Printer Friendly

NIAB-777: AN EARLY MATURING, HIGH YIELDING AND BETTER QUALITY COTTON MUTANT DEVELOPED THROUGH POLLEN IRRADIATION TECHNIQUE-SUITABLE FOR HIGH DENSITY PLANTING.

Byline: M. Aslam, M. A. Haq, A. A. Bandesha and S. Haidar

ABSTRACT

This paper describes development of mutant NIAB-777 with improved yield and fibre characters through pollen irradiation method. A cross between NIAB-78 and REBA-288 using gamma irradiated pollen at the rate of 10 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays before cross pollination was attempted. The objective was to create new genetic variability and select the desirable new cotton mutants. After irradiation followed by hybridization subsequent generations were raised to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment. Significant variations from control/parent s were observed. From M1 generation, the M2 population was grown and different desirable mutants having higher yield, early maturity, resistance/tolerance to diseases were selected. These were evaluated for yield potential and desirable other economic trai ts in different generations till uniformity was achieved. Of these, M-7/02, later named as cv. NIAB-777 was finally selected.

It produced 23.4% and 18.5% higher seed cotton yield from standards at local trials. It produced higher seed cotton yield in regional adaptability trials (17.4%), provincial coordinated cotton trials (16.6 %) and in national coordinated varietal trials (8.8 %) compared to standard cv. CIM-496. It has desirable fibre quality traits i.e. ginning out turn (GOT) of 37.6%, fibre length of 28.81 mm, fibre fineness of 4.67 ug/inch, uniformity index of 85.0%, fibre maturity 81.2% and fibre strength 91.12 thousand pounds per square inch (TPPSI). NIAB-777 is suitable for high density planting. It has better tolerance to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease and insect pests. It is concluded that 10 Gray gamma irradiation in cotton has effectively stimulate/increase the agronomical characters and tolerance to disease.

Keywords: mutant, yield, fibre quality, cotton, pollen irradiation, NIAB-777

INTRODUCTION

Cotton is a crop of global importance and Pakistan is one of the prominent cotton producing and consuming country of the world. It is a source of fibre, cattle feed, edible oil and almost all parts of cotton plants are used extensively in several industries but cotton is mainly cultivated for its fibre and seed oil (Sial et al., 2014). In Pakistan, cotton production is important both to earn foreign exchange earnings and for textile industry. The cotton production showed a remarkable increase during last 60 years and the textile mills have been increased from 2 to over 500. It is estimated that our textile industry would require 20 million bales of lint by 2020 (Haidar et al., 2007).

Cotton is cultivated over an area of 3125, 000 ha with an annual production of 12.8 million bales (Anonymous, 2014). A large number of people in Pakistan are linked with cotton cultivation, ginning, oil industries, trade and spinning processes. Cotton producers in Pakistan are currently facing problem of rising production costs and static return.

Cotton belongs to genus Gossypium which consists of around 50 species including four species that are known as cultivated (Cronn et al.,1999). The tetraplod specie Gossypium hirsutum L. is covering most of the cultivated area in world including Pakistan. It is cultivated on approximately 98% of total cultivated area under cotton crop in Pakistan. Our main focus of research in the present scenario is on Gosspium hirsutum L. which occupied mostly cultivated area.

Lot of efforts have been made by cotton researchers to develop cotton varieties having high yield potential, desirable fibre quality and tolerance/resistance to insect's pests and diseases through conventional breeding approaches. But still there is a long way to go. There are limitations of availability of sufficient genetic variability in the native germplasm (Haidar et al., 2012). There is an increased interest in the quantitative and qualitative improvement of cotton cultivars. The success of all conventional breeding approaches is highly correlated with the genetic variability present within the existing germplasm. Mutations techniques have been used in different crops to improve yield, quality, disease and pest resistance and produced additional germplasm with desired traits (Maluszynski et al., 1995).

Number of mutants with improved characters of soybean (Hofmann et al., 2004), cotton (Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2007), cassava (Joseph et al., 2004), Chrysanthemum (Datta et al., 2004), potato (Li et al., 2005) and groundnut (Muthusamy et al., 2007) have been developed and released in the world through this technique (Ahloowaila et al., 2004).

The approaches like; the exposure of seed to ionizing radiations (Carnelius, 1973;Micke et al., 1987; Iqbal et al., 1991, 1994) and the treatment of pollen with low doses of gamma rays before cross-pollination resulted in creating genetic variability in cotton (Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2011). They developed cotton mutants through treatment of gamma rays and EMS on immature ovules and investigated the effects of mutagenic treatments and have observed variations during the subsequent generations. These mutant lines showed significant variation from control lines. Moreover, lower dose application of mutagenic treatments effectively stimulate the agronomical characters like, early flowering, plant height, number of bolls, yield of seed cotton, ginning out turn %age, seed index, harvest index and fibre characters (Haidaret al., 2016).

Generally in eukaryotic cells radiation treatments enhance crossing near the centromere region. Moreover, radiations as well as several chemicals are reported to increase somatic recombination (Ibragimov et al., 1965; Vig, 1973). Many plant breeding programmes have shown the feasibility of radiation plus selection as a direct method of varietal improvement. Irradiation of male parent pollen before cross-pollinations resulted in the induction of mutations in cotton (Haidar and Aslam, 2016). The studies carried out so for have shown that treatment of pollen with low doses of gamma rays (5 Gy to 20 Gy) before cross-pollinations are suitable to induce useful genetic variability in cotton (Yue and Zou, 2012).

