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NOx Emission Reduction in Annona Biodiesel Engine by Means of Antioxidant Additives.

INTRODUCTION

Alternative fuels have been widely used in the internal combustion engines due to extensive research in finding alternative sources for fossil based fuels. Vegetable oils, biodiesel, simple alcohols such as methanol and ethanol and blended fuels are utilized in combustion engines. The CO, HC and smoke emissions were reduced but [NO.sub.x] emission was increased with vegetable oil blends than that of diesel fuel. Further, the engine performance with vegetable oil blend or biodiesel was similar to that of diesel fuel [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

EFFECT OF BIODIESEL DIESEL BLENDS

The A20 blend shows better performance and lower exhaust emissions. Further, the CO, HC, and smoke emissions were reduced considerably. However, the [NO.sub.x] emission was slightly increased for the various proportions of Annona methyl ester (AME) [7]. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for Ceibapentandra biodiesel blends (CPB10) was higher than that of diesel and CO, HC and smoke emissions were reduced for all biodiesel blends. Further, the [NO.sub.x] and C[O.sub.2] emission were increased for CPB10 when compared to that of diesel [8]. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) of rice bran oil was higher than that of all blends at all loads and viscosity, better combustion and lesser emission than that of other blends of rice bran oil [9]. The Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of Jatropha biodiesel blends was lower and there is a slight increase in BSFC of Jatropha biodiesel blends than that of diesel. Further the HC, CO and smoke emissions were lower for Jatropha biodiesel blends than that of diesel but at the expense of increase in [NO.sub.x][10].

[NO.sub.x] Mechanism

As the use of biodiesel has increased tremendously the rise in [NO.sub.x] emission can became a significant barrier to market expansion. For pure 100% biodiesel increase the [NO.sub.x] emission by 13% than that of diesel. During combustion, the [NO.sub.x] is generated by three mechanism such as thermal, prompt and fuel. High combustion temperature (1700K) breaks the strong triple bond of nitrogen molecules and form high less reactive atomic nitrogen, then it reacts with the oxygen and generates thermal [NO.sub.x]. Further the formation of free radicals in the flame front of the HC flames leads to the rapid production of prompt [NO.sub.x]. The fuel [NO.sub.x] is formed by the reaction of nitrogen bond in the fuel with the oxygen during combustion process. Among these three mechanisms, thermal and prompt [NO.sub.x] are the dominant mechanisms in biodiesel operated diesel engine since biodiesel does not contain fuel bond nitrogen. The thermal mechanism is unaffected by fuel chemistry, whereas the prompt mechanism is sensitive to free radical in the reaction zone. Numerous reasons have been proposed for biodiesel [NO.sub.x] effect; however the exact cause is still unclear. The development of improved [NO.sub.x] reduction technologies is therefore critical to the global environment. Hence the antioxidants are very effective in controlling the [NO.sub.x] emission and it has potential antioxidant properties to supress the free radical formation. [11, 12, 13, 18,19]

Effect of Antioxidant Additives

The L-ascorbic acid antioxidant additive was mixed in various proportions such as 100-400 mg with methyl ester of cottonseed oil (MECSO). The [NO.sub.x] and HC emissions for LA300 with MECSO were reduced by 9.31% and 23.62% respectively. Further, the CO and smoke emissions were higher to all the mixtures of antioxidant additive with MECSO when compared to that of neat biodiesel [11]. The various antioxidant additives such as L-ascorbic acid, [alpha]-tocopherol acetate, butylatedhydroxytoluene, p-phenylenediamine and ethylenediamine were used. The [NO.sub.x] emission for 0.025%-m concentration of p-phenylenediamine was reduced by 43.55% when compared to other antioxidants additives at 0.025%-m concentration. Further, the HC and CO emissions were slightly increased with the addition of antioxidant additives [12]. The antioxidant additives, N, N'-diphenyl-l, 4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and N-phenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine (NPPD) were tested in a diesel engine. The maximum NO reduction for DPPD and NPPD additives were 9.35% and 4.06% respectively when compared to that of B20 at 75% load. Further, the aromatic amine antioxidants were reduced the NO emission below the level of conventional diesel engine [13]. The four synthetic antioxidants such as butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA), butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged DI diesel engine. The highest [NO.sub.x] emission reduction was found at EHN followed by BHT and BHA. The lowest [NO.sub.x] emission was observed for TBHQ [14]. The oxidation stability increases with the increase of antioxidant additive proportion and the [NO.sub.x] emission of BHT100 with MENO is reduced by 19.99% at full load condition when compared to that of neat biodiesel. However, the HC, CO and smoke emissions for all antioxidant mixture were increased slightly. Further, there is no variation in BTE with the addition of antioxidant additive in the biodiesel [15].

