encouraged, rather than the continued use of conventional broad-spectrum insecticides, so as to protect natural enemies from the adverse effects of insecticides. The design of more comprehensive IPM programs for fall armyworm management in the region would be a useful strategy.
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a pest recently invading maize in India. Studies were conducted in southern India from Jun to Aug 2018 to identify and assess the abundance of natural enemies attacking 5. frugiperda. In total, 5 species of larval parasitoids, 3 predators, and 1 entomopathogen were found attacking larvae of 5. frugiperda. The larval parasitoids were Coccygidium melleum, Campoletis chlorideae, Eriborus sp., Exorista sorbillans, and Odontepyris sp. Three predators, Forficula sp., Harmonia octomaculata, and Coccinella transversalis, and 1 entomofungal pathogen, Nomuraea rileyi, were recorded. The average parasitism caused by C. chlorideae was found to be 2 to 3%, whereas the remaining parasitoids showed negligible parasitism. Nomuraea rileyi recorded 10 to 15% larval infection in Aug. Three parasitoids, Coccygidium melleum, Eriborus sp., and Odontepyris sp., were reported for the first time attacking S. frugiperda. Efforts should be undertaken to identify more natural enemies and to preserve the existing ones, through ecofriendly practices and judicial use of pesticides, allowing them to function effectively.
Key Words: fall armyworm; parasitoids; predators; entomopathogen
El cogollero, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) es una plaga invasora reciente sobre el maiz en la India. Se realizaron estudios en el sur de la India desde el junio hasta el agosto de 2018 para identificar y evaluar la abundancia de enemigos naturales que atacan a 5. frugiperda. En total, se encontraron 5 especies de parasitoides larvales, 3 depredadores y 1 entomopatogeno que atacan las larvas de S. frugiperda. Los parasitoides larvales fueron Coccygidium melleum, Campoletis chlorideae, Eriborus sp., Exorista sorbillans, y Odontepyris sp. Se registraron tres depredadores, Forficula sp., Harmonia octomaculata, y Coccinella transversalis y 1 patogeno entomofungico, Nomuraea rileyi. Se encontro que el promedio de parasitismo causado por C. chlorideae fue de 2 a 3%, mientras que los parasitoides restantes mostraron un parasitismo insignificante. Nomuraea rileyi registro una infeccion en las larvas del 10 al 15% en agosto. Se reportan por primera vez tres parasitoides, Coccygidium melleum, Eriborus sp., y Odontepyris sp. atacando a S. frugiperda. Se deben realizar esfuerzos para identificar mas enemigos naturales y preservar los existentes, a traves de practicas respetuosas con el medio ambiente y el uso prudente de pesticidas, que les permite funcionar de manera efectiva.
Palabras Clave: cogollero; parasitoides; depredadores entomopatogeno
Achterberg VC. 2011. Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. The subfamily Agathidinae from the United Arab Emirates, with a review of the fauna of the Arabian Peninsula. Arthropod Fauna of the UAE 4: 286-352.
Andrews KL. 1980. The whorl worm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Central America and neighboring areas. Florida Entomologist 63: 456-467.
Bajpai NK, Ballal CR, Rao NS, Singh SP, Bhaskaran TV. 2006. Competitive interaction between two ichneumonid parasitoids of Spodoptera litura. BioControl 51: 419-438.
Bueno RCOF, Carneiro TR, Bueno AF, Pratissoli D, Fernandes OA, Vieira SS. 2010. Parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 53: 133-139.
Chau LM. 1995. Integrated pest management: a strategy to control resistance of Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera caterpillars to insecticides on soybean in the Mekong Delta. Pesticide Science 43: 255-258.
Clark PL, Molina-Ochoa J, Martinelli S, Skoda SR, Isenhour DJ, Lee J, Krumn JT, Foster JE. 2007. Population variation of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in the Western Hemisphere. Journal of Insect Science 7: 1-10.
Cruz I, Figueiredo MLC, Oliveira AC, Vasconcelos CA. 1999. Damage of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in different maize genotypes cultivated in soil under three levels of aluminium saturation. International Journal of Pest Management 45: 293-296.
Ganiger PC, Yeshwanth HM, Muralimohan K, Vinay N, Kumar ARV, Chandrashekara K. 2018. Occurrence of the new invasive pest, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the maize fields of Karnataka, India. Current Science 115: 621-623.
Goergen G, Kumar PL, Sankung SB, Togola A, Tamo M. 2016. First report of outbreaks of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new alien invasive pest in west and central Africa. PLoS One 11: e0165632. doi: 10.137/journal.pone.0165632
Hodek IVO, Honek A, Van Emden, Helmut F. 2012. Ecology and Behaviour of the Ladybird Beetles. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
Lim J, Lee S. 2013. Taxonomy of the family Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from Cambodia and adjacent countries. I. Genus Odontepyris Kieffer (Bethylidae: Bethylinae) with four new species and two new records. Journal of Natural History 47: 31-32.
Liu Y, Li X, Zhou C, Liu F, Mu W. 2016. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua. Scientific Reports 6: 39060. doi: 10.1038/srep39060
Mahadeva Swamy HM, Asokan R, Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Sharanabasappa D, Prasad YG, Maruthi MS, Shashank PR, Ibemu Devi N, Surakasula A, Adarsha S, Srinivas A, Rao S, Vidyasekhar, Shali RM, Shyam Sunder Reddy G, Nagesh SN. 2018. Prevalence of "R" strain and molecular diversity of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India. Indian Journal of Entomology 80: 544. doi: 10.5958/0974-8172.2018.00239.0
Molina-Ochoa J, Carpenter JE, Heinrichs EA, Foster JE. 2003. Parasitoids and parasites of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in the Americas and Caribbean basin: an inventory. Florida Entomologist 86: 254-287.