The main objective of the study was to create genetic variability through crosses with irradiated male parent pollen and isolation and field evaluation of mutant line for better agronomic characters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant Material: Selfed seeds of commercially approved cotton variety NIAB-78 and an exotic line (REBA-288) were planted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan and approximately seventy plants of each genotype were developed. The plant material was obtained from the gene pool established at NIAB. The local cv. NIAB-78 has good agronomic traits along with better yield potential, average quality parameters but susceptible to cotton leaf curl virus disease. Whereas, the exotic line REBA-288 is bushy type with average quality parameters but better tolerance/resistance to cotton leaf curl virus disease. At maturity flower buds of female parent were emasculated before anthesis during evening hours and covered with paper bags. Flower buds of male parent were also covered to protect any mixing. The cross was made by utilizing NIAB-78 (local cotton variety)as female parent with REBA-288 (exotic line) as male parent.

Radiation Treatment: Male parent pollen was collected from covered flowers after anthesis and irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co irradiation source.The irradiation was performed at room temperatureat NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Emasculated flowers were pollinated with irradiated pollen and rebagged to prevent uncontrolled crossing. Bolls developed from the crossed flowers were harvested and the seeds were obtained and designated as Mo seeds.

Evaluation of mutated generations: M1 population was developed from Mo seed along with both parents as control at experimental fields of NIAB, Faisalabad.The seeds were planted at a spacing of 30 x 75cm plant to plant and row to row distance respectively. The seeds were collected from the bolls of M1 generation plants and their characteristics were recorded along with control. The M2 population was raised from M1 generation and it consisted of more than one thousand individual plants.In M2 generation, maximum numbers of mutants/ recombinants were selected keeping in view of different plant traits. In M1 generation, groups of plants were selected and carried forward on bulk basis. While in advanced generations (M2, M3, M4) single plants were selected. Thirty selected mutants were planted in M3 generation in three replications by using randomized complete block design (RCBD).

These progenies were studied in M3 generation for their breeding behavior and economic traits and better progenies were selected. Plant progeny rows were also studied in M4 generation to confirm selection of desirable traits.Finally the progeny M-7/02 was selected from M6 and bulked and named as NIAB-777.All these generations were raised and evaluated at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) where the soil type is clay loam having pH=7.2-7.5, EC value of 0.8-1.5 dS.m-1and NPK used (60: 23: 23 kg/acre). Agronomic practices (hoeing, removal of weeds both by manually and use of weedicides, irrigations, application of fertilizers etc), were carried out to have uniform stand of crop and normal growth. Different plant protection measures by spray of insecticides/pesticides were carried out throughout the cropgrowing to control or minimize the sucking (thrips, jassid, whitefly, aphid) and bollworm (heliothious, spotted, pink and army bollworms) insect pests.

Evaluation in adaptability trials: Various trials (local yield trials, zonal yield trials i.e. NCVT, PCCT, 1.25 acre PSC farm etc.) were conducted at public sector experimental institutes etc. The objective was to analyze yield potential, fibre quality traits and wider adaptability in different climatic zones of Pakistan.Various charactersto access the earliness of the selected mutant compared to standards were also recorded at NIAB. Screening for cotton leaf curl virus disease and insect pests: Screening against cotton leaf curl virus disease was done through grafting and whitefly inoculation technique. For grafting studies, ten pots for each variety were sown in glass house. Plants were inoculated with CLCuV-B through grafting by following the bottle shoot grafting method as described by Akhtaret al. (2002, 2010). Entomological studies regarding its response to sucking pests and damage by bollworms were also conducted under optimized spray condition at NIAB Faisalabad.

Fibre Characters analysis: Fibre characters of the selected mutant lines were analyzed using High Volume Instrument (HVI) as well as manually operated instruments at NIAB, Faisalabad. As per requirement of mandatory evaluation by Punjab Seed Council (PSC), fibre quality of NIAB-777 was also got analyzed from four standard laboratoriesi.e. Cotton Research Institute (CRI), Faisalabad; NIBGE, Faisalabad, All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA), Lahore and CCRI, Multan. The samples were collected by members of Expert Sub Committee (ESC) of PSC during spot examination and fibre characters in the standard labs were also analyzed using HVI.

Statistical Analysis: The experiments related to yield evaluation were planted in randomized completed block design (RCBD) with three replication and different number of treatments/varieties during different years.The data for different morphological characters and seed cotton yield in different yield trials and fibre characters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the methodology of Steel et al.(1997). In addition data for seed cotton yield in various adaptability trials were compared using Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure.

RESULTS

In this study, a local cotton variety was crossed with an exotic line by using gamma irradiated pollen to induce useful variation leading to development of mutant NIAB-777. Its developmental history is given in Table 1. The mutant NIAB-777 (Fig 1A) showed distinguishing features like earliness, medium height, more number of bolls, better opening and yield potential compared to parents NIAB-78 (Fig 1B) and REBA-288 (Fig 1C). Influence of mutagenic treatments on selected plants: Significant differences were observed among the control and the plants developed from the irradiated pollen. There was maximum variation in M2 generation and plants possessing desirable traits were selected. Succeeding M3-M6 generations were evaluated. The comparison of selected mutant from parents (control) is given in Table 2. The plants developed from the treated pollen showed different developmental features during seedling as well as normal plants development in the field conditions.