The EHN is a promising antioxidant additive for controlling the [NO.sub.x] emission at the expense of increasing the CO and HC emissions. Further, the BHA is also capable of decreasing the [NO.sub.x] and HC emission by 2.73% and 39.12% respectively at 1000 ppm concentration when compared to that of canola oil methyl ester (B20) without additive [16]. The [NO.sub.x] emission for BHA and BHT antioxidants were reduced by 9.8-12.6% when compared to that of palm methyl ester (B20). However, the CO and HC emissions were reduced for both antioxidants additives with B20 by 8.6-12.3% and 9.1-12.0%, respectively when compared to that of B20[17]. The [NO.sub.x] emission for MENO + P200 was reduced by 35% when compared to that of neat diesel. Further, the HC emission for MENO+P200 is reduced by 31% at full load when compared to that of neat diesel, but C[O.sub.2], CO and smoke emissions for all concentrations were found to be increased [18]. The [NO.sub.x] emission for MENO + AT100 was reduced by 25.95% at full load when compared to that of neat biodiesel. Further, the HC, CO and smoke emissions increases with increasing antioxidant concentration whereas there is no significant variation in BTE and BSFC [19]. The addition of BHT and MBEBP antioxidants to callophyllum inophyllum (CB30) resulted reduction in BSFC by 0.43% and 0.57%, respectively and increase in BTE by 0.36% and 0.45% respectively when compared to that of neat biodiesel. Further, the [NO.sub.x] emission for both BHT and MBEBP blends were reduced by 5.91% and 5.27% respectively, but there was a significant increase of HC, smoke and CO emissions [20]. The antioxidant was effectively controlling the [NO.sub.x] emission. Further, the addition of 0.15%-m DPPD additive in JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20 showed [NO.sub.x] emission reduction of 8.03%, 3.503%, 13.65% and 16.54% respectively, when compared to that of biodiesel blends without antioxidant additive [21]. The addition of butylatedhydroxyanisole was effectively controlling the [NO.sub.x] emission, but the other antioxidants were not reducing the [NO.sub.x] emission [22]. The performance characteristics for soybean biodiesel operated diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants. Further the addition antioxidant additives with soybean biodiesel was reduced the [NO.sub.x] emission efficiently decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidant additive [23].

Chemistry of Antioxidant

Addition of small amounts of antioxidants into the biodiesel suppress the free radical formation of the hydrogen is released from the weak OH (phenols,hydrouinones) and NH (aromatic amines, diamines) blends of antioxidant [13]. Lipid oxidation reaction, such as these in biodiesel, are intitated by the formation of peroxides. A requirement for this reaction is free radicals, which is formed from oxygen present in the atmosphere. The most effective way to inhibit the oxidation of biodiesel is to limit its exposure to oxygen by adding antioxidants to the FAME that can dispose of the formed oxygen radicals. The hydroxyl (-OH) group of the antioxidant is active so that hydrogen is abstracted from -OH by donating a hydrogen to hydroxyl. This condition leads to a quirere live structure of the antioxidant, which a significantly more stable than the radicals [20].

Reaction: OH+ROO. - R-O. +ROOH [17]

Table 1 depicts the effect of biodiesel-diesel blends on engine performance such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and exhaust emissions such as hydro carbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen ([NO.sub.x]), and smoke

Table 2 depicts the effect of antioxidant additives on [NO.sub.x], HC, CO smoke, BTE and BSFC.

OVERVIEW

As discussed in the above mentioned literature review, although there have been a number of studies on biodiesel performance, emissions and their highlighted problem was higher [NO.sub.x] in the exhaust It has been seen from the literature review that while using 20% biodiesel that there was a decreases in performance and increase in the [NO.sub.x] emission. Hence, most of the researchers have attempted to find the various methods for reducing the [NO.sub.x] emission. The addition of antioxidant additives in biodiesel will be effective for reducing the [NO.sub.x] emission. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of annona biodiesel in India and suggest an appropriate solution of the future of biodiesel. Therefore, in the present investigation antioxidant additives has been used along with A20 blend for effectively controlling the [NO.sub.x] emission.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Test Fuel

The AME was used as test fuel in this study. The chemical composition of AME was C - 76.38%, H-11.26%, O - 12.39% and C/H- 6.16%. The custard apple seeds obtained were subjected to hot press at 85[degrees]C to produce raw oil. The little brown colour custard apple oil was filtered and the biodiesel was obtained through transesterification process using methanol as alcohol and NaOH as catalyzer. EN14214 standard test methods were taken as reference in measuring the obtained values. The properties of A20 with diesel were tested as per the ASTM standards and compared to diesel as given shown in Table.3. The AME contains 49.6% saturated methyl ester and 50.1% unsaturated methyl ester. The free fatty acid (FFA) compositions (%w/w) of AME contains such as lauric - 0.40%; mystric-0.18%; Palmtic -17.57%, stearic-16.60%; oleic-45.83%; and lindic-17.79%. The rancimat method was to determine of the oxidant stability of A20 with antioxidant additives. The lower percentage of saturated fatty acids in AME correlated with lower [NO.sub.x] and good oxidant stability.

PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL BLEND AND ANTIOXIDANT ADDITIVE

The P-phenylendiamine (PPDA), [alpha]-tocopherolaceate (AT) and L-ascorbic acid (LA) were selected for this present investigation because of its properties, oxidation stability, availability, cost and rate of suppression of [NO.sub.x] emission. These antioxidants were effectively controlling the free radical formation, since it determines the reaction rate and prompt [NO.sub.x] formation in the engine. The properties of the antioxidants such as PPDA, AT and LA were given in Table 4. All additives were accurately weighed for using high precision electronic balance and added to the measured quantity of annona methyl ester. To make 50mg of antioxidant mixture 0.005%-m of antioxidant was added to 1 kg of biodiesel. A speed mixer was used to prepare a homogenous mixture of test fuel. The same procedure was followed for all other test mixtures of annona methyl ester with 50 mg, 150 mg, 250 mg, 350 mg and 450 mg concentrations.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

Experimental Setup

The experiments were conducted on single cylinder direct injection diesel engine which mounted rigidly on the floor as shown in Fig 1. One end of the engine was connected with eddy current dynamometer to apply load. The specification of the test engine as shown in Table 5. Initially, diesel fuel was filled in the tank and was supplied to the engine through the burette. The biodiesel- diesel blend was mixed separately kept in a small tank and supplied to the engine. The temperature of different parts of the engine like intake, exhaust, coolant temperature etc. were measured from the temperature sensors on the measuring board. The U tube manometer was used to measure the air level in the engine. The speed of the engine was measured using the speed sensor which senses the speed of rotating crank shaft. The smoke was measured using smoke meter. The carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydrocarbon emissions were measured using di-gas analyser. A computer was connected with the engine using Data Acquisition System (a sensors interface) which plots the graphs automatically according to the operation of the engine. A number of tests were carried out at a constant speed of 1500 rpm and variable loads. The loads vary from no load to full load, brake power was calculated using constant speed and the corresponding torque. The A20 blend with various antioxidant concentrations were used. The tests were repeated for three times and was averaged to ensure the reproducibility of data. Uncertainty analysis was done to prove the accuracy of experiments. The list of instruments and its range, accuracy and percentage uncertainties wereshown in Table 6.

Gaseous emissions data including measures of CO, CO, NO and HC were measured at wet sample conditions according to SAE J816B specifications and procedures. Statistical analyses were also adopted and measures of performance were corrected to standard atmospheric conditions (SAE J816B). Gaseous emission data included non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analysis of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) and hydrocarbons (HC) and chemiluminescent measurements of [NO.sub.x] and oxygen ([O.sub.2]). The emissions measurements were done according to specifications and procedures described on SAE Engine Test Code J816b.

All engine performance data were corrected to the standard atmospheric conditions given below.

The power correction factor used was (according to Turkish Standards, TS 1231).

[formula not reproducible]

where

[formula not reproducible]

[T.sub.a] is ambient temperature (K), [P.sub.a] is ambient pressure (k[P.sub.a]), q is fuel delivery rate (mg/cycle) and is compressor pressure ratio (for naturally aspirated engines, r=1).

TEST PROTOCAL

The A20 blend was selected for this present investigation and conducted experiments to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine. The antioxidant additives such as P-Phenylendiamine, [alpha]-tocopherol acetate and L-ascorbic acid in different concentrations of 50 mg, 150 mg, 250 mg, 350 mg and 450 mg were added with A20 blend to suppress the [NO.sub.x] emission. The experiments were conducted in the following manner.

1. The experiments were conducted with A20 blend with different concentrations of P-Pheylenediamine antioxidant additive.

2. The experiments were conducted with A20 blend with different concentrations of [alpha]-tocopherol acetate antioxidant additive.

