National Society of Allied Health 2010 annual conference abstracts.
Presenter: Cheryl G. Davis, D.H.A., CLS(NCA) (Tuskegee University)
Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health (TUCVMNAH) is the only institution of its kind in USA where Animal Health (Veterinary Medicine) and Human Health (Nursing & Allied Health) are interlinked and merged under one College within the framework of a One Health--One Medicine approach. Many of the emerging and reemerging infections are zoonotic in nature as well as animals and humans experience many of the same or similar types of diseases. Providing services to limited resource farmers and pet-owners and addressing human health issues in underrepresented minority populations in rural communities are vital in the fight to reduce health disparities. This presentation will highlight three TUCVMNAH community outreach programs and their impact in addressing the health needs of and providing health education to underserved communities. 1) The West Alabama Project is a herd health maintenance program designed to provide veterinary medical service to limited resource farmers in six West Alabama Black Belt counties. 2) The Teen Health Corner is a pilot project that that focuses on training Macon County teenagers how to retrieve quality health information by allowing them to design their own website devoted to providing and disseminating quality health information and the development of promotional materials. 3) The Telehealth project allows several rural communities to participate in health workshops by health professionals without leaving their communities using Unity Digital, a videoconferencing, data sharing, and communication software designed to connect several users at one time. A demonstration will be provided.
Best Practice: Enacting a Climate of Caring
Presenters: Dr. Anne Jenkins, Ingrid Belk, OTS, and Mark Williams, OTS (Winston-Salem State University)
This research study focuses on the phenomenon of soliciting the client's narrative to be used in Occupational Therapy which will inform the development of effective intervention. Specifically, researchers investigated how the client narrative is obtained and used to inform treatment. A relationship of trust between the therapist and client is essential and we propose that further insight into the processes utilized by therapists to earn client trust and gain access to the valuable information within the client's personal narrative will improve the therapeutic process itself as well as the outcomes for the individual. We propose that valuable pieces of information (contained in the clients' narratives) are omitted and neglected from the evaluation process and subsequently render the development of intervention strategies less effective. Researchers identified specific processes or elements of interaction among therapists that contribute to soliciting the client's story, thereby further supporting client-centered practice. The various methods employed by participants to engage the client and obtain the narrative were compared and contrasted. Results suggest that, regardless of the idiosyncrasies of each OT practitioner's approach, there are some similar core components utilized in gaining the trust of a client and successfully soliciting the client's narrative. Researchers propose a new model of client-centered interaction at the outset of treatment and reiterate the importance of continued self-appraisal and awareness of one's own approach to the care of clients in order to gain the client's trust, better identify client needs and goals, and lead to an overall improvement in outcomes and client satisfaction with Occupational Therapy services.
Clinical Simulations in 21st Century Allied Health Education
Presenters: Peggy Valentine, EdD; Teresa Conner-Kerr, PT, PhD; Dorothy Peterson Bethea, OT, EdD (Winston-Salem State University)
One of the greatest challenges in allied health education is having students to integrate theory, knowledge, skills and critical thinking in clinical practice. As clinical education sites become more difficult to acquire due to budgetary constraints and staffing shortages, it is challenging for academic programs to provide students with consistent learning experiences that meet educational objectives. With advances in technology, clinical simulation can be used to supplement student learning. This presentation will provide an overview of how high fidelity clinical simulators have been used to enhance clinical decision making skills and promote team work in the health care setting for allied health and nursing students.
Factors Influencing Graduate Students of Diverse Backgrounds in Their Selection of Occupational Therapy as a Career: A National Study
Presenters: Dr. Anne Jenkins and OTS Students--Lindsay C. Falcon, Jennifer McKoy, Stephanie Sands, Karolina Smidowicz (Winston-Salem State University)
The purpose of this study is to explore various factors that lead students of diverse backgrounds to select occupational therapy (OT) as a career, in order to address the lack of diversity in the field. This article examines demographics of OT students, the predominant ways these students are exposed to OT, and the timing, resources and retention of these students during their journey to becoming OT practitioners. This data will help establish how various demographic groups are and can be reached for purposes of OT recruitment.