Similar results were earlier observed in cotton (Muthusamy and Jayablan; 2000, 2001).

Field evaluation of mutant line: A range of morphological differences were recorded from seedling stage to maturity in M2, M3 and M4 generations. Important morphological as well as yield characters along with fibre traits like ginning out turn percentage, staple length, fibre fineness, fibre strength, uniformity ratio percentage were selected to record and analyze the effect of irradiation treatments in comparison with the control (parents etc). The flowering periods of mutants were decreased as compared to the control and showed increase in yield. From the evaluated mutants, M-7/02 showed earliness and better seed cotton yield as compared to control. Similar results were earlier recorded by Swami and Swami, 1986. The plant height in selected mutants was 135-160 cm which was comparatively higher than untreated plants having a range of 125-150 cm. In cassava significant variations in mutant lines for plant height were earlier reported by Joseph et al. (2004).

As per requirement of mandatory evaluation of finally selected mutant in various provincial and national coordinated trials for its release as commercial variety and to check its adaptability, it was evaluated in various trails. The mutant line NIAB-777 produced 23.4 % and 18.5% higher seed cotton yield compared to standard cv. CIM-499 and cv. CIM-496 respectively at local trials at NIAB (Table 3). In regional adaptability trials in cotton growing regions, it produced 21.7% and 13.1% higher yield compared to cv. CIM-496 during two years testing (Table 4).

In provincial coordinated cotton trials (PCCT), NIAB-777 produced 11.0 % and 22.1% higher yield compared to cv. CIM-496 respectively during two years testing. Whereas in National Coordinated Varietal Trials (NCVT), NIAB-777 produced 9.4% and 8.7% higher yield at Punjab province locations (Table 4).

On an average of all mandatory trials, NIAB-777 produced seed cotton yield of 3470 kg.ha-1 compared to standard variety cv. CIM-496 (2950 kg.ha-1) producing 17.6 % higher seed cotton yield compared to standard.

The data for seed cotton yield in various adaptability trials (PCCT, NCVT) showed significant differences through LSD test (Table 5). From these results it is observed that compared to standards and parents, NIAB-777 not only produced higher number of bolls but also produced significantly higher yield. Similar results were earlier reported in cotton by Nepolean, (1999).

Earliness Studies: Different morphological traits i.e. plant height, sympodia/plant, first boll retention at node number, total fruiting points, shedding points etc, were recorded to evaluate earliness of NIAB-777 in comparison with cv. CIM-496. The results showed that the sympodia/plant of NIAB-777 were higher compared to cv. CIM-496 which confirmed higher number of bolls/plant. Moreover, the number of days taken towards maturity of NIAB-777are also less compared to cv. CIM-496. The same has been confirmed by higher percentage of seed cotton in 1st pick (81.6 %) compared to cv. CIM-496 (80%). During 2nd year studies it also produced more number of sympodia/plant and higher number of fruiting positions/boll retention which confirmed more number of bolls/plant compared to cv. CIM-496. It matures earlier compared to standard cv. CIM-496 (Table 6). Earlier Swami and Swami, 1986, found early flowering mutants in cotton by mutagenic treatment.

Pathological Studies: Screening against cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease for the selected mutants was continued after selection. The finally selected mutant NIAB-777 was recorded resistant to CLCuV disease (old strain) like cv. CIM-499 and cv. CIM-496. The response against presently prevailing strain i.e. cotton leaf curl virus-Burewala (CLCuV-B) disease was also studied. The most susceptible spreader lines were also planted in between the rows to serve as spreader/source of inoculum. The results showed that NIAB-777 had better tolerance to CLCuV-B compared to cv. CIM-496 under natural field conditions with almost 100% disease intensity on susceptible lines. NIAB-777 had lower CLCuV-B disease incidence (19.4% to 21.9%) as compared to standard cv. CIM-496 (30.8 to 41.3%) during 1st year testing. During second year testing, NIAB-777 had also lower CLCuV-B disease incidence (18.5% to 25.6%) compared to standard cv. CIM-496 (55.8 to 79.2%) as given in (Table 7).

The response of NIAB-777 to CLCuV-B was also studied under natural disease inoculation. The observations showed that all the tested varieties showed varying disease intensity i.e. 16.8 to 68.5%. NIAB-777 with disease index of 32.2% showed better tolerance to CLCuV-B compared to cv. CIM-496 having 56.5% disease index (Table 8).

Entomological Studies: Studies on NIAB-777 regarding its response to sucking pests and damage by bollworms were conducted under optimized spray condition at NIAB Faisalabad. It showed less population of sucking i.e. jassid (0.45/leaf), whitefly (2.05/leaf) and boll worms (11.7%) compared to standard cv. CIM-496 having higher population of sucking i.e. jassid (0.55/leaf), white fly (2.10/leaf) and bollworms (12.4%). During second year study, NIAB-777 also showed less population of sucking i.e. jassid (0.28/leaf), whitefly (4.78/leaf) and bollworms (12.14%) as compared to cv. CIM-496 having higher population of sucking i.e. jassid (0.31/leaf), white fly (4.93/leaf) and bollworms of 12.57% (Table 9).