3. The experiments were conducted with A20 blend with different concentrations of L-ascorbic acid antioxidant additive.

4. The experiments were conducted A20 blend with various antioxidant additives of 250mg.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Oxides of Nitrogen Emission ([NO.sub.x])

In this section, the experimental investigation on [NO.sub.x] emission of diesel engine using A20 blend at different concentrations of additives such as 50 mg, 150 mg, 250 mg, 350 mg and 450 mg of P-Phenylendiamine, [alpha]-tocopherol acetate and L-ascorbic acid has been carried out in a diesel engine. The [NO.sub.x] emission graphs were plotted against the brake power. The reason for reduction in [NO.sub.x] emission was discussed elaborately in the following section.

P-Phenylenediamine (PPDA)

Figure 2a shows the variation of [NO.sub.x] emission with brake power for A20 blend with different concentrations of PPDA additive. The addition of PPDA antioxidant decreases the [NO.sub.x] emission at all loads. Among different concentrations, 250mg shows lower [NO.sub.x] emission by 25.7% when compared to that of A20 blend at maximum load. This is due to reduction in formation of free radicals by the PPDA addition in the fuel. Further, the antioxidant additive PPDA has potential antioxidant properties that trap the free radicals effectively in the combustion chamber at all loads and hence the [NO.sub.x] emission was significantly reduced. The reduction in [NO.sub.x] emissions increase with the increase of concentration up to certain limit at lower loadings and starts to decrease beyond it at higher loadings. The possible reason for the inverse relationship between treatment and amount of [NO.sub.x] reduction is that the PPDA antioxidant contain nitrogen in its chemical structure and at higher loading, the excess antioxidant reacts with oxygen and forms additional [NO.sub.x].[12,18]

Tocopherel Acetate (AT)

Figure 2b shows the variation of [NO.sub.x] emission with brake power for A20 blend with different concentrations of AT additive. The [NO.sub.x] emission for 250 mg was decreased by 22% than that of A20 blend at maximum load. The AT was chain breaking antioxidant and its antioxidant activity was mainly due to their ability to donate its phenolic hydrogen to free radicals and reduces the [NO.sub.x] emission considerably. Further, this is also due to presence of nitrogen content in the antioxidant additive [19].

L-Ascorbic Acid (LA)

Figure 2c shows the variation of [NO.sub.x] emission with brake power for A20 blend with different concentrations of LA additive. The [NO.sub.x] emission increases with the increasing brake power for all antioxidant concentrations at all loads. Further, the [NO.sub.x] emission decreases with the increasing percentage of antioxidant additive in the A20 blend. Among the different concentrations, 250 mg shows better reduction of [NO.sub.x] and it was decreased by 23.38% when compared to that of A20blend at full load. This is due to the reduction in the formation of free radicals by antioxidant present in the fuel. Further, the temperature in combustion chamber was reduced in the presence of additive and thereby reduces the NO formation [11].

Different Antioxidant Additives Concentration of 250 mg with A20

It was seen from the preceding sections that 250 mg of antioxidant additive concentration along with A20 proved that the [NO.sub.x] emission for all the three antioxidant additives at 250mg was considerably reduced than that of A20blend. Hence, in the present work, performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using A20 blend with 250mg of three antioxidant additives such as PPDA, AT and LA were carried out. The performance and emission graphs were plotted against brake power. The reasons for reduction of [NO.sub.x] emission and other emissions were also discussed elaborately.

Comparison of Oxides of Nitrogen Emission ([NO.sub.x])

Figure 3 shows the variation of [NO.sub.x] emission with brake power of A20 blend mixed with 250 mg of different antioxidant additives. It was observed that the [NO.sub.x] emission decreases with increasing BP for different antioxidant additives at all loads. It was also found that the [NO.sub.x] emission was lower for all antioxidant additives than that of A20. Among the different antioxidant additives, PPDA has lower [NO.sub.x] emission than that of other antioxidant additives concentrations. This is due to reduction in the formation of free radicals by antioxidant additives. The PPDA has potential antioxidant properties which can trap the free radicals effectively and thereby reduces the [NO.sub.x] emission considerably. The reason for decrease in [NO.sub.x] emission for PPDA is donating of an electron or hydrogen atom to a radical derivate [11-12, 18-19].

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Emission (HC)

Figure 4 shows the variation of HC emission with brake of A20blend mixed with 250 mg of different antioxidant additives. It was seen from the Figure 4 that the HC emission increases with BP for different antioxidant additives at all loads. All antioxidants showed slight decrease of the HC emission at all loads when compared to that of A20. Among the different antioxidants, PPDA has lower HC emission than that of other antioxidant additives. This is due to PPDA was a reducing agent and leads to reduction in functional group present in the A20 fuel and hence decreases the HC emission[11-12,18-19].