This study was conducted over a three month period using a 30 question nationwide survey disseminated via the Internet. Data was collected from 439 (376 of those complete) Master of OT students in the United States. The data collected was used to draw inferences about what type of motivational factors can be used in recruiting a diverse group of OT students, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) analytical software.
A closer analysis of all of these factors has been used to provide insight into creating recruitment strategies to not only help achieve American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA) goal of increasing workplace diversity, but also to inform college recruiters, educators and administrators.
Factors Related to Substance Abuse and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among African-American College Students
Presenter: Jiangmin Xu, PhD (Winston-Salem State University)
College students are among the highest risk groups and are likely to be at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (Gayle, et al., 1990) due to their substance abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors. The college environment offers many opportunities for these substance abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unsafe sex, multiple sexual partners, alcohol use, and substance abuse. Substance abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors are more prevalent in African American college students, and these students are a population with specific risks and needs. Previous researchers often have failed to examine the relationships between sociocultural variables, academic performance, and high-risk sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Few studies have been undertaken with African American college students, specifically attending historically black colleges or universities (HBCUs). The purpose of this proposed study is to examine sociocultural, sociodemographic, and other factors that influence high-risk sexual behaviors and substance abuse behaviors among African-American college students. It was hypothesized that variables related to socioculture, sociodemographics, and student academic performance will have significant effects on the college student's substance abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey instrument used in this study was developed by ACHA, and the data was also collected by ACHA in 2008 with the help of the student health service of Winston-Salem State University. This survey collects data about their students' habits, behaviors, and perceptions on the most prevalent health topics. A total of 345 students were randomly selected from the student population; however, a subsample of 284 (85.2%) African-American college students were included in this study. The specific aims of this proposal are twofold: first, to examine the impact of sociocultural factors on high-risk sexual behaviors; and second, to examine whether the impact of sociocultural factors on high-risk behaviors differs by sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender and age. The proposed research and relevant data about health of African-American college students will enhance college students' health promotion and prevention for their substance abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors.
Impact of OT Intervention on Preclinical Performance of Dental Hygiene Students: A Collaborative Project
Presenters: Dorothy P.Bethea, EdD, OTR/ L; Anne Evans, OTS, Tonya Gaines, OTS, Vita S. Roberts, OTS, Michelle Reams, OTS, and Michelle L. Young, OTS (Winston-Salem State University)
Background: Curriculums for dental hygiene students emphasize both academic performance as well as preclinical performance. However, the incongruence between academic and clinical performance has been a growing problem and concern within dental hygiene programs. The students' academic intellect may not parallel with their clinical performance, which may indicate that their knowledge of the subject may not correlate with its practical application.
Purpose: This study examined the benefits of an ergonomic intervention on dental hygiene students' ability to manipulate dental scaling instruments, and the impact of the intervention on preclinical performance of scaling techniques. Winston Salem State University (WSSU) graduate Occupational Therapy students implemented an ergonomic-based manual dexterity intervention with the dental hygiene department at a local community college. The research questions addressed in this study are: (1) What are the benefits of the manual dexterity program on dental hygiene students' ability to manipulate scaling instruments? (2) What are the effects of the manual dexterity program on the hand coordination and fine motor manipulation of dental hygiene students?
Methods: This descriptive quantitative study used a single-group repeated measure design. Participants included 14 first year dental hygiene students from a local community college inclusive of both genders, all ethnicities, and an age range of 18 years and older. The intervention was divided into three parts: ergonomic awareness, fine motor exercises, and visual motor activities. The instruments selected for pre- and post-testing (Dynamometer, pinch gauge and Crawford Small Part Dexterity Test), are commonly used within occupational therapy to assess pinch strength, grip strength, hand-eye coordination, and fine motor control.
The study investigates the independent variable, the ergonomic-based manual dexterity intervention on the dependent variable, which is the handling and manipulation of dental hygiene instruments. Statistical significance will be obtained by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data collected in this study will be entered into SPSS for analysis of the average mean scores. This research is in progress for a four month period. Results will be reported during the conference presentation.
Winston-Salem State University, a designated Historically Black College and University (HBCU) resides in a community of economic, social and health disparity. WSSU and the local community college are located in a geographically underserved community and comprised of diverse students and faculty.
Implementation of a Research Mentorship Program for Junior Faculty
Presenter: Wanda K. Lawrence, PhD, RN (Winston-Salem State University)
New opportunities, expectations and responsibilities of a new faculty member can be very overwhelming. The university expects faculty to participate in teaching, and university service, as well as participate in scholarly activities. There continues to be a shortage of faculty in nursing and allied health, resulting in teaching as the focus of orientation. It is important that faculty who are hired assume responsibility for teaching immediately. Thus the expectations of service and scholarly activities tend to take a back seat. As a result, many faculty in these areas are not prepared for tenure and promotion. This presentation will address strategies that one school in an HBCU university implemented to prepare junior faculty for tenure and promotion. New and junior faculty members are matched with senior research faculty member mentors who share their experience and knowledge with their mentees, thus supporting seamless and successful entrances into the research enterprise. The goal of the Research Mentorship program is to provide research-oriented knowledge and skills necessary for new and junior faculty to progress toward and accomplish tenure and promotion. The presentation will discuss the planning and implementation of a Research Orientation Mentorship program for junior faculty in the School of Health Sciences in an HBCU.
In consideration of the present economy and global economic crisis, leaders in universities must strive to determine strategies to recruit and retain faculty. A program such as this mentorship program may serve as one of the solutions.
Objectives: Upon completion of this learning activity, the learner will be able to:
1. Identify the importance of a Research Orientation mentorship program for schools within the university.
2. Evaluate strategies used to enhance the junior faculty member's readiness for promotion and tenure.
Method and format: (single podium presentation) Time needed: 30 minutes
Summary: This presentation will discuss the planning and implementation of a Research Orientation mentorship program for junior faculty.
Increasing the Knowledge of Risk Factors, Symptoms, Prevention Strategies, Treatment Interventions and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus in Independent Living African-Americans Age 65 and Over: A Pilot Study
Presenter: Revenda A. Greene, PT, PhD (Howard University)
Background/Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among African Americans. The highest incidence of diabetes in African Americans occurs in those who are 65-75 years of age. The purposes of this study were to: a) determine the knowledge of diabetes risk factors, symptoms, complications, and common treatment interventions among independent living older African Americans in the Washington, DC area; b) to facilitate improved knowledge about diabetes; and c) to identify barriers to effective management of the disease.
Subjects: A convenience sample of fifteen African American men and women age 65 and over was selected. The sample was divided into two groups, based on whether a participant had ever been diagnosed with diabetes.
Methods: A five week research study was conducted. A researcher-developed survey instrument, which included two valid and reliable assessment tools: 1) The Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index--Diabetes Version III; and 2) The Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center Knowledge Test (MDRTC) was administered. The MDRTC was used as a knowledge pre- and post-test. Participants received the pre-test during week one, one hour diabetes educational interventions during week two and week three, and post-tests during week three and week five. No intervention was provided during week four. The results of the MDRTC pre- and post-tests were compared.
Results: There was no statistically significant increase in the diabetes knowledge level among study participants when the pre- and post- knowledge tests were compared, despite three exposures to the knowledge tests, and two educational sessions. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the test scores between those who had been diagnosed with diabetes, and those who had not.
Discussion: Many factors, including low health literacy, may have contributed to the outcome of this pilot study. The results suggest that traditional educational interventions may not provide the needed level of understanding of diabetes for older African Americans. Because older African Americans are disproportionately affected by diabetes, it is critical that effective methods are developed to provide health education regarding the causes and complications of this manageable disease to this population.
Is BMI an Accurate Assessment of African American Women or is it a New Health Disparity?
Presenters: Larry W. Bennett, II, SPT, Toniya M. Brewer, SPT, LaTonya Johnson, SPT and Valda H. Montgomery, PhD, LAT (Alabama State University)
Purpose: To determine whether the difference in weight distribution and composition puts one ethnicity at a greater risk of being inaccurately categorized as overweight or obese as it relates to the BMI scale.
Subjects: 18 African-American women with BMI's that ranged from 24-47 kg/[m.sup.2], residing in the state of Alabama. The participants are between the ages of 18 and 27, physically active, and had a minimum of high school education.