Fibre Quality Analysis: The results of fiber testing studies revealed that fibre quality traits of NIAB-777 are either better or comparable to standard cotton varieties (cv. CIM-499 and cv. CIM-496). Fibre testing at NIAB reflected that it has fibre length ranged from 28.5 to 29.0 mm, fibre fineness 4.2 to 4.6 ug/inch, fibre maturity 84.0 to 86.0% and fibre strength 92.5 to 96.0 TPPSI (Table 10).

Table 1. Developmental History of NIAB-777.

###Parentage/Pedigree###Remarks

Cross attempted (NIAB-78 x REBA-288) with irradiated###Field conditions

pollen @ 10Gy of gamma rays

###M1 - M5###Field conditions

###M6 (M-7/02)###NIAB-777, bulked

###M7###studied in strain test

###M8###Preliminary Yield Trial

###-###Advanced Yield Trial, PCCT,

###-###NCVT, PCCT, 1.25 acre PSC trial

###-###NCVT and 1.25 acre PSC trial, spot examination

###Recommended by Expert subcommittee (ESC) and Approval by Punjab Seed Council (PSC)

###Provision of BNS to farmers and maintenance at NIAB

Fibre quality of NIAB-777 was also analyzed from four standard laboratories(CRI, Faisalabad, NIBGE, Faisalabad APTAMA, Lahore and CCRI, Multan) from the samples collected during spot examination by members of expert's sub-committee of PSC. The results showed that on an average, NIAB 777 has fibre quality parameters i.e. GOT (37.56%), Fineness (4.67 ug/inch), fibre length (28.81mm), fibre strength (91.12 TPPSI, 31.6 G/Tex), uniformity index (length uniformity ratio) 85.0% and fibre maturity (81.2 %). All these fibre qualities are either better or at par with commercial standard cv. CIM - 496 having fineness (4.77ug/inch), fibre length (28.91mm), fibre strength (87.4 TPPSI), uniformity index (length uniformity ratio) 84.32% and fibre maturity of 82.1 %. It has better fibre quality parameters as compared to both parents (Table 2). Ginning out turn percentage, staple length, fineness, strength etc has been improved through irradiation treatment as compared to control parents.

These observations were in confirmatory with earlier reports (Aslam et al., 2009). Significant differences between individual tetraploid lines in terms of fibre contents were observed by Smith et al. (2004).

NIAB-777 was evaluated for high density planting i.e. at 9 inches, 12 inches, and 18 inches plant to plant spacing.

NIAB-777 produced the highest yield at 9 inches spacing followed by NIAB-846 (Table 12). The best sowing time for NIAB-777 is recorded 1st May to 7th June.

It is maintained regularly at NIAB and Breeder Nucleus Seed (BNS) has been provided to farmers/seed producing agencies since its approval as commercial variety (Table 13)

Table 2. Comparison of selected mutant with parents for different traits

Variety/###Plant###CLCV###Bolls/###Boll###Yield/###GOT###Staple###Fineness###Strength###U.I###Mat.

Traits###Height###rating###Plant###weight###Plant (g)###(%)###Length###(ug/inch)###TPPSI###G/tex###(%)###(%)

###(cm)###(g)###(mm)

NIAB-###140###3-4###68###3.0###200###36.60###27.3###4.50###93.0###27.5###84.0###84.0

78(P)

REBA-###160###0###30###3.0###90###36.50###27.4###4.90###92.6###27.0###-###-

288(P)

NIAB-###145###0-3###75###3.5###220###37.56###28.81###4.67###91.12###31.60###85.0###81.2

777

Table 3. Yield performance of NIAB-777 in local NIAB trials

Name of trial###Place###Yield (kg.ha-1)###% increase over

###NIAB-777###CV.CIM-496###check

Micro/Macro###NIAB, Faisalabad###4505###3481*###1styear

Varietal trials###5205###4385###2ndYear

###Average###4855###3933###29.4

Advanced yield###NIAB, Faisalabad###5940###4946###1styear

trials###4069###3504###2ndYear

###Average###5004###4225###18.5

Table 4. Yield performance of NIAB-777 in regional adaptability and national trials

Name of trial###Place###Yield (kg.ha-1)###% increase

###NIAB-777###CV.CIM-496###over check

Regional Adaptability trials in###i) CCRI,Multan###2808###2227

Punjab- 1st Year testing###ii) RARI, Bahwalpur###1755###1683

###iii) CRS, Sahiwal###910###589

###Average###1825###1500###21.7

Regional Adaptability trials in###i) CRS, Sahiwal###2728###2834

Punjab- 2nd Year testing###ii) CCRI, Multan###2242###1453

###iii) RARI, Bahwalpur###2517###2286

###iv) PSC, Khanewal###3313###3377

###v) CRS, Vehari###1443###892

###Average###2454###2168###13.1

###Average % increase in regional trials###17.4

PCCT (1styear)###Punjab###2501###2253###11.0

PCCT (2ndyear)###Punjab###2761###2261###22.1

###Average###2631###2257###16.6%

NCVT (1styear)###Punjab+D.I.Khan###2479###2265###9.4

NCVT (2ndyear)###Punjab+D.I.Khan###2962###2737###8.7

###Average###2721###2501###8.8%

Average seed cotton yield of NIAB-777 and CV. CIM-496###3354###2891###16.0%

Overall average yield of NIAB-777 and CV. CIM-499 + CV. CIM-496###3470###2950###17.9%

Table 5. Average seed cotton yield (Kg.ha-1) performance and test of significance of different candidate's varieties and standard varieties in PCCT and NCVT