Comparison of Carbon Monoxide Emission (CO)

Figure 5 shows the variation of CO emission with brake power of A20 blend mixed with 250 mg of different antioxidant additives. It was found that the CO emission decreases with BP for different antioxidant additives at all loads. It was also found that the CO emission for all antioxidant additives was lower than that of A20. Among the different antioxidant additives, PPDA 250 mg has lower CO emission than that of other antioxidants. This is due to reduction in carbon oxidation by scavenging of the OH radicals and more amount of OH radicals involved in the combustion reaction [11-12,18-19].

Comparison of Smoke Emission

Figure 6 shows the variation of smoke emission with brake power of A20 blend mixed with 250 mg of different antioxidant additives.

It was observed that the smoke emission increases with increasing BP for different antioxidant additives at all loads. It was also found that the smoke emission was lower for all antioxidant additives than that of A20. The smoke emission for PPDA was lower when compared to that of other antioxidant additives. This is due to complete combustion which results from the antioxidant addition [11-12,18-19].

Comparison of Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE)

Figure 7 shows the variation of BTE with brake power for A20 blend with 250mg of different antioxidant additives. The BTE increases with BP for all antioxidant additives at all loads. There is a slight variation in BTE for antioxidants when compared to that of A20 at all loads. Among the different antioxidant additives, PPDA 250mg has higher BTE than that of other antioxidant additives.

The reason for decrease in BTE for antioxidant additives when compared to that of A20 is due to incomplete and improper combustion and reduction in cylinder pressure which results from the addition of antioxidant additive in the biodiesel.

Comparison of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC)

Figure 8 shows the variation of BSFC with brake power of A20blend mixed with 250 mg of different antioxidant additives. It was observed from the graph that the BSFC decreases with BP for different antioxidant additives at all loads. Among the different antioxidants, PPDA shows lower BSFC than that of other antioxidants. This is due to the reduction in friction properties of the PPDA additive. The increase in BSFC for AT and LA is due to excess fuel supplied to the engine and to compensate the slight power loss which results from incomplete and improper combustion [11-12,18-19].

Comparison of Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)

Figure 9 shows the variation of EGT with brake power of A20 blend mixed with 250 mg of different antioxidant additives. It was observed that the EGT increases with BP for different antioxidant additives at all loads. Among the different antioxidants, PPDA 250 mg has lower EGT than that of other antioxidants. Although biodiesel-diesel blends having higher cetane number, poor atomization resulting from the higher viscosity causes unburnt fuel in the premixed combustion phase and continue to burn in the diffusion combustion phase and leads to increase in EGT. Antioxidant biodiesel blends shows reduction in EGT due to the additive hindered the fuel conversion slightly [11-12,18-19]

CONCLUSION

Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder DI diesel engine using A20 blend with different concentrations of antioxidant additives such as P-Phenylendiamine, [alpha]-tocopherel aceate and L-ascorbic acid. The following conclusion were drawn based on the analysis of result and discussion.

a. The addition of antioxidant additives showed no variation in the engine performance.

b. The [NO.sub.x] emission was reduced with all antioxidant additives.

c. Among the different concentrations of antioxidant additive, 250 mg concentration of antioxidant additive shows drastic reduction in [NO.sub.x] emission.

d. Among the different antioxidant additive, P-Phenylendiamine shows identical performance to that of A20 and maximum reduction of [NO.sub.x] emission and considerable reduction of other emissions such as HC, CO and smoke.

Hence, based on the experimental investigation, PPDA can be selected as optimum antioxidant additive, which can be added in the A20 biodiesel blend to suppress the [NO.sub.x] emission significantly. It is a simple and cost effective method without change in any engine modification. The percentage of antioxidant addition is very small (0.01-0.04%). Therefore, I did not go for any further investigation. In future more experimental research are request to clarify the effects of antioxidants

of emissions, effectiveness and nozzle choking and in a wide range of operating conditions.

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ABBREVIATIONS

A20 - 20% of AME + 80% diesel

HC - Hydrocarbon

CO - Carbon monoxide

[NO.sub.x] - Nitrogen oxides

BTE - Brake thermal efficiency

BSFC - Brake specific fuel consumption

EGT - Exhaust Gas Temperature

AME - Annona Methyl estert

APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1: THE ERROR BAR CALCULATION OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANT ADDITIVES CONCENTRATION OF 250MG WITH A20

BTE
       Test 1    Test 2    Test 3    Average      Maximum   Minimum
                                                  value     value

kW     A         B         C         D=(A+B+C)/3  E         F
0       0         0         0         0            0         0
1.256  15.98878  14.08878  13.58878  14.55544667  15.98878  13.58878
2.512  24.8685   23.97     23.8685   24.23566667  24.8685   23.8685
3.768  30.96162  30.5      29.96162  30.47441333  30.96162  29.96162
5.024  32.90081  31.12     30.90081  31.64054     32.90081  30.90081
                                                  Average error =