Methods: Height and weight were measured using the Detecto[TM] Stadiometer Scale. Circumferential measurements were taken of the waist and hips using a standard tape measure. Participants were instructed to proceed to the next phase of data collection of body composition analysis in the BODPOD.
Results: BMI and body composition had a weaker correlation r =0.46; coefficient of determination of BMI and body composition r2 = 34.96% correlated. BMI and waist circumference had a stronger correlation r = 0.87; BMI and waist circumference r2 = 75.69% correlated. The mean BMI (n = 18) 34.35 kg. [m.sub.2] with a standard deviation of [+ or -] 5.45. Body composition (n = 18) mean percent body fat 38.08% and standard deviation [+ or -] 7.85. Waist circumference (n= 18) mean 97.62 cm and standard deviation [+ or -] 11.76. Waist-to-hip ratio (n=18) mean 0.82 and standard deviation [+ or -] 0.07.
Conclusions: Based on the results of the correlation between BMI and body composition, BMI is not an accurate assessment tool for the percent of body fat that an individual may possesses. Although waist circumference is a measure of abdominal circumference the correlation with BMI and waist circumference has a moderate correlation. It is not indicative of whether the adipose tissue is subcutaneous or visceral. Health care providers should assess body fat and weight distribution to accurately classify individuals into weight categories.
Recruitment of Adolescents in Schools for HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention Study: Lessons Learned
Presenter: Ruth Muze, PhD, RN (Winston-Salem State University)
Background: Researchers agree that as the numbers and percentages of new HIV infections increase among young people, HIV is bound to become an epidemic for adolescents. Adolescent vulnerability to HIV underscores the importance of school-based HIV risk-reduction interventions that successfully meet their goals without recruitment hindrances. This study was to examine knowledge changes after participating in the Communities in Schools (CIS) HIV/STD preventive education program, knowledge change after participating in a traditional HIV/STD preventive education, and to compare knowledge changes between schools.
Methods: A cross-sectional study targeted a convenience sample of 30 9th grade adolescents to be drawn from a population of 1441 in two high schools. High school A had the Wise Guys & Wise Gals HIV/STD education program conducted over two 90-minute-blocks per school year to 50-75 students. High School B followed the traditional program held in one 60 to 90 minute session in the fall and spring each academic year. The Adolescent Knowledge Survey about AIDS, HIV, STD, and Safe Sex assessed knowledge and risky behavior about HIV/STD among adolescents. RESULTS: Thirty-five adolescents in School A participated in the Wise Guys & Wise Gals HIV/STD educational program. Only 11 adolescents returned the signed parental consent forms and therefore completed the AKS HIV/AIDS pre and post questionnaire.
Conclusion: This study had major obstacles related to recruiting adolescents in schools. This article discusses the major areas of concern and lessons learned.
Keywords: adolescents; school; recruitment; HIV/STD
Student Success and Retention Partnership between Nursing & Allied Health
Presenters: Bobbie Reddick, EdD, MPH, RN and Dorothy Peterson-Bethea, EdD, OTR/L (Winston-Salem State University)
Nursing and Allied Health disciplines in the School of Health Sciences at Winston Salem State University developed a partnership with nursing and allied health programs at Forsyth Technical Community College (Forsyth Tech), Piedmont Community College (PCC), Surry Community College (SCC), Guilford Technical Community College (GTCC), and Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools to identify root causes for student attrition that stem from K-12 influences and the level of student preparedness in post secondary educational institutions.
Utilizing a regionally coordinated and multi-systems approach entitled Solutions-Outlining-Success or S-O-S, stakeholders held a two part summit and strategic planning conference composed of representatives from academic training programs, clinical affiliates, and major healthcare employers in the region. The expected outcome was to generate a comprehensive, well coordinated, and integrated strategic plan relevant to primary and post secondary education, and employers. The plan focused on "best practices" to advance student career paths in nursing and allied health by generating institution specific strategies related to student readiness, student selection, and student retention rates, and subsequently graduating a greater number of qualified individuals to enter the regional workforce.
The grant proposal and project had three primary objectives:
a) . Identify root causes for student attrition in nursing and allied health programs
b) Develop innovative methodologies/ best practices as potential solutions and recommendations to address root caused of student attrition
c) Present assessment summary of outcome data related to student readiness, selection and retention.
The Effect of Hormonal Fluctuations in Reproductive Hormonal Levels and its Predisposition to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in Premenopausal Women with Average and Above Average Body Fat Percentages
Presenters: Nikea Patterson, SPT, Damien Sager, SPT, Felicia Farrar, SPT, and Robin Washington, PhD, PT, CRC, (Alabama State University)
Background: Endogenous female sex steroid hormones have been linked to various functions in the female body. The fluctuations of these hormones are responsible for the menstrual cycle and the distribution of adipose tissue. Most notably, the surge of estrogen leading into the ovulatory phase has been linked to many changes in the structure and function of soft tissues as well as the metabolism of adipose tissue. Estrogen receptors have also been located in the fibroblasts of human ACL leading to a relaxation of soft tissue, alteration of function, diminished knee stability, and a predisposition to an ACL tear.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference in the predisposition of ACL tears across the menstrual cycle between premenopausal females with body fat composition percentages greater than 30 as compared to premenopausal women with body fat composition percentages less than or equal to 30. Predisposing factors include ligament laxity, muscle strength, and Q-angle measurements.
Methodology: Ten premenopausal Alabama State University female students (= 23.9 years of age) were recruited. The participants were reportedly healthy, free of knee pathologies, and experiencing a normal menstrual cycle (between 24-33 days). Each participant was given a questionnaire which assisted the researchers in determining the follicular (day 1), ovulatory (day 13), and luteal phases (day 23) of one menstrual cycle. Percent body fat composition was measured using the Tanita 300 BFA (= 34.08% percent body fat). The dependent variable was the predisposition to ACL tears with the following dependent measures; 1) anterior displacement of the tibia on the femur measured using the KT1000, 2) muscle strength of the quadriceps complex (MVIC), and 3) Q-angle.
Conclusion: Participants with = 30% body fat composition exhibited an increased ligament laxity and muscle strength; and participants with > 30% body fat composition exhibited increased biomechanical changes.
Clinical Implications: Understanding possible changes that may occur in the ligament as the result of hormonal fluctuations and increased body fat may also prove essential in the clinical decision-making model when considering physical therapy interventions such as joint mobilization, stretching and various modalities.
The Evolving Role of the Allied Health Professions in the Reform of the U.S. Healthcare Delivery System
Presenters: Desmond Coverley, PhD, Richard Levinson, MD and Mohammad Akhter, MD (Howard University)
The principal goal of the current efforts to reform the U.S. healthcare delivery system is to provide health insurance for all of the country's citizens. If this goal is achieved, it will create a greatly increased demand for health services. This fact, along with the epidemic of chronic diseases that is a product of the aging of the population, will put a great strain on the existing supply of health manpower. Even the most vigorous efforts to increase that supply would be unlikely to meet the need in the foreseeable future. A proposed solution to this supply problem is to significantly alter the way that healthcare is delivered. For example, the suggestion has been made to replace healthcare delivery by individual practitioners with structured multidisciplinary teams. The size and composition of each team would depend upon the scope of services that it provided. The larger teams, perhaps located in a "Medical Home" might be composed of all of the disciplines that are required in the Home's service area. However, smaller teams would probably be adequate for most episodes of primary care. A team might have a single administrative coordinator, but the leadership of the team's healthcare delivery would shift depending upon the types of services that a patient required. Team members would be evaluated on the basis of their individual contributions and also on the basis of the entire team's outcomes.
The allied health professions (AHP) are the largest and most diverse component of the U.S. healthcare providers. Some specialties among the AHPs would have to be members of every healthcare team. In order to carry out this role successfully, AHPs should be educated in a team setting, and at the completion of their training should be prepared to carry out their team-based roles successfully. As part of teams, AHPs would often provide their traditional services, but at times may be expected to take on new roles and functions. This means that the AHP educational experience must be a highly flexible one that encourages life-long learning and innovation in healthcare delivery.
As team-based healthcare becomes the way in which most healthcare is delivered, it will likely become apparent that the rigidly separate education of the different healthcare professions is counterproductive. A response to this realization might lead to making the education of health professions part of a major educational continuum in which the profession one practices depends upon where he/she parted from the training sequence. Just as trainees can leave the educational system to practice a particular healthcare profession, they can also decide to return and complete training for another health profession. This approach would reinforce the team concept, since it would be clear that all health professions are part of one family and that they are all crucial partners in healthcare rather than competitors.
The Impact of E-Health on Cardiac Health Education Among African Americans
Presenter: Wanda K. Lawrence, PhD, RN (Winston-Salem State University)
African Americans face a higher risk for death from heart disease than any other ethnic group in America. (Journey to Wellness, 2007). The risk for heart attack or stroke increases with the number of risk factors that African Americans have. Some of these risk factors cannot be controlled, such as increasing age, family health history, and race and gender. But African Americans can learn to modify, treat or control most risk factors to lower their risk of heart disease (AHA, 2004). Some people are more prone to having a heart attack than others because of known risk factors. Research reports that the more risk factors a person has, the greater the chances of having a heart attack (AHA, 2007). Understanding risk factors and interventions to reduce risk factors is a major step in preventing heart attack. It is important that people are educated as to the risk factors of heart attack.
Finding an effective method to educate African Americans regarding cardiac disease and its risk factors is critical. From a global perspective, e-Health can be used to disseminate health information as well as ensure that the most current information is used to improve people's health (Kwankam, 2004).
This presentation will report the results of a quantitative research study using pre-post test design. E-health was used to educate a group of African Americans in one county in the eastern part of the country. The participants of this study were African American males and females ranging between the ages of 25 and 65 who reside in both rural and urban parts of a city in the eastern United States. Each of the participants attended the same faith based congregation. Results of this study will be shared with participants, other community members and healthcare professionals.
Understanding Polypharmacy Management of the Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans.
Presenter: Tracy A. Thomas, PT, PhD (Alabama State University)
Historically, metabolic syndrome was defined by numerous risk factors that increased the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the development of diabetes, namely type II (DM II). Unfortunately, with so many broad definitions along with varying interpretations, confusion has lingered over the years in properly identifying patients with the syndrome. In an attempt to eliminate this ever present perplexity, a joint scientific statement was released October 2009 with agreed criterion (Circulation). The authoring sources were the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the World Heart Federation, the International Atherosclerosis Society and the American Heart Association (AHA). Prior discrepancies in definitions mainly centered on the significance of difference in abdominal fat composition (obesity) as measured by waist circumference. The new streamlined definition allows for this criterion to be evaluated based upon population and country-specific definitions. The other four criterions are 1) elevated triglycerides; 2) reduced HDL cholesterol; 3) elevated blood pressure; and 4) elevated fasting glucose. In addition, the requirement of any drug treatment to these is noted as an alternate indicator. Patients exhibiting 3 or more of the 5 aforementioned criterions constitute a positive diagnosis.
With a global definition, documented cases of metabolic syndrome can now be readily made. Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reported that African-American men had the highest age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension, while their female counterparts had the highest prevalence of abdominal obesity. Results from the Jackson Hospital Study reported that the triad of hypertension, increased abdominal circumference and low HDL cholesterol concentration were more frequently noted in African Americans than other groups/ethnic populations.
As four of the criterions are noted to have drug treatment as an alternate indicator, pharmaceutical industries continue to readily respond through research, design and production to better meet the needs of this growing diagnosed population. Currently, several "combination agents" exist on the market. However, patients are rarely informed and not educated to the most appropriate pharmaceutical treatment plans (inclusive of adverse side effects), nor to the full understanding of their diagnosis.
In reference to metabolic syndrome, the purpose of this presentation is to 1) review the disease processes involved; 2) present common pharmaceutical management strategies; 3) and to discuss the dis/advantages of polypharmacy in African Americans.
Validity of Perceptions of a Healthy Diet
Presenters: Jessica Swift, MS, RD; Allan A. Johnson, Ph.D., LN (Howard University)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of subjects' perceptions of the healthiness of their diets utilizing data from 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Parameters utilized included perceptions of the healthiness of diets, knowledge of the dietary guidelines, use of food labeling information, dietary intakes, blood lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, blood pressure levels, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and physical activity. The sample consisted of adults aged 18-60 years divided into five age and gender matched groups (114 subjects per group) based on whether the diets were perceived as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. SUDAAN software was used to compare parameters among the groups by t-tests and chi-square tests.
There were no significant relationships between subjects' perceptions of their diets and knowledge of dietary recommendations, levels of blood cholesterol, LDL- or HDL-cholesterol; or systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels. As healthiness perception increased frequency of food label information use increased. Those who perceived themselves as having excellent, very good or good diets had significantly higher fiber intakes, higher HDL-cholesterol levels, lower BMI and waist circumferences and significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels than those perceiving their diets as fair or poor. Subjects considering their diets as excellent, very good, or good were more likely to participate in vigorous, moderate, or muscle strengthening physical activities.
Therefore, this study to investigate the validity of dietary perceptions yielded mixed results. The validity of dietary perceptions was supported by findings on frequency of use of food labeling information, fiber intake, HDL-cholesterol level, individual systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings, BMI, waist circumference, and physical activities. On the other hand, the validity of dietary perceptions was not supported by findings on knowledge of the dietary recommendations, intakes of food energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat; blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol and average systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels.
Frequency of ICF-9 Codes and Respective CPT Codes for Musculoskeletal Practice Patterns in Relation to Health Disparity Categories in an Outpatient Physical Therapy Private Practice: Case Study
Presenters: Kevin Brown and Travis McDill, DPT Students (Alabama State University)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common diagnosis and corresponding treatments from an orthopedic private practice clinic, and relate these diagnoses and treatments to some health disparity categories as The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice Musculoskeletal Practice Patterns.
Subjects: The subject of this study was an orthopedic, minority-owned, urban Montgomery private practice. The patients were the universe of patients from four months (January, April, July, and October).
Method: The patients were divided into health disparity categories (age, gender, race, and Medicare status). The most common diagnoses were determined along with the most common treatments for these diagnoses. The diagnoses and treatments were related to the health disparity categories, and also related to the Musculoskeletal practice patterns.
Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed to determine frequency using SPSS.
Results: The most common diagnoses were determined with the most-used treatments for those diagnoses for this clinic, and this was compared to The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice.
Clinical Relevance: The frequency of diagnoses and treatments was given a numerical value, and compared with some health disparity categories.
The Effects of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) on the Quality of Life of Pre Menopausal Women
Presenter: Robin Washington, PT, PhD, CRC (Alabama State University)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) was initially documented in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal who researched masculine traits in women who displayed absent or abnormal menstrual cycles, sterility or enlarged ovaries housing multiple cysts. PCOS is a hormonal disorder that involves the enlargement of an ovary 1.5 - 2.0 times its normal size due to the over production of male hormones, androgens, which interfere with a woman's ability to ovulate.
Although PCOS has been recognized for many decades, information on its impact on health related quality of life for women diagnosed with this disorder has not been made readily available until recent years. Women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and endometrial cancer. Understanding the impact of this disorder on quality of life (i.e. daily activities, employment, and self-concept) will assist allied health professionals in eliminating health disparities related to this population.
The purpose of this presentation is to disseminate findings from qualitative research intended to 1) enhance the knowledge of allied health professionals regarding PCOS and its progression, and 2) gain an understanding of the impact of this disorder on women's quality of life. Ten women diagnosed with this disorder were interviewed. All of the participants reported self-esteem being significantly impacted primarily because of poor self-concept. The majority of the participants expressed concern about potential discrimination based on the effect of PCOS on their weight and physical appearances. Finally, participants reported pain as interfering with their daily activities.
Schools of Allied Health Sciences in HBCUs: The Paradox
Presenter: Desmond Michael Coverley Ph.D., RT(R), PA (Howard University)
This presentation is an effort on behalf of the National Society of Allied Health to provide its member institutions with information concerning the fate of allied health programs in Historically Black College and Universities (HBCUs). An informal telephone survey was conducted with nine member institutions using an instrument of six questions. The results indicated that all HBCU Schools of Allied Health had undergone budget cuts that have the potential of affecting the future of students pursuing these careers. It is incumbent upon us as an organization to monitor the future outcomes of these programs, and to emphasize their importance in HBCUs for preparing future allied health professionals for careers in communities of color.
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|Publication:||Journal of the National Society of Allied Health|
|Article Type:||Conference news|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2011|
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