S/###Variety###1st Year###Variety###2nd Year###Variety###1st Year###Variety###2nd Year

N###PCCT###PCCT###NCVT###NCVT

1###VH-255###3054A###FH-942###3007BCDEF###CIM-554###2475DEF###GH-102###2341DE

2###FH-942###2711AB###RH-620###2739EFGHI###CRSM-38###2381CDE###PB-900###2719BCD

3###NIAB-846###2650BC###VH-255*###2995CDEF###TH-198/194###1864HI###SLH-317###2695ABC

4###MG-3###2601BCD###CRSM-2007###3033ABCDE###CIM-541###1704I###NIAB-852###2818BCD

5###FH-113###2569BCDE###MG-6###2986CDEF###RH-610###2476DEF###CRIS-129###3007ABC

6###CRSM-70###2542BCDE###CIM-557###2553HIJK###BH-167###2345DEF###CRSM-38###2614BCD

7###NIBGE115###2537BCDE###GS-1###2305JKL###NIAB-777###2479DEF###FH-942###2627BCD

8###NIAB-777###2501BCDE###VH-277###2270KL###ASR-1###2278EFG###CIM-554###2804ABC

9###NIAB-852###2358BCDEF###NIAB-852###2996CDEF###CRIS-129###2940A###NIAB-777###2962ABC

10###SLH-284###2339BCDEF###CRSM-38###2534HIJK###CRSM-70###2478EFG###TH-06/2###2116E

11###CIM-554###2325CDEF###VH-207###2807DEFGH###GH-102###2325EFG###NN-3###2764BCD

12###BH-168###2302CDEF###SLH-317###2608HIJ###SLH-284###2799ABC###NIA-78###2077E

13###GS-1###2273DEF###CV.CIM-496###2261KL###TH-86/02###2052GHI###BH-172###3107A

14###RH-610###2264DEF###GS-14###2558HIJK###GS-1###2465DEF###CRSM2007###2590CD

15###CRSM-38###2257DEF###CIM-554###2551HIJK###NIAB-846###2648BCD###FH-941###3074AB

16###CV.CIM-496###2253DEF###PB-900###2202L###CRIS-342###2916AB###GS-1###2418DE

17###FH-941###2251DEF###NIAB-777###2761EFGHI###NIBGE-115###2814AB###CIM-557###2857ABC

18###BH-167###2248DEF###SITARA-008*###2443IJKL###CV.CIM-496###2265FGH###VH-278###2290E

19###RH-541###2198EF###A-One*###3247ABC###GS-14###2691BCD

20###ASR-1###2108F###FH-941###3226AB###CV.CIM-496###2737CD

21###VH-260###2025FG###BH-172###2691FGHI

22###CIM-541###1703GH###FH-2015###2973CDEFG

23###MG-2###1665GH###NIAB-2008###2663GHI

24###MG-1###1537H###FH-113*###3108ABCD

25###NN-3###2757EFGHI

26###Alseemi-Hyb.###3335A

CV###19.78%###13.87%###8.51%###17.41%

Table 6. Earliness studies/morphological traits of NIAB-777 recorded at NIAB

Characteristics###NIAB-777###CV.CIM-496

###1st Year###2nd Year###1st Year###2nd Year

Plant height (cm)###135-148###137-154###147-158###140-160

No. of sympodia/plant###28-35###27-32###22-28###20-25

First boll retention at node number###6-7###6-7###7-8###7-8

Total number of fruiting positions###258###260###208###204

Total number of shedding points###150###154###132###126

Total number of boll retention###108###106###76###78

Percentage of shedding points###58.1###59.2###63.4###61.7

Number of days taken to maturity###136-151###136-150###140-155###138-152

Seed cotton yield (1st pick %age)###81.6###80.0###80.0###78.0

Table 7. Response of NIAB-777 to CLCu V-B disease at NIAB

###Trial-1###Trial-2

Variety###Total###Affected###Variety###Total###Affected

###%age###%age

###plants###plants###plants###plants

1st Year Testing

NIAB-777###292###64###21.9###NIAB-777###144###28###19.4

CV.CIM-496###174###72###41.3###CV.CIM-496###162###50###30.8

Mut.725-4 (spreader)###69###69###100###Mut.725-4 (spreader)###66###66###100

2nd Year Testing

NIAB-777###285###53###18.5###NIAB-777###2535###651###25.6

CV.CIM-496###267###149###55.8###CV.CIM-496###1250###990###79.2

Mut.491-2(spreader)###45###45###100###Mut.491-2(spreader)###120###120###100

Table 8. Field response of different cotton strains against CLCV-B under normal plant protection conditions in NCVT at NIAB Faisalabad

Varieties###% Disease Index###Varieties###% Disease Index

FH-942###27.89###NN-3###18.56

CRSM-38###24.21###CV.CIM-496###46.53

CIM-557###25.68###BH-172###21.88

CRIS-129###28.49###PB-900###29.71

GH-102###51.97###GS-14###43.10

NIA-78###45.05###NIAB-777###32.19

NIAB-852###23.90###SLH-317###29.95

TH-06/2###59.17###GS-1###28.73

CRSM-2007###16.79###VH-278###68.50

CIM-554###32.29###FH-941###57.74

Table 9. Population of sucking insect pests, boll worms infestation of candidate varieties in NCVT