       +ve Error    -ve Error

kW     G=E-D        H=D-F
0      0            0
1.256  1.433333333  0.966666667
2.512  0.632833333  0.367166667
3.768  0.487206667  0.512793333
5.024  1.26027      0.73973
       0.03         0.07


BSFC
       Test 1    Test 2    Test 3    Average      Maximum   Minimum
                                                  value     value

kW     A         B         C         D=(A+B+C)/3  E         F
0      0         0         0         0            0         0
1.256  0.543604  0.533604  0.523604  0.533604     0.543604  0.523604
2.512  0.343126  0.333126  0.323126  0.333126     0.343126  0.323126
3.768  0.236241  0.226241  0.216241  0.226241     0.236241  0.216241
5.024  0.24909   0.23909   0.22909   0.23909      0.24909   0.22909
                                                  Average error =

       +ve Error  -ve Error

kW     G=E-D      H=D-F
0      0          0
1.256  0.01       0.01
2.512  0.01       0.01
3.768  0.01       0.01
5.024  0.01       0.01
       0.01       0.01


EGT
       Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  Average      Maximum  Minimum
                                            value    value

kW     A       B       C       D=(A+B+C)/3  E        F
0      135     133     132     133.3333333  135      132
1.256  148     146     144     146          148      144
2.512  159     157     154     156.6666667  159      154
3.768  173     171     169     171          173      169
5.024  184     182     178     181.3333333  184      178

                        +ve Error    -ve Error

kW                      G=E-D        H=D-F
0                       1.666666667  1.333333333
1.256                   2            2
2.512                   2.333333333  2.666666667
3.768                   2            2
5.024                   2.666666667  3.333333333
       Average error =  2.133333333  2.266666667


CO
       Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  Average      Maximum  Minimum
                                            value    value

kW     A       B       C       D=(A+B+C)/3  E        F
0      0.07    0.08    0.09    0.08         0.09     0.07
1.256  0.06    0.07    0.08    0.07         0.08     0.06
2.512  0.05    0.06    0.07    0.06         0.07     0.05
3.768  0.03    0.04    0.06    0.043333333  0.06     0.03
5.024  0.02    0.03    0.05    0.033333333  0.05     0.02

                        +ve Error    -ve Error

kW                      G=E-D        Ff=D-F
0                       0.01         0.01
1.256                   0.01         0.01
2.512                   0.01         0.01
3.768                   0.016666667  0.013333333
5.024                   0.016666667  0.013333333
       Average error =  0.012666667  0.011333333


HC
       Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  Average       Maximum  Minimum
                                             value    value

kW     A       B       C       D=(A+B+C)/3   E        F
0       26      28      30      28            30       26
1.256   56      58      61      58.33333333   61       56
2.512  128     131     134     131           134      128
3.768  273     278     280     277           280      273
5.024  397     402     409     402.6666667   409      397

                        +ve Error    -ve Error

kW                      G=E-D        H=D-F
0                       2            2
1.256                   2.666666667  2.333333333
2.512                   3            3
3.768                   3            4
5.024                   6.333333333  5.666666667
       Average error =  3.5          3.3


[NO.sub.x]
       Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  Average      Maximum  Minimum
                                            value    value

kW     A       B       C       D=(A+B+C)/3  E        F
0       8      11      13      10.66666667  13        8
1.256  12      14      16      14           16       12
2.512  14      17      19      16.66666667  19       14
3.768  16      19      21      18.66666667  21       16
5.024  18      22      26      22           26       18

                         +ve Error    -ve Error

kW                       G=E-D        H=D-F
0                        2.333333333  2.666666667
1.256                    2            2
2.512                    2.333333333  2.666666667
3.768                    2.333333333  2.666666667
5.024                    4            4
       Average error =   2.6          2.8


Smoke
       Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  Average       Maximum  Minimum
                                             value    value

kW     A       B       C       D=(A+B+C)/3   E        F
0       4       4.8     6.8     5.2           6.8      4
1.256   5.8     6.7     8.7     7.066666667   8.7      5.8
2.512   6.9     8.9    10.5     8.766666667  10.5      6.9
3.768   9.8    11      12.4    11.06666667   12.4      9.8
5.024  14.5    18      21      17.83333333   21       14.5

                         +ve Error    -ve Error

kW                       G=E-D        H=D-F
0                        1.6          1.2
1.256                    1.633333333  1.266666667
2.512                    1.733333333  1.866666667
3.768                    1.333333333  1.266666667
5.024                    3.166666667  3.333333333
       Average error =   1.893333333  1.786666667


APPENDIX 2

The variation of [NO.sub.x] for different concentration of antioxidant additive with respect to A20 blend at higher load
Different antioxidant additives  PPDA (%)  AT (%)  LA(%)
[NO.sub.x] various
Concentration

50mg                             19.82     17.87   16.94
150mg                            21.44     20.58   20.36
250mg                            25.76     22.20   21.62
350mg                            22.52     21.48   20.72
450mg                            18.73     18.59   17.83


Senthil Ramalingam and Silambarasan Rajendran

University College of Engineering, Villupuram

doi:10.4271/2017-01-9377
Table 1. Effect of biodiesel-diesel blends on engine performance and
exhaust emissions.

Type of     Single      Single     Single      Single
Engine      Cylinder 4  Cylinder   Cylinder 4  Cylinder
            stroke      4 stroke   stroke      4 stroke
            Diesel      Diesel     Diesel      Diesel
            Engine      Engine     Engine      Engine

Feed stock  Jatropa     Rice bran  Ceiba       Annona
            Biodiesel   oil (B25)  Pentandra   Methyl
            (J20)                  biodiesel   ester
BTE         Decrease    Decrease   Decrease    Decrease
BSFC        Increase
EGT         -           -          -           Increase
HC          Decrease    Decrease   Decrease    Decrease
CO          Decrease    Decrease   Decrease    Decrease
[NO.sub.x]  Increase    Increase   Increase    Increase
Smoke       Decrease    -          -
References  [10]        [9]        [8]         [7]

Table 2. Effect of additives on engine performance and emissions

Type of     Single    Single   Single  Land        Single
Engine      Cylinder  Cylinde  Cylind  over        Cylinder
            4 stroke  r4       er      turbo       4 stroke
            Diesel    stroke   4       Charged     Diesel
            Engine    Diesel   stroke  D.I         Engine
                      Engine   Diesel  diesel
                               Engin   engine
                               e

Feed        Cotton    Jatroph  Soybe   B20         Neem oil
stock       seed      a        an                  methyl
            methyl    methyl   biodie              ester
            ester     ester    sel                 (B100)
            (B100)    (B20)    (B20)
Types       L-        P-       N,N'-   2-          Butylate
of          Ascorbic  Phenyle  Diphe   Ethylhex    dHydrox
additive    Acid      nediami  nyl-    yl Nitrate  ytoluene
s           (LA3000   ne(250   l,4Phe  (EHN)       (BHT)
                      mg)      nylene
                               diamin
                               e
BTE         -         -        -       -           No-
                                                   variation
BSFC        -         -        -       -           No-
                                                   variation
HC          Decrease  Decreas  -       Decrease    Decrease
            (9.3%)    e
                      (43.55
                      %)
CO          Increase  Increas  -       Increase    Increase
                      e
[NO.sub.x]  Decrese   Decreas  Deere   Decrease    Decrease
                      e        ase
Smoke       Increase  -        -       -           Increase
Referen     [11]      [12]     [13]    [14]        [15]
ces

Type        Single  Single  Single   Single   Single   Multi
of          Cylind  Cylind  Cylind   Cylind   Cylinde  cylin
Engin       er 4    er 4    er 4     er 4     r4       der
e           stroke  stroke  stroke   stroke   stroke   Diese
            Diesel  Diesel  Diesel   Diesel   Diesel   1
            Engin   Engin   Engin    Engin    Engine   Engi
            e       e       e        e                 ne

Feed        Canol   Palm    Neem     Neem     Caloph   Jatro
stock       a oil   methyl  oil      oil      yllumin  pha
            methyl  ester   Methy    Methy    ophyllu  biodi
            ester   (B20)   1 ester  1 ester  m        esel
            (B20)           (B100             biodies  biodi
                            )                 el       esel
                                              (compa   blend
                                              red)     s
Types       EHN     BHA     P-       A-
of          91000   (1000   phenyl   Tocop    BHT &    DPP
additiv     ppm)    ppm     enedia   herala            D(15
es          and     BHT     minE     cetate   MBEB     Omg)
            Butyla  (1000   (200m    (100m    P
            tedhyd  PPM)    g        g)
            roxyan
            isole
BTE         -       -       -        -        Decreas  -
                                              e
                                              (0.36%)
BSFC        -       -       -        -        Decreas  -
                                              e
                                              (0.43%)
HC          Increa  Deere   Increa   Increa   Increas  Incre
            se      ase     se       se       e        ase
                    (8.6%)
CO          Increa  Deere   Increa   Increa   Increas  Incre
            se      ase     se       se       e        ase
[NO.sub.x]  Deere   Deere   Deere    Deere    Decreas  Deer
            ase     ase     ase      ase      e        ease
                            (35%)    (25.95   (5.9%)   (13.6
                                              %)       5%)
Smoke       Increa  Increa  Increa   Increa   Increas  Incre
            se      se      se       se       e        ase
Refere      [16]    [17]    [18]     [19]     [20]     [21]
nces

Table 3. Properties of A20 and diesel [7]

Property                                    Standard  Diesel
                                            Method

Kinematic viscosity in est at 40[degrees]C  ASTM
                                            D613          3.10
Calorific value in KJ/kg                    ASTM
                                            D240      43200
Density at 15[degrees]C in kg/mm3           ASTM
                                            D941        830
Cetane Index                                ASTM
                                            D93          46.40
Flash point ([degrees]C)                    ASTM
                                            D445         56
Sulphur content (%)                         ASTM
                                            D4294         0.01
Iodine number                               EN
                                            14111     -
Oxidation Stability at 110[degrees]C (h)    EN15751   -

Property                                    Standard  A20
                                            Method

Kinematic viscosity in est at 40[degrees]C  ASTM
                                            D613          3.52
Calorific value in KJ/kg                    ASTM
                                            D240      42475
Density at 15[degrees]C in kg/mm3           ASTM
                                            D941        838.40
Cetane Index                                ASTM
                                            D93          47.52
Flash point ([degrees]C)                    ASTM
                                            D445         60
Sulphur content (%)                         ASTM
                                            D4294         0.001
Iodine number                               EN
                                            14111       112
Oxidation Stability at 110[degrees]C (h)    EN15751       6.90

Table 4. Properties of antioxidants additives[12]

Antioxidant         Formula                        CAS       Molecular
                                                   number    weight
                                                             g/mol

P-
pheylenediamine     [C.sub.6][H.sub.8][N.sub.2]    106-50-3  108.14
[alpha]-tocopherol
acetate             [C.sub.31][H.sub.52][O.sub.3]   59-02-9  430.71
L-ascorbic acid     [C.sub.6][H.sub.8][O.sub.6]     50-81-7  176.13

Antioxidant         Melting         Boiling     Density
                    point           point       g/[cm.sup.3]
                    [degrees]C      [degrees]C

P-
pheylenediamine     145 to 147      267         1.00
[alpha]-tocopherol
acetate               2.50 to 3.50  200 to 220  0.950
L-ascorbic acid     190             553         1.69

Table 5. The specification of the test engine

Manufacturer               Kirloskar oil engines limited

Model                      TV1
Type of engine             Vertical, 4-stroke cycle, single acting,
                           single cylinder, compression ignition
                           diesel engine
Displacement                661 cc
Max brake power               5.2 kW
Speed                      1500 rpm
CR                           17.5:1
Lubrication system         Forced feed system
Bore and stroke              87.5 X 110 mm
Method of cooling          Water cooled
Fly wheel diameter         1262 mm
Injection pressure          200 bar

Table 6. List of instruments and its range, accuracy and percentage
uncertainties.

Instruments            Range              Accuracy        Percentage
                                                          uncertainties

Gas analyser           CO 0-10%,          [+ or -]0.02%   [+ or -]0.2
                       C[O.sub.2]0-20%,   [+ or -]0.03%   [+ or -]0.15
                       HC 0-              [+ or -]20 ppm  [+ or -].0.2
                       10,000 ppm
                       [NO.sub.x] 0-5000  [+ or -]10 ppm  [+ or -]0.2
                       ppm
Smoke level            BSU 0-100          [+ or -]0.1     [+ or -]1
measuring
instrument
Exhaust gas            0-900 C            [+ or -]1 C     [+ or -]0.15
temperature indicator
Speed measuring        0-1000 rpm         [+ or -]10 rpm  [+ or -]0.1
unit
Load indicator         0-100 kg           [+ or -]0.1 kg  [+ or -]0.2
Burette for fuel                          [+ or -]0.l cc  [+ or -]1
measurement
Digital stop watch                        [+ or -]0.6 s   [+ or -]0.2
Manometer                                 [+ or -]1 mm    [+ or -]1
Pressure pickup        0-110 bar          [+ or -]0.1     [+ or -]0.1
Crank angle encoder                       [+ or -]1       [+ or -]0.2
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Title Annotation:nitrogen oxides
Author:Ramalingam, Senthil; Rajendran, Silambarasan
Publication:SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Article Type:Report
Date:Nov 1, 2017
Words:6779
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