Nabity PD, Zangerl AR, Berenbaum MR, Delucia EH. 2011. Bioenergy crops Miscanthus giganteus and Panicum virgatum reduce growth and survivorship of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 459-464.
Nagoshi RN, Adamczyk JJ, Meagher J, Gore RL, Jackson R. 2007. Using stable isotope analysis to examine fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains in a cotton habitat. Journal of Economic Entomology 100:1569-1576.
Padanad MS, Krishnaraj PU. 2009. Pathogenicity of native entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi against Spodoptera litura. Plant Health Progress. (online) https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/re-search/2009/litura/litura.pdf
Pogue GM. 2002. A world revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenee (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 43: 1-202.
Prowell DP, McMichael M, Silvain JF. 2004. Multilocus genetic analysis of host use, introgression and speciation in host strains of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 1034-1044.
Rajasekhara Rao K. 1997. Influence of organic and inorganic sources of host plant nutrition on the incidence of major insect pests of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.). Ph.D. Thesis. Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India.
Sailaja Rani Z. 2004. Bioecology and management of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ragi cutworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hb.) infesting rabi, onion (Allium cepa). M.Sc. thesis. Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India. (online) http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/bit-stream/1/73106/1/D7633.pdf
Sharanabasappa, Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Asokan R, Mahadeva Swamy HM, Maruthi MS, Pavithra HB, Hegde K, Navi S, Prabhu ST, Goergen G. 2018. First report of the fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), an alien invasive pest on maize in India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 24: 23-29.
Shylesha AN, Jalali SK, Gupta A, Varshney R, Venkatesan T, Shetty P, Ojha R, Prabhu C, Ganiger C, Navik O, Subaharan K, Bakthavatsalam N, Ballal CR. 2018. Studies on new invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda[l. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemies. Journal of Biological Control 32: 1-7.
Sisay B, Simiyu J, Malusi P, Likhayo P, Mendesil E, Elibariki N, Wakgari M, Ayalew G, Tefera T. 2018. First report of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), natural enemies from Africa. Journal of Applied Entomology 142: 800-804.
Subba Rao DV. 1998. Bio-ecology and management of ragi cutworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hiibner) on onion. Ph.D. thesis. Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India.
Sharanabasappa (1,*), C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy (1), J. Poorani (2), M. S. Maruthi (1), H. B. Pavithra (1), and J. Diraviam (3)
(1) Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (S.); email@example.com (C. M. K.); firstname.lastname@example.org (M. S. M.); email@example.com (H. B. P.)
(2) ICAR-National Research Centre for Banana, Thogamalai Road, Thayanur Post, Trichy 620102, Tamil Nadu, India; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (J. P.)
(3) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pulutheri Village, R.T. Malai (PO), Kulithalai Taluk, Karur District- 621 313, Tamil Nadu, India.
(*) Corresponding author; Email: email@example.com
Caption: Fig. 1. Odontepyris sp.: Larval parasitoid on Spodoptera frugiperda.
Caption: Fig. 2. Coccygidium melleum: Larval parasitoid on Spodoptera frugiperda.
Table 1. List of natural enemies of Spodoptera frugiperda in maize ecosystem. SI. No. Scientific name Family 1 Coccygidium melleum (Roman) (**) Hymenoptera: Braconidae 2 Campoletis chlorideae Uchida Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae 3 Eriborus sp. (**) Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae 4 Odontepyris sp. (**) Hymenoptera: Bethylidae 5 Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann) Diptera: Tachinidae 6 Forficula sp. Dermaptera: Forficulidae 7 Harmonia octomaculata (Fabricius) Coleoptera: Coccinellidae 8 Coccinella transversalis Fabricius Coleoptera: Coccinellidae 9 Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae SI. No. Host stage 1 Endo larval parasitoid 2 Endo larval parasitoid 3 Endo larval parasitoid 4 Larval parasitoid 5 Endo larval parasitoid 6 Predator 7 Predator 8 Predator 9 Entomo-pathogen SI. No. Place 1 Karnataka: Davanagere: Honnali; 29.VI.2018 2 Davanagere: Honnali; 29.VI.2018 3 Davanagere: Honnali; 29.VI.2018 4 Tamil Nadu: Karur: Kulithalai; 20.VIII.2018 5 Chitradurga: Basapur; 19.VII.2018 6 Karnataka: Shivamogga; 18.VI.2018 7 Karnataka: Shivamogga: Muttodu; 25.VI.2018 8 Karnataka: Shivamogga: Muttodu; 25.VI.2018 9 Shivamogga, Badravati: Kudarekonda, 18.VII.2018. Sogalu, Honnali; Davanagere 25.VIII.2018 Percentage parasitism SI. No. number of predators per plant 1 0.001 2 2-4 3 0.001 4 0.001 5 0.001 6 1-2 7 0.5-1.00 8 0.5-1.00 9 10-15 (**) First report from India
Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Scientific Notes|
|Author:||Sharanabasappa; Kalleshwaraswamy, C.M.; Poorani, J.; Maruthi, M.S.; Pavithra, H.B.; Diraviam, J.|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2019|
|Previous Article:||Fluorescence in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae): using sentinel prey to investigate a possible aposematic signal.|
|Next Article:||Solanum lycocarpum Saint Hilaire (Solanaceae) is host plant of Leucanella memusae (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae) in Brazilian...|