Var.###1st Year study###Var.###2nd Year study

###Sucking###Boll worms###Mean###Sucking###Boll worms###Mean

###insects/leaf###infestation (%)###damage###insects/leaf###infestation(%)###damage

###White###Jassid###Squares###Bolls###(%Sq###Whitef###Jassid###Squares###Bolls###(%Sq

###fly###+Bolls)###ly###+Bolls)

NIAB-###2.05###0.45###16.23###7.20###11.72###NIAB-###4.78###0.28###12.87###11.40###12.14

777###777

CV.CIM###2.10###0.55###14.76###10.04###12.40###CV.CIM-###4.93###0.31###14.90###10.23###12.57

-496###496

Table 10. Fibre traits of NIAB-777 tested at NIAB compared to standards

Year###NIAB-777###CV.CIM-499

###GOT###Length###Fineness Maturity###Strength###GOT###Length###Fineness###Maturity###Strength

###(%)###(mm)###(ug/inch) (%)###(TPPSI)###(%)###(mm)###(ug/inch) (%)###(TPPSI)

1st Year###38.5###29.0###4.4###85.0###95.0###38.5###28.5###4.6###82.7###94.0

2nd Year###39.0###28.5###4.2###84.0###92.5###39.0###28.3###4.5###82.9###93.0

Average###38.8###28.8###4.3###84.5###93.8###38.8###28.4###4.55###82.8###93.5

###NIAB-777###CV.CIM-496

1st Year###38.4###29.0###4.2###85.0###96.0###41.5###27.9###4.7###83.0###87.0

2nd Year###40.1###29.0###4.6###85.0###94.5###40.5###28.7###4.6###84.0###85.0

3rd Year###39.0###29.1###4.5###86.0###96.0###40.0###28.2###4.7###82.0###87.0

Average###39.1###29.0###4.4###85.3###95.5###40.6###28.3###4.7###83.0###86.3

Table 11. Fibre traits of NIAB-777 tested during spot examination

Lab./###GOT###Staple Length###Fineness###Strength###U.I###Maturity

Parameters###(%)###(mm)###ug/inch###TPPSI###G/tex###(%)###(%)

CRI, Faisalabad###37.56###28.2###4.5###94.0###-###-###81.2

CCRI, Multan###-###29.6###4.8###92.0###31.2###85.9###-

NIBGE, Faisalabad###-###29.27###4.77###-###32.0###-

APTMA, Lahore###-###28.18###3.70###87.36###-###84.10###-

NIAB-777 (Average)###37.56###28.81###4.67###91.12###31.60###85.0###81.2

CV.CIM-496###43.29###28.91###4.77###82.80###29.45###84.32###82.1

CV.MNH-786###38.06###27.57###4.73###95.65###33.00###84.52###82.6

Table 12. Performance of NIAB-777 under high density at NIAB

###Plant to plant spacing###Seed cotton yield (kg.ha-1)

###(cm)###NIAB-777###NIAB-824###CV.NIAB-846

###9###5715.9###5334.9###5467.3

###12###5310.2###4959.8###5156.5

###18###4800.0###4750.0###5050.5

Table 13. Maintenance and provision of Breeder Nucleus seed (BNS) of NIAB-777

Variety###BNS (Kg) provided to cotton growers / seed distribution agencies

###2010-11###2011-12###2012-13###2013-14###2014-15###2015-16

NIAB-777###728###847###280###62###29.0###10

###Fiber quality characters evaluated during 2015

Progeny Bulks of###No. of###GOT (%)###Fibre Fineness###Fibre Strength###Fibre length###Uniformity

NIAB-777###bolls/plant###(ug/inch)###(g/Tex)###(mm)###ratio (%)

NIAB-777-2###52###38.4###4.5###27.7###28.0###86.4

NIAB-777-8###58###40.0###4.4###31.9###28.3###84.7

NIAB-777-9###68###40.3###4.1###28.6###28.0###85.5

NIAB-777-17###56###38.0###4.8###29.5###29.5###86.6

NIAB-777-23###66###43.1###4.7###26.0###28.3###83.5

DISCUSSION

The manuscript details the report of induction of mutations in cotton using low doses of gamma irradiation on germ cells and selection and evaluation of desirable cotton mutant. The changes recorded in the selected mutant line may be due to genetic variation caused by gamma irradiation. Such types of genetic variations are earlier reported by different researchers. Muthusamy and Jayabalan (2000) recorded number of variations in leaf shape in cotton. Whereas, Muthusamy et al. (2005) selected high yielding mutants in cotton. Twin boll and boll abnormalities and several other morphological variations were observed in cotton mutant lines (Muthusamy et al., 2004; Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2001). The pollen irradiation approach seems good to create genetic variability. Irradiated pollen is a germ cell and after fertilization only half of the genome of the developing zygote/embryo, receives the irradiation, hence the occurrence of major changes is minimized.

In case of seed irradiation since the whole genome is affected, hence a large M2 population (approximately 12,000 individual plants) are required, to select desirable mutants (Iqbal, et al., 1994). Whereas in the present study of pollen irradiation a very small M2 population (even less compared to 1000 plants) was required and higher rate of mutations/recombinations was achieved. Similar results are earlier reported by (Jalil and Yamaguchi, 1965; Vig, 1973). Pollen/gamete treatment method is found easier to apply compared to that of zygote/seed treatment. Irradiation of male parent pollen before cross-pollinations resulted in the induction of mutations in cotton. Such types of finding are earlier reported by (Pate and Duncan, 1963; Krishnaswami and Kothandaraman, 1976) and identified suitable mutants.

Work on development and evaluation of cotton mutants developed through irradiation method is also reported by different researchers (Aslam and Stelly, 1994; Aslam et al., 1994; Aslam, 2000; Aslam, 2002; Aslam and Elahi, 2000).

From the present results it is observed that the treatments of pollen with low doses of gamma rays are suitable to induce useful genetic variability in cotton In the present experiment, lower dose of gamma irradiation showed enhancing effects on growth of vegetative parts of plants along with floral and yield characters. It may be due to increased activity of enzymes involved in biosynthesis of hormone in the cell (Vagera et al., 1976), which increases the growth of cells and ultimately the whole plant.

Due to irradiation effects, NIAB-777 exhibited 8.7% to 23.4% higher yield compared to standard cv. CIM-496 in NCVT and PCCT. NIAB-777 being moderately hairy with medium sized erect plant type with short to medium short sympodia and better leaf foliage is suitable for high density planting. Its fibre quality characters are according to prescribed standard and as per requirement of textile sector, which is the dire need of national production and good quality cotton for meeting the domestic textile industry requirements.

Conclusion: NIAB-777 has better plant type, desirable leaf foliage, high yield potential, earliness, better tolerance to CLCuV disease along with good fibre characteristics and hence was recommended to farmers for cultivation. Its cultivation will be adding to the national exchequer through export of raw cotton and value added products and to meet the national and international demands.

Acknowledgements: Technical help and cooperation extended by Plant Protection Division of NIAB, Directorate of CRI, Directorate of Agronomy, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan Central Cotton Committee, Central Cotton Research Institute Multan, Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department, Islamabad and Khanewal, Punjab Seed Corporation and Department of Agriculture Punjab are greatly acknowledged in testing of this mutant cultivar. Reviewer's suggestions to improve the write up of manuscript are also acknowledged.

REFERENCES

Ahloowalia, B.S., M. Maluszynski and K. Nichterlein (2004). Global impact of mutation-derived varieties. Euphytica, 135: 187-204.

Akhtar, K. P., A. I. Khan and M. S. I. Khan (2002). Improved bottle shoot grafting technique /method for the transmission of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV). The Nucleus, 39 (1-2): 115-117

Akhtar, K. P., S. Haidar, M. K. R. Khan, M. Ahmad, N. Sarwar, M. A. Murtaza, and M. Aslam (2010). Evaluation of Gossypium species for resistance to leaf curl Burewala virus. Ann. Appl. Biol., 157: 135-147

Anonymous (2014). Economic Survey of Pakistan, Ministry of commerce, Finance Division, Pakistan Sectt. Islamabad, Government of Pakistan.

Aslam, M and D. M. Stelly (1994). Attempted egg-transformation by pollen irradiation in the cotton genus, Gossypium. Bangladesh J. Nuclear Agric., 10: 1-8.

Aslam, M., R. M. S. Iqbal, M. B. Chaudhry and A.A. Bandesha (1994). Pollen irradiation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Pakistan J. Bot., 26: 341-346.

Aslam, M (2000). Utilization of pollen irradiation technique for the improvement of G. hirsutum L. Pakistan. J. Biolo. Sci., 3(11): 1814-1816

Aslam, M., M. Ashfaq, T. Saeed, S. Ul Allah and M. Sajjad (2009). Development and evaluation of a new high yielding and better fibre quality mutant NIAB-824 of cotton through pollen irradiation. A. Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(4): 715-720

Aslam, M., (2002). Evolution of a high yielding, early maturing and CLCuV resistant mutant of cotton, NIAB-98 through the use of Pollen Irradiation approach. Pakistan J. Pl. Pathol., 1: 27-30

Aslam, M and M.T.Elahi (2000). Induction and Early Evaluation of a High Yielding Elite Cotton Mutant Line, PIM-76-8 through the Use Pollen Irradiation Technique. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 3 (3): 505-507

Carnelius, T. J (1973). A new cotton variety MCU-7 by X-ray irradiation. Mutat. Breeding Newsl. 2.

Cronn, R. C., R.L. Small and J.F. Wendel. (1999). Duplicated genes evolve independently after polyploid formation in cotton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96: 14406-14411.

Datta, S. K., P. Misra, A. K. A. Mandal (2005). In vitro mutagenesis-q quick method for establishment of solid mutant in Chrysanthemum. Curr.Sci. 88: 155-158.

Haidar, S., I. A. Khan, S. Mansoor and Y. Zafar. (2007). Inheritance studies of bacterial blight disease resistance genes in cotton (G. hirsutum L.). Pakistan J. Bot., 39(2): 603-608

Haidar, S. and M. Aslam (2016). NIAB-2008: A new high yielding and long staple cotton mutant developed through pollen irradiation technique. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 18: 865-872

Haidar, S., M. Aslam and M.A. Haq (2016). NIAB-852: A new high yielding and better quality cotton mutant developed through pollen irradiation technique. Pakistan J. Bot., 48(6): 2297-2305.

Haidar, S., M. Aslam, M. Hassan, H.M. Hassan and A. Ditta. (2012). Genetic diversity among upland cotton genotypes for different economic traits and response to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) disease. Pakistan J. Bot., 44(5): 1779-1784

Hofmann, N.E., R. Raja, R.L. Nelson and S.S. Korban. (2004). Mutagensis of embryogenic cultures of soybean and detecting polyprophisms using RAPD markers. Biol. Plant. 48: 173-177.

Ibragimov, S.I., R.I. Kovalchuk, P. Paijziev (1965). A high yielding mutant produced by irradiation of cotton with gamma rays from 60Co. Genetica., 1: 166-172

Iqbal, R.M.S., M. B. Chaudhry, M. Aslam and A. A. Bandesha (1991). Economic and aagricultural impact of mutation breeding in cotton in Pakistan-a review. Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improv., 1: 187-201.

Iqbal, R.M.S., M. B. Chaudhry, M. Aslam and A. A. Bendasha (1994). Development of a high yielding cotton mutant, NIAB-92 through the use of induced mutations. Pakistan J. Bot., 26: 99-104.

JalilMiah, M.A. and H. Yamaguchi. (1965). The variation of quantitative characters in the irradiated progenies of two rice varieties and their hybrids. Radiat. Bot., 5: 187-196.

Joseph, R., H.H. Yeoh and C.S. Loh. (2004). Induced mutations in cassava using somatic embryo and identification of mutant plants with altered starch yield and composition. Plant Cell Rep., 23: 91-98.

Krishnaswami, R. and R. Kothandaraman. (1976). Response of cotton pollen to gamma irradiation. Ind. J. Genet..Plant Breed., 36: 16-19.

Li, H.Z., W.J. Zhou, Z.J. Zhang, H.H. Gu, Y. Takeuchi, K. Yoneyama.(2005). Effects of gamma irradiation on development, yield and quality of microtubers in vitro in Solanum tuberosum L. Biol. Plant., 49: 625-628

Maluszynski, M., B. S. Ahloowalia and B. Sigurbjornsson. (1995). Application of in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement. Euphytica, 85: 303-315

Micke, A., B. Donini and M. Maluszynski. (1987). Induced mutations for crop improvement-a review. Trop. Agric., 64: 259-278.

Muthusamy A. and N. Jayabalan. (2000). Induced variants in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by in vitro mutagenesis. In: Proc of National symposium on the use of Nuclear and Molecular techniques in crop improvement, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai, India, pp 251-257.

Muthusamy A. and N. Jayabalan. (2001). Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on sensitivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L).J. Indian Soc Cotton Improv., 26: 21-29

Muthusamy A. and N. Jayabalan.(2007). Influence of in vitro mutagenesis on ovule culture and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Plant Cell Biotechnol. Mol. Biol., 8(3and4): 159-166.

Muthusamy, A., K. Vasanth and N. Jayabalan. (2004). Induced twining and boll abnormalities in Gossypium hirsutum L. SAARC J. Agric., 2: 167-173.

Muthusamy A. and N. Jayabalan (2011). In vitro induction of mutation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) and isolation of mutants with improved yield and fibre characters. Acta. Pgysiol. Plant., 33: 1793-1801.

Muthusamy A., V. Vasanth and N. Jayabalan. (2005). Induced high yielding mutant in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Mutat. Breed. News Letter Rev., 1: 6-8

Muthusamy A., V. Vasanth, D. Sivasankari, B. R. Chandrasekar and N. Jayabalan. (2007). Enhanced somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) with in vitro mutagenesis. Biol Plant., 51(3): 430-435.

Nepolean, T (1999). Genetic analysis through induced mutations in homozygous and heterozygous genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L. M. Sc (Agric.) thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India pp: 45-48.

Pate, J. B. and E. N., Duncan (1963). Mutations in cotton induced by gamma irradiated pollen. Crop Sci., 3: 136-138.

Sial, K. B, A.D. Kalhoro, M. Z. Ahsan, M. S. Mojidano, A.W. Soomro, R.Q. Hashmi, and A. Keerio (2014). Performance of different upland cotton varieties under the climatic condition of central zone of Sindh. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 14: 1447-1449

Smith, M. K., S. D. Hamil, B. J. Gogel, A. A. Seven-Ellis. (2004). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) autotetraplod with improved processing quality produced by an in vitro colchicines treatment. Aust J Exp Agric., 44: 1065-1072

Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie and D. A. Dickey (1997). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd McGraw Hill Book Co, New York, USA

Swami, V. D. and V. B. S. Swami (1986). Effect of recurrent selfing and selection on plant type induced mutants from desi cotton (G. arboretum L.). Madras Agric J., 73: 66-72.

Vagera, P., F.J. Novak and B. Vysko (1976). Anther culture of Nicotian atabacum L. TheorAppl Genet., 47: 10-114.

Vig, B. K. (1973). Somatic crossing over in Glycine max (L) Merrill: mutagenicity of Sodium aside and lack of synergistic effect with caffeine and mitomycin. C. Genet., 75: 265-277.

Yue, J. and J. Zou (2012).Study of radiation effects on upland cotton (Gossypium hirstumL.) pollen grain irradiated by 60Co-I3 ray. J. Agric. Sci., 4: 85-94.
COPYRIGHT 2018 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Apr 30, 2018
Words:7075
Previous Article:STATUS OF PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION IN ASIA: A CASE OF MISSING LINKS IN INDIAN LIVESTOCK SECTOR.
Next Article:Short Communication - FEEDING AND BREEDING ECOLOGY OF ASHY-WREN WARBLER (Priniasocialis) IN POTHWAR PLATEAU, PAKISTAN.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters