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NOTA EDITORIAL.

Este numero de la Revista de Historia de America presenta dos grandes temas. Por una parte, una muy interesante entrada a los estudios culturales con dos trabajos con tendencia al pasado, tematica de sentido prioritario para comprender la integracion de las Americas y profundos conocimientos sobre el papel de la cultura en el proceso integrador. En primer lugar, Liliana Weinberg estudia como Gabriela Mistral logro, a traves de sus textos en prosa, y particularmente sus recados, encontrar una forma que reuniera, en la practica y simbolicamente, su creciente militancia en favor de una integracion de America por la cultura y la palabra. Muestra la manera como en esos "recados"--y en la poesia de la Premio Nobel, por supuesto--el programa de integracion se hace programa estetico y "espiritual". Por su parte, Isabel de Leon Olivares hace un estudio en torno a la correspondencia literaria de un escritor que participo activamente en las redes epistolares que tejieron el panorama intelectual latinoamericano durante el primer cuarto del siglo XX: Federico Garcia Godoy. Si bien este escritor podria considerarse una figura "menor", en su tiempo fue uno de los escritores de Republica Dominicana mas conocidos y reconocidos en el extranjero. Gran parte de su prestigio literario provino, precisamente, de un prolifico intercambio epistolar.

Un segundo tema es el papel que la defensa del Imperio Espanol y sus secuelas tuvieron en la definicion territorial y etnica de la region. Carlos Conover muestra la manera como los imperios britanico y espanol contendieron por la posesion del sur-oriente de la peninsula de Yucatan durante los siglos XVII y XVIII, una region conocida en la epoca como el Walix (norte de Belice). El Tratado de Paz de Versalles de 1783 y la Convencion de Londres de 1786, definieron finalmente la situacion regional. Por el primer acuerdo diplomatico se creo un distrito entre los rios Hondo y Belice para concentrar a todos los britanicos dispersos en el litoral centroamericano; y por el segundo se amplio dicho espacio hasta el rio Sibun. El teniente de rey de Campeche demarco los limites territoriales de la nueva concesion a mediados de 1787 erigiendo columnas doricas in situ. Al finalizar los trabajos, quedo clara y finalmente delimitada el area de los Establecimientos Britanicos del Walix. En retrospectiva, fue el momento exacto del trazo de la primera frontera moderna entre Mexico y Belice. Por su parte, Juan Carlos Sarazua se propone lograr un balance historiografico sobre las formas complejas y sutiles que llevaron a la recreacion de las diferencias etnicas en Guatemala y Chiapas a traves de los reclutamientos y movilizaciones militares. Se eligio el periodo 1821-1870 porque fue el lapso temporal que reporto mas conflictos y, sobre todo, porque fue el momento en que se dieron los primeros pasos de experimentacion republicana frente a la herencia del manejo de la heterogeneidad etnica del periodo colonial.

Finalmente, se integran dos textos mas de manera miscelanea. Uno, de Paola Ugalde, muestra la manera en que Ernesto Chavero, politico y empresario ha sido un personaje desconocido para la historiografia, aun cuando fue importante en el campo editorial de inicios del siglo XX. Educado en un ambiente intelectual de escritores, historiadores y politicos, no deja de sorprender a quien se adentra en su vida. Este articulo revela la travesia de este hombre que aprovecho todos los recursos que tuvo a su alcance para entrar a la vida politica y ser un gran empresario. Perteneciente a la elite porfirista, tuvo la habilidad de hacerse de redes sociales, politicas y economicas que le permitieron formar su empresa. Finalmente, Hector Castrillon muestra como, al releer testimonios desde una perspectiva antropologica, se hace evidente como en Dominicana las esclavas se relacionaron con hombres libres con el proposito de aumentar sus espacios de libertad.

Ruben Ruiz Guerra

Editor

EDITORIAL

This issue of the History of America Journal presents two major themes. Firstly, there is a very interesting approach to cultural studies with two pieces of work that attract interest in the past, this being a priority for understanding the integration of the Americas and deeper knowledge about the role of culture in the process of integration. In the first article, Liliana Weinberg studies how Gabriela Mistral, through her prose texts and particularly her letters, managed to find a way that gathered together, in practice and symbolically, her growing commitment towards an integration of America through culture and letters. It shows how, in these "letters"--and also in the poetry of the winner of the Nobel prize, of course--this integration becomes an aesthetic and "spiritual" program. Turning to Isabel de Leon Olivares, she has earned out a study concerning the literary correspondence of a writer who participated actively in the networks by correspondence that put together the Latin American intellectual scene during the first quarter of the twentieth century: Federico Garcia Godoy. Although this writer may be considered as a "minor" figure, in his time he was one of the most well-known writers of the Dominican Republic and recognized outside, abroad. A large part of his literary prestige came, as it happens, from a prolific exchange of letters.

A second theme is the role that the defence of the Spanish Empire and its consequences had on the territorial and ethnic definition of the region. Carlos Conover shows the way in which the British and Spanish empires contended for the control of the south-east of the Yucatan peninsula during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this being a region known at the time as Walix (northern Belize). The Versailles Peace Treaty of 1783 and the Convention of London of 1786, gave final definition to the regional situation. Under the first of these diplomatic agreements, a district was set up between the Hondo and Belice rivers in order to concentrate all the Britons spread out along the central American coast, and under the second this space was enlarged up to the Sibun river. The representative of the king, de Campeche, established the territorial boundaries of the new concession at the middle of 1787, setting up Doric columns in situ. Once these tasks were done, the British Establishments of the Walix were clearly and finally delimited. In retrospect, this was the exact moment in which the first modem boundary was defined between Mexico and Belize. Separately, Juan Carlos Sarazua proposes to achieve a historiographical account about the complex and subtle methods that lead to the reorganization of the various ethnic groups in Guatemala y Chiapas through military recruitment and mobilization. The period 1821-1870 was chosen because it was the interval of time in which the most conflicts have been recorded and, above all, because it was the moment in which the first steps towards republican experiments were taken in the face of the legacy of managing a heterogeneous ethnic situation from the colonial period.

Finally, two texts are included in a more miscellaneous manner. Paola Ugalde shows the way in which Ernesto Chavcro, a politician and business leader, has been a figure unknown to historiography, even though he was important in editorial spheres in the early twentieth century. Educated in an intellectual environment of writers, historians and politicians, he docs not cease to surprise those who become familiar with his life. This article covers the journey of this man who took advantage of all the resources available to him to enter political life and to be a major businessman. Belonging to the Porfirian elite, he was able to use social, political and economic networks that enabled him to set up his business. Finally, Hector Castrillon shows how, on re-reading records from witnesses from an anthropological perspective, it becomes how, in the Dominican Republic, slaves related to free men for the purpose of increasing their areas for liberty.

Ruben Ruiz Guerra

Editor
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Author:Ruiz Guerra, Ruben
Publication:Revista de Historia de America
Article Type:Editorial
Date:Jan 1, 2016
Words:1354
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