Printer Friendly

NUTRIENT INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF VARIOUS WINTER FODDERS FED TO BEETAL GOATS AND LOHI SHEEP.

Byline: Nasrullah, M. Abdullah, K. Javed, J. A. Bhatti, A. N. Khosa, I. B. Marghazani, J. Sales, M. Fiaz and N. Ahmad

ABSTRACT

Nutrient intake and digestibility of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrium), lucerne (Medicago Sativa) and oats (Avena sativa) as winter fodders were fed to female goats (n = 45, age = 720 days, body weight = 32 kg) and sheep (n = 45, age = 690 days, body weight = 32 kg). Intakes of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and gross energy (GE) were determined over a 30-day period. In addition, total tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and ADF were measured for 5 days with 3 animals per treatment. Intakes of NDF and GE were higher (Pless than 0.05) with lucerne compared to berseem clover independent of animal species, and oats presented the lowest (Pless than 0.05) CP intake compared to other fodders. The highest (Pless than 0.05) CP digestibility was obtained with feeding of lucerne, with NDF digestibility comparable among fodders within animal species. With the exception of DM, intakes and digestibilities of nutrients were higher (Pless than 0.05) in goats than in sheep.

Key words: Goats, sheep, winter fodders, nutrient intake, digestibility

INTRODUCTION

Small ruminant production has the potential to become an economically viable option for small full-time farmers and the growing number of part time farmers in Pakistan. There are many factors that support this assumption. These include increasing demand, lower cost of production compared with other livestock, and the ability of small ruminants to effectively utilize poor quality forage (Nasrullah et al., 2013).

A major misconception throughout the scientific literature is that low productivity of ruminants fed on forages could be attributed to low digestibility of the forages. However, it is now proved that sometimes inefficient utilisation of feeds results from dietary deficiencies of nutrients which are very important for maintenance and growth of rumen microbes which in turn play their role in proper digestion of feeds (Habib, 2009).

Goats and sheep are preferred species in the drier areas (Ben Salem and Smith, 2008) such as Pakistan. In this country, goat and sheep production systems are still traditional, with animals grazing on fodders and forages. The availability and production of fodder species mainly depend on the climate and soil, with quality varying due to seasonal changes (Bruzon, 2007). Fodders can be classified into summer (Kharif) crops, which include cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), Jantar (Coriandrum sativum), maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and winter (Rabi) crops, consisting mainly of barley (Hordeum vulgare), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), lucerne (Medicago sativa), mustard (Brassica spp.), oats (Avena sativa), rye grass (Lolium perenne), shaftal (Trifolium resupinatum), and vetch (Vicia species) (Lodhi et al., 2009).

Similar to information on improved technology to increase forage yield (Iqbal et al., 2012), knowledge on the nutritional value of fodders utilised for feeding of goats and sheep in Pakistan is lacking, and therefore this study was conducted to evaluate the nutrient intake and digestibility of the winter fodders berseem clover, lucerne, and oats. A secondary aim was to compare intake and digestibility of these fodders between goats and sheep. Information obtained would indicate if any differences exist among fodders or between animal species, which could be utilised in further studies and applied in practice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental animals, design, and feeding: Forty-five goats and 45 sheep were selected from flocks maintained at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki, Pakistan. All goats were females from the Beetal breed with an average age of 720 21 days old, and body weight of 32.2 0.31 kg. Female Lohi sheep, 690 18 days old and body weight of 32.3 0.33 kg, were used. All animals were ear tagged for identification and treated for ecto- and endo-parasites before the start of experiment.

The experiment was conducted as a 3 (fodders) x 2 (animal species) factorial design. Animals of each species were divided in 3 groups, which were further subdivided in 3 replicates of 5 animals each. All replicates were housed in the same open-sided cement- roofed shed, with fresh water available ad libitum. Each pen provided 1.1 m2 space per animal, and was supplied with a 3 m-long feed trough.

Replicates within each group were fed berseem clover, lucerne, and oats, respectively. Fodder was offered ad libitum at 30% of body weight. These 3 fodders were grown in the Kasur district (longitude 73.85, latitude 31.02, altitude 186 m) in Pakistan during February 2009. Fodders, at the full-bloom growth stage during the time of the experiment, were cut daily with hand clippers and fed to animals as such. Chemical composition of fodders is presented in Table 1. After an adaptation period of 7 days fodders were fed twice daily (8.00h, 16.00h) to animals in each replicate for a period of 30 days. Refusals were measured the next morning throughout the study period of 30 days to calculate feed intake. Sampling of offered fodders and composite refuseals were done at 3-day intervals. These samples were pooled at the end of the experiment for proximate analysis. Intakes were based on the group intake of 5 animals per replicate.

Table 1. Dry matter and chemical composition of winter fodders.

Nutrient###Berseem###Lucerne###Oats

###clover

Dry matter (%)###17###20###21

Crude protein (%)###17###18###8

Neutral detergent fibre###44###48###48

(%)

Acid detergent fibre (%)###40###42###35

Gross energy (MJ/kg)###14.7###15.5###14.2

Digestibility: At the end of feeding trial 1, animal from each replicate was selected randomly and kept in separate pens for determination of apparent digestibility of the respective fodders. Area of individual pens was 1.1 m2, and each pen contained a feed trough of 0.6 m long. Animals were fed (30% of body weight) the same fodders that they have received during the intake study. Total faecal output was manually collected from the cement floor for 5 days and faeces from each animal were stored in covered buckets. Daily output from each animal was weighed and a 25% sample was dried in a forced oven at 70C for 24 hours.

Analytical methods: Samples of fodders, refusals and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre, and gross energy (GE). Plant samples were oven-dried at 80C for 24 hours before analyses for chemical components. Dry matter was determined by drying in an oven at 105C until constant weight. Crude protein (nitrogen A- 6.25) was analyzed by the Kjelhdal procedure (AOAC, 2000). Neutral detergent fibre and ADF were determined as described by Van Soest et al. (1991) and expressed inclusive of residual ash. Gross energy values were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter (IKA C2000, Janke and Kunkel, Staufen, Germany).

Statistical analysis: The Fit Model Platform of JMP (release 5.0.1.2, SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) was used to analyze data with fodders (berseem clover, lucerne, oats), animal species (goats, sheep), and their interactions as the treatment structure. Difference among treatment means were compared using Tukey HSD post hoc tests, with Pless than 0.05 considered as significant.

RESULTS

Intake of CP presented a significant interaction between fodders and animal species (Table 2). Although CP intake from berseem clover and lucerne were similar (Pgreater than 0.05) in goats, lucerne presented a higher (Pless than 0.05) intake compared to berseem clover in sheep. In both animal species, CP intake was lowest (Pless than 0.05) with oats compared to other fodders. Notwithstanding animal species, intakes of NDF and GE were higher (Pless than 0.05) from lucerne compared to berseem clover, whereas ADF intake was lower (Pless than 0.05) from oats compared to lucerne. Neutral detergent fibre intake from oats was similar (Pgreater than 0.05) to that from lucerne. Intakes of DM, NDF, ADF and GE were, regardless of fodder species, higher (Pless than 0.05) in goats than in sheep.

Table 2. Nutrient intakes (least square means, n = 3 replicates of 5 animals each) in goats and sheep fed different winter fodders.

###Goats###Sheep###S.E.###P-values

Nutrient###Berseem###Lucerne###Oats###Berseem###Lucerne###Oats###Fodder###Animal###FA-A

###clover###clover

Dry matter (g/day)###1529###1566###1527###1207###1413###1454###57.7###0.089###0.002###0.130

Crude protein (g/day)###264a###290a###126c###205b###258a###120c###8.17###less than 0.001###less than 0.001###0.024

Neutral detergent###28.8###0.003###less than 0.001###0.124

###666###744###722###504###623###686

fibre (g/day)

Acid detergent fibre###24.2###0.009###less than 0.001###0.076

###609###653###524###463###544###497

(g/day)

Gross###energy###0.860###0.012###0.003###0.145

###22.3###24.3###21.5###17.8###21.9###20.7

(MJ/day)

A significant interaction showed that digestibility of NDF was comparable (Pgreater than 0.05) among fodders within each animal species, but higher (Pless than 0.05) with berseem clover in goats compared to sheep (Table 3). Whereas berseem clover presented a higher (Pless than 0.05) digestibility of ADF compared to oats in goats, the opposite (significant lower value) was found in sheep. Crude protein digestibility of fodders, notwithstanding animal species, followed a decreasing (Pless than 0.05) sequence in the order of lucerne greater than berseem clover greater than oats. Furthermore, CP digestibility was, independent of fodder, higher (Pless than 0.05) in goats than in sheep. No animal species effects were detected with DM digestibility, however, berseem clover presented a lower (Pless than 0.05) value compared to lucerne and oats.

Table 3. Nutrients % Digestibility in goats and sheep fed different winter fodders.

###Goats###Sheep###S.E.###P-values

V###Berseem###Lucerne###Oats###Berseem###Lucerne###Oats###Fodde###Anima###FA-A

###clover###clover###r###l

Dry matter (g/day)###56.3###63.0###61.3###54.6###61.0###64.0###1.66###0.002###0.806###0.331

Crude protein (g/day)###66.6###70.9###51.0###59.8###69.6###46.5###1.73###less than 0.001###0.011###0.311

Neutral detergent fibre###2.04###0.712###0.045###0.041

###53.5a###50.3ab###46.1ab###43.7b###46.9ab###48.1ab

(g/day)

Acid detergent fibre###2.02###0.849###less than 0.001###less than 0.001

###55.4a###49.2ab###43.4bc###36.8c###42.0bc###46.5ab

(g/day)

DISCUSSION

This study presented evidence that lucerne presented higher intakes of NDF and GE, and DM and CP digestibilities, independent of animal species, and higher CP intake in sheep, compared to berseem clover. Berseem clover is a leguminous fodder grown in winter in Asia as a protein and mineral source (Osti et al., 2006). However, berseem clover has high indigestible oligosaccharide contents, and excessive intake might cause reductions in feed intake and gastric disturbances (Vasilakogloua and Dhima, 2008). Furthermore, more moisture in berseem clover compared to lucerne could have resulted in a faster rate of passage for berseem clover, which would reduce its intake (Pasha et al., 1994).

Lower intakes of CP and ADF in goats and sheep of comparable age and body weight found with oats compared to lucerne in the current study, could be attributed to its low dietary contents. Although small cereals such as oats are grown throughout Pakistan in winter both under irrigated and natural conditions to provide palatable feed to livestock (Iqbal et al., 2009) and provide high yields of DM, they produce forages with CP contents that are too low to fulfil in requirements for satisfactory production levels for most livestock species (Lawes and Jones, 1971).

Except for DM digestibility, intakes and digestibilities of all nutrients were higher in goats compared to sheep. Possible mechanisms responsible for higher voluntary feed intakes found in goats compared to sheep included: (1) differences between species in rumen pool size; (2) rumen fractional outflow rate of digesta; (3) particle size distribution of rumen contents; and (4) threshold of particle size to passage from the rumen (Domingue et al., 1991). Although Van Soest (1994) mentioned that a smaller gut in proportion to body weight in goats would result in a more rapid movement of digesta along the gastrointestinal tract compared to other ruminants, several authors stated a slower fractional outflow rate of particulate DM from the rumen of goats. This would cause longer exposure of plant cell walls to ruminal microbial attack, and consequently better fibre digestion, especially on high-fibre, low-quality forages (Watson and Norton, 1982; Doyle et al., 1984; Domingue et al., 1991).

Based on especially CP intake and digestibility, it can be concluded from this study that lucerne is a superior fodder compared to berseem clover and oats in goats and sheep. Despite differences in intakes, digestibilities of fibre components were, in general, comparable among fodders. This study clearly demonstrated that intakes and digestibilities were higher in goats than in sheep.

Acknowledgements: We thank Fayyaz Ahmad and M. A. Tipu of the Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, Pakistan, for provision of laboratory facilities.

REFERENCES

AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis, 17th Ed., Association of analytical chemists; Arlington, VA (USA).

Ben Salem, H. and T. Smith (2008). Feeding strategies to increase small ruminant production in dry environments. Small Rumin. Res. 77(23):174 194.

Bruzon, V. (2007). Feed and fodder consultant. EC/GOP Project ALA/01/129. Strengthening of Livestock Services Project.

Domingue, B. M. F., D. W. Dellow and T. N. Barry (1991). Voluntary intake and rumen digestion of a low-quality roughage by goats and sheep. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 117(1):111120.

Doyle, P.T., J.K. Egan, and A.J. Thalen (1984). Intake, digestion and nitrogen and sulphur retention in Angora goats and Merino sheep fed herbage diets. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 24(125):165169.

Habib, G. (2009). Nutritional management strategies to improve milk production in buffaloes. Pakistan J. Zool. Supp. Ser.9:533-544.

Iqbal, A., N. Akbar, H. Z. Khan, R. N. Abbas, and J. Ahmad (2012). Productivity of summer legume forages intercropped with maize as affected by mixed cropping in different sowing techniques. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 22(3):758763.

Iqbal, M. F., M. A. Sufyan, M. M. Aziz, I. A. Zahid, Qamir-ul-Ghani and S. Aslam (2009). Efficacy of nitrogen on green fodder yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa L.). J. Anim. Plant Sci. 19(2):8284.

Lawes, D. A. and D. I. H. Jones (1971). Yield, nutritive value and ensiling characteristics of whole-crop spring cereals. J. Agric. Sci. 76(3):479485.

Lodhi, M. Y., I. B. Marghazani, K. Hamayun, and M.J. Marri (2009). Comparative performance study of different oat varieties under agro-climatic conditions of Sibi. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 19(1):34 36.

Nasrullah, M, Abdullah, M, E. Baber, M.A. Jabbar and J. A. Bahtti (2013). Feeding behavior, voluntary intake and digestibility of various summer fodders in sheep and goats. Pakistan J. Zool. 45(1): 53-58.

Osti, N. P., C. R. Upreti, N. P. Shrestha and S.B. Pandey (2006). Review of nutrients content in fodder trees leaves, grasses and legumes available in buffalo growing areas of Nepal. In: Proc. Vth Asian Buffalo Congress, Nanjing, China, April 1822, 2006. 366371 p

Pasha, T. N., E. C. Prigge, R.W. Russell and W.B. Bryan (1994). Influence of moisture content of forage diets on intake and digestion by sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 72(9):24552463.

Van Soest, P. J. (1994). The nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd Ed. Cornell University Press; Ithaca NY (USA). 476 p

Van Soest, P. J., H. B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74(10):3583 3597.

Vasilakogloua, I. and K. Dhima (2008). Forage yield and competition indices of berseem clover intercropped with barley. Agron. J. 100(6):17491756.

Watson, C. and B. W. Norton (1982). The utilization of Pangola grass hay by sheep and Angora goats. Proc. Austr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 14:467470.
COPYRIGHT 2015 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Date:Aug 31, 2015
Words:2676
Previous Article:RISK FACTORS FOR MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM SEROPREVALENCE IN CHICKENS.
Next Article:QURANIC APPROACH ABOUT SEXUALITY EDUCATION.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters