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NUTRIENT CHARACTERIZATION, FRESHWATER PLANKTON AND SHRIMP DIVERSITY IN SUBTERRANEAN AND AVOVEGROUND STREAMS IN MARINDUQUE, PHILIPPINES.

Byline: Doreen Mascarenas and Cesar G. Demayo

ABSTRACT: Marinduque is endowed with subterranean and aboveground streams harbouring a variety of freshwater shrimps that has not been well documented and more importantly its relationship with the physical environment not established thus this study was conducted. Colorimetric analysis was used to determine, the nutrient contents of the water and sediment samples using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Nutrient analysis indicated that the concentration levels of phosphate, ammonium, and sulfate were within the acceptable levels of water quality for aesthetic and fisheries purposes. The observed differences in the concentration of nutrients between the subterranean and aboveground stream environments however, may indicate that these two aquatic ecosystems are relatively isolated from each other. Likewise, species richness of freshwater shrimps and phytoplankton were affected by the concentration of nutrients indicative of a positive correlation.

Keywords: Phytoplankton, zooplankton, ammonium, sulfates, phosphates, freshwater shrimps, diversity

INTRODUCTION

Marinduque Island in the Philippines is endowed with a lot of subterranean and aboveground streams and their ecotourism potential has been recognized. The caves in particular are known to be harboring a variety of shrimps which are utilized as food source for the locals. These species have not been thoroughly documented and are also regarded as an added attraction for cave ecotourism. There is therefore a need to understand the dynamics between the physical environment and the shrimp biodiversity in this subterranean ecosystem where there is a dearth of information on its ecology, specifically shrimp diversity in relation to environmental parameters such as important nutrients like phosphate, nitrate and sulfate in stream productivity and food chain dynamics.

Freshwater shrimps play an important role in the recycling of nutrients in the aquatic ecosystem especially in the processing of detritus, aquatic insects, polychaetes, other crustaceans, fish, mollusks and zooplankton, fragments of aquatic plants, planktonic algae and diatoms, and phytoplankton [1]. These organisms to sustain their existence in freshwater ecosystems require adequate light, carbon dioxide for energy fixation processes, oxygen for respiration, and supplies of major elements such as calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur [2]. Since studies show nutrient availability provides a strong link between freshwater shrimp assemblage in the aquatic environment [3], understanding the possible connectivity of the subterranean and aboveground streams can provide environmental benchmarks for the management and conservation of the cave and aboveground stream ecosystems thus this study was conducted.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Subterranean and aboveground streams in Sta. Cruz and Torrijos municipalities in Marinduque, Philippines were sampled in this study. The sites in Sta. Cruz are in proximity to copper mining activities in the past while the sites in Torrijos are relatively free from mining activities although it is sitting on a rich copper deposit. The subterranean and aboveground streams are in proximity with each other.

Bagumbungan cave and Pahuan cave were sampled in Sta. Cruz and Torrijos, respectively.

The nutrient content especially phosphate, ammonium and sulfate of the water and sediment including pH in the subterranean and aboveground streams in relation to shrimp diversity and abundance were determined. Species richness, abundance of freshwater shrimps and planktons were also determined [4,5].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The nutrient concentration levels of phosphate, ammonium, and sulphate are presented in Fig. 1. Differences in the concentration of nutrients between the subterranean and aboveground stream environments indicate that the aquatic ecosystems are relatively isolated from each other.

Based on the < 0.4 ppm standard set by DENR-EMB [7], concentrations of phosphates exceeding 0.020 mg/L are already considered eutrophic [4],thus, both the amount of phosphates in the sediments in subterranean (inside) and aboveground streams (outside) fall in this classification. The higher phosphate content inside the cave can be attributed to the presence of guano (droppings of bats) materials. Ammonium content in subterranean sediments was higher than the aboveground streams (Fig. 01b).

However, the ammonium content in water did not differ significantly. These results however were within < 1ppm threshold for aquatic systems for aquaculture purposes [5].

The sulfate content in the Bagumbungan site was significantly higher in aboveground stream compared to the subterranean stream (Fig. 01c). The sulfate content of the water samples was within the 50000###>5000###0###0###Unidentified sp. 9###150###100###0###0

Table 03 - Zooplankton (number/Liter) in the cave and above ground from 2 sampling areas

###Bagumbungan###Pahuan###Bagumbungan###Pahuan

###Species###Species

###Above-###Above-###Above-###Above-

###Cave###Cave###Cave###Cave

###ground###ground###ground###ground

###Copepod sp.###0###50###0###100###Arcella sp.###100###0###100###0

###Culex sp. (larva)###0###0###100###0###Unidentified sp. 1###150###0###0###0

###Cyclopoid sp.###0###0###0###100###Unidentified sp. 2###0###50###0###0

###Actinulasp. (larva)###100###0###0###0###Unidentified sp. 3###50###0###0###0

###Polyarthra sp.###0###50###0###0###Unidentified sp. 4###0###50###0###0

###Centropyxis sp.###0###0###50###0###Unidentified sp. 5###0###50###0###0

Table 04 - Correlation Matrix between the variables examined

###PO4###NH4###SO4###Phyto SR###Zoo SR###Phyto AB###Zoo AB###pH

###FwS###0.465###0.010###0.103###0.521###0.529###0.607###0.728###0.746

###PO4###0.384###0.892###0.007###0.073###0.502###0.486###0.339

###NH4###0.159###0.446###0.487###0.661###0.757###0.825

###SO4###0.952###0.918###0.290###0.428###0.364

###Phyto

###0.041###0.420###0.394###0.278

###SR

###Zoo SR###0.374###0.294###0.286

###Phyto

###0.025###0.029

###AB

###Zoo AB###0.073

The above ground streams negative correlation may indicate the dependence of the shrimps more on other food sources such as detritus materials.

It was shown from the results that freshwater shrimps were affected by ammonia concentrations while phytoplankton diversity was by phosphate. Several studies on the distribution patterns of planktons between the different aquatic environments can be correlated with the observed differences in nutrients [12]. The ecological water quality of the different aquatic sampling areas can be connected to the differences in plankton productivity and dominance of some plankton species as shown by the results (Tables 3 and 4). Since phytoplankton richness is one of the initial biological components from which the energy is transferred to higher organisms such as the zooplankton and the shrimps [13], the differences observed from one sampling area to another indicate differences in water quality and the degree of eutrophication of the sampling areas [14, 15].

CONCLUSION

This study provided the environmental bench mark in understanding the dynamics between the physico-chemical and biological components and the connectivity of the cave and above ground streams.

Marinduque subterranean and aboveground streams harbor a variety of freshwater shrimps and planktons which can be attributed to the variations in the concentration levels of nutrients. Nutrient analysis indicated that the concentration levels of phosphate, ammonium, and sulfate were within the acceptable levels of water quality for aesthetic and fisheries purposes. In particular, species richness of freshwater shrimps was affected by ammonia concentrations and phytoplankton diversity by phosphates.

Phytoplankton diversity was positively correlated with zooplankton diversity. Similarly, the phytoplankton assemblage was correlated with the zooplankton assemblage. A correlation was also established between pH and zooplankton assemblage. Species richness cluster of freshwater shrimps and phytoplankton yielded similar groupings indicating some direct relationship between the two.

Variations in diversity of plankton richness also vary between the subterranean and aboveground stream environments indicating that these two aquatic ecosystems are relatively isolated from each other.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The assistance of Efren L. Delos Reyes (DENR Staff), Ronald Atienza, Ate Virgie, Ka Batoy, Allan, Duing, and KaJovs Raza, during the fieldworks and to Dr. Leila Ombat and Prof. Roy Olsen de Leon, for the technical assistance in the identification of the samples and nutrient analysis.

REFERENCES

[1] Raven, P., Evert, R. and S. Eichorn., Biology of Plants.6th edition. W.H. Freeman and Company: New York (1999).

[2] Willoughby, L.C., Freshwater Biology. Pica Press: Great Britain (1977).

[3] Crowl, T.A., McDowel, W.H., Covich, A.P. and S.L. Johnson., Freshwater shrimp effects on detrital processing and nutrients in a tropical headwater stream. Ecology, 82(3): 775-783 (2001).

[4] Mueller, D. and D. Helsel, Nutrients in the Nation's Waters--Too Muchof a Good Thing? U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1136.National Water-Quality AssessmentProgram.http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/circ-1136.html. In: PHILMINAQ (2008).

[5] PHILMINAQ, Mitigating impacts from aquaculture in the Philippines. Annex 2. European Commision-Cordis (2008).

[6] Iowa Department of Natural Resources., Water Quality Standards Review: Chloride, Sulfate and Total Dissolved Solids. Consultation Package.79 pp. (2009)

[7] Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Environmental Management Bureau. Revised water usage and classification/water quality criteria amending section Nos. 68 and6 9, Chapter III of the 1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations. DENR Administrative Order No. 34 Series of 1990 (2009).

[8] Sutter, G.W. II, Cormier, S., Schofield, K., Gilliam, J. and C. Barbour. Undated. pH CADDIS Volume 2: Sources, Stressors and Responses. United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www3.epa.gov/caddis/ssr_ph_int.html. Viewed: December 21, 2015.

[9] Albertoni, E.F., Palma-Silva, C. and de Assis Esteves, F. Natural diet of three species of shrimp in a tropical coastal lagoon. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 46(3): 395-403 (2003).

[10] Wang, X., Qin, B., Gao, G., and H.W. Paerl. Nutrient enrichment and selective predation by zooplankton promote Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) bloom formation. Journal of Plankton Research. 32(4): 457-470.

[11] Willoughby, L.C. Freshwater Biology. Pica Press: Great Britain (1977).

[12] Lepistol., HolopainenA. L., H.T. Vuoristo, Type-specific and indicator taxa of phytoplankton as a quality criterion for assessing the ecological status of Finnish boreal lakes. Limnologica, 2004;34: 236-248 (2004).

[13] Tiwari, A and S.V.S. Chauhan. Seasonal phytoplanktonic diversity of Kitham Lake, Agra. J. Environ. Biol, 27: 3538 (2006).

[14] Tas, B. and A. Gonulol. An ecologic and taxonomic study on phytoplankton of a shallow lake, Turkey. J. Environ. Biol, 28: 439-445 (2007).

[15] Shekhar, R.T., Kiran B.R., Puttaiah E.T., Shivaraj Y, and K.M. Mahadevan. Phytoplankton as index of water quality with reference to industrial pollution. J. Environ. Biol, 29: 233-236 (2008).
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Author:Mascarenas, Doreen; Demayo, Cesar G.
Publication:Science International
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PHIL
Date:Aug 31, 2017
Words:1837
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