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NIAB-2008: A New High Yielding and Long Staple Cotton Mutant Developed through Pollen Irradiation Technique.

Byline: Sajjad Haidar and Muhammad Aslam

Abstract

This paper describes about development of cotton mutant NIAB-2008, developed through pollen irradiation technique with improved yield and fibre quality. A local variety NIAB-78 was crossed with exotic line REBA-288 using irradiated pollen @10 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays before cross pollination. The purpose of the study was to create new genetic variability and select the desirable new cotton mutants. After irradiation and hybridization different generations were raised to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment and induction of mutations. Significant variations from control/parents were observed in evaluated generations. From M1 seed, the M2 population was raised and different desirable mutants were selected. The selected mutants were evaluated in mutated generations (M3-M6) for different yield contributing traits and yield potential along with fibre quality and variations from parents were observed.

From selected mutants, an elite mutant i.e., M-7/09, later named as NIAB-2008 was finally selected. It was evaluated for seed cotton yield, adaptability, resistance/tolerance to diseases, and fibre quality in different trials. It produced 32.9% higher seed cotton yield compared to standard CIM-496 at local NIAB trials. It produced 32.7% and 32.2% higher seed cotton yield compared to standard in provincial coordinated cotton trials (PCCT) and in national coordinated varietal trials (NCVT) respectively. The mutant NIAB-2008 has desirable fibre quality traits i.e., ginning out turn (GOT) 37.99%, fibre length 31.16 mm (long staple category), fibre fineness 4.74 ug/inch, uniformity index 83.5%, fibre maturity 80.5% and fibre strength 92.2 thousand pounds per square inch (TPPSI). Its distinguish characteristics are early maturity, high yielding, short stature, good boll bearing and better tolerance to cotton leaf curl virus-Burewala strain (CLCuV-B) disease.

From these results it is concluded that low dose pollen irradiation technique has effectively stimulate/increase the different yield and yield contributing traits, fibre quality and tolerance to diseases in cotton and this technique is proved economical.

Keywords: Pollen irradiation; Yield; Fibre quality; Long staple; Cotton; NIAB-2008

Introduction

Cotton is an important cash crop of Pakistan, contributes a major share in foreign exchange earnings and provides the basis for a national textile industry. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is cultivated on an area of 3125, 000 ha with an annual production of 12.8 million bales (Anonymous, 2013-2014). Overall, the living of millions of people in Pakistan is linked with cotton cultivation, ginning, oil industries, trade and spinning processes. It has many uses but it is mainly cultivated for its fibre and seed oil (Pandey, 1998). Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) is mainly cultivated in the world and produced 90% of world cotton production followed by 8% from G. barbadense (american pima or egyptian cotton) and 2% from (asiatic, desi cotton) G. herbaceum and G. arboreum (Wendel and Cronn, 2003).

Lot of efforts has been made by cotton researchers to develop upland cotton varieties having high yield potential, desirable fibre quality and tolerance/resistance to insect's pests and diseases through conventional breeding approaches. Success in this regard is achieved but the textile mills have been increased from 2 to over 500 in Pakistan. It is estimated that our textile industry would require 20 million bales of lint by 2020. However, cotton producers in Pakistan are currently faced with rising production costs and static return (Haidar et al., 2007).

Moreover, there are limitations of availability of sufficient genetic variability in the native germplasm (Haidar et al., 2012). To achieve desired objectives through conventional breeding approaches is highly depended on adopted techniques. Raising of induced variant/mutants populations with proper screening techniques is useful to identify the desirable traits among the mutant populations and to evaluate their adaptability (Sikora et al., 2011).

Different types of physical and chemical mutagens are extensively used to induce variations in plants. Among the physical agents, gamma rays are used to create point mutations and small deletions (Wu et al., 2005). The mutation breeding techniques have been effectively used for the improvement of yield characters and development of germplasm with novel and desired traits of major crop plants (Maluszynski et al., 1995; Shu and Lagoda, 2007; Sestili et al., 2010; Tomlekova, 2010). Number of mutants of different crop plants have been developed and released in different countries of the world with improvement in some characters (Ahloowalia et al., 2004). Such mutants are reported in cotton (Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2007; Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2011), soybean (Hofmann et al., 2004), potato (Li et al., 2005), cassava (Joseph et al., 2004, Buttibwa et al., 2015), Chrysanthemum (Datta et al., 2005) and groundnut (Muthusamy et al., 2007).

The approach like, the exposure of seed to ionizing radiations in cotton is used by different researchers. A new cotton variety MCU-7 was developed, which was early, high yielding and has long staple then its parents (Carnelius, 1973). Miah and Yamaguchi (1965), reported increase in genetic variability for different quantitative traits in segregating F2/M2 population in rice. Mike et al. (1987) also reported seed irradiation studies in various crops i.e., wheat, barley, rice, maize etc in different countries. A cotton mutant NIAB-92 was developed through seed irradiation technique which was early and high yielding as compared to parent Stoneville-231 (Iqbal et al., 1994). Through F1 seed irradiation a high yielding and early maturing mutant NIAB-78 was also developed (Iqbal et al., 1991). Another technique i.e. treatment of pollen with gamma rays is also utilized by different researchers.

Sanamian (2003) reported various genomic and chromosomal mutations in M2 families developed through pollen irradiation. Variability in cotton plants treated with pollen irradiation is mainly because of chromosomal rearrangements and genomic mutations during meiosis. Vig (1973) reported that radiation treatments enhance crossing over near the centromere region in Glycine max. Moreover radiations and chemicals treatments increase somatic recombinations. Pollen irradiation before cross-pollinations for hybridization in different crops has also reported by different researchers (Pate and Duncan, 1963; Ibragimov et al., 1965; Krishnaswami and Kothandaraman, 1976; Aslam et al., 1994; Aslam and Stelly, 1994; Aslam, 2002) and is considered useful to create new genetic variability in cotton.

This research study was conducted to create genetic variability by gamma irradiation, selection of mutants with desirable economic traits and confirmation of stability, adaptability of the selected mutant with better yield and quality characters. This manuscript details the report on use of low dose of induced mutations on germ cells and selection of useful mutants.

Materials and Methods

Plant Material

The cross was made by utilizing NIAB-78 (local cotton variety) as female parent with REBA-288 (exotic line) at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan. The local variety NIAB-78 has good agronomic traits along with better yield potential, average quality parameters but susceptible to cotton leaf curl virus disease. Whereas the exotic line REBA-288 has bushy type plant, average quality parameters but better tolerance/resistance to cotton leaf curl virus disease. Selfed seeds of male and female parents were grown and approximately fifty plants of each were developed. At maturity flower buds of female parent were emasculated and covered with paper bags at evening time. Flower buds of male parent were also covered to protect any mixing.

Radiation Treatment

Male parent pollen was collected from covered flowers after anthesis and irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co irradiation source. The irradiation was performed at room temperature at NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan during 1998-1999. Emasculated flowers were pollinated with irradiated pollen and rebagged to prevent uncontrolled crossing. Bolls developed from the crossed flowers were harvested and seeds were obtained and designated as M0 seed.

Evaluation of Mutated Generations

M1 population was developed from M0 along with both parents as control at experimental field of NIAB, Faisalabad. The seeds were planted at a spacing of 30 x 75 cm plant to plant and row to row respectively. The M2 population was raised from M1 generation and it consists of more than one thousand individual plants. In M2 generation, maximum numbers of mutants/recombinants were selected keeping in view of different plant traits. Selected mutants were planted in M3 generation in replicated progenies. These progenies were studied in M3 generation for their breeding behavior and economic traits and one elite line was selected. Plant progeny rows were also studies in M4 generation to confirm desirable traits. The progeny M-7/09 was selected from M6 and bulked for evaluation as NIAB-2008. All these generations were raised and evaluated at NIAB during 2000-2006, where the soil type is of clay loam. Agronomic and plant protection practices were carried out throughout the crop growing season during respective years.

Evaluation in Adaptability Trials

Various yield trials (local, zonal i.e., NCVT, PCCT, 1.25 acre PSC farm etc.) were conducted at public sector experimental institutes etc during 2007-2012. The objective was to analyze yield potential, fibre quality traits and wider adaptability at different environments and soil types. It was also evaluated for their response to earliness, insects and diseases particularly of CLCuV-B.

Screening for Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease and Insect Pests

Screening against cotton leaf curl disease was done through grafting and whitefly inoculation technique. For grafting studies, ten pots for each variety were sown in glass house. Plants were graft inoculated with CLCuV-B following the methodology of bottle shoot grafting method (Akhtar et al., 2002, 2010). Entomological studies regarding its response to sucking pests and damage by bollworms were conducted under optimized spray conditions at NIAB Faisalabad.

Fibre Characters Analysis

Fibre characters of the selected mutant lines were analyzed using High Volume Instrument (HVI) as well as manually operated instruments at NIAB, Faisalabad. As per requirement of mandatory evaluation by Punjab Seed Council (PSC), fibre quality of NIAB-2008 was also got analyzed from four standard laboratories i.e. Cotton Research Institute (CRI), Faisalabad; NIBGE, Faisalabad; All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA), Lahore and CCRI, Multan. The samples were collected by members of expert sub committee (ESC) of PSC during spot examination and fibre characters in the standard labs were also analyzed using High Volume Instrument (HVI). These fibre characters were evaluated by expert subcommittee members during 2014-2015.

Statistical Analysis

The experiments related to yield evaluation were also planted in randomized completed block design (RCBD) with three replication and different number of treatments/varieties during different years. The data for different morphological characters and seed cotton yield in different yield trials and fibre characters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the methodology (Steel et al., 1997). In addition data for seed cotton yield in various adaptability trials were compared using Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure.

Results

A local cotton variety was crossed with an exotic line by using gamma irradiated pollen and a useful mutant NIAB-2008 was selected. Its developmental history is given (Table 1). The mutant NIAB-2008 (Fig. 1A) showed early flowering, medium height, higher number of bolls per plant, more number of nodes/sympodial branches, good/fluffy opening, better yield potential and plant type as compared to parents NIAB-78 (Fig. 1B) and REBA-288 (Fig. 1C). Data on different traits of selected mutant along with control lines is given in detail and discussed.

Influence of Mutagenic Treatments on Selected Plants

Significant differences were observed between the control and plants developed from the irradiated pollen. In M1 generation the plants were taller in growth and showed hybrid vigour for different traits as compared to the non-irradiated both parents/control. In M1 generation, the germinated plants showed better tolerance to cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuV-B). There was variation in M2 generation and plants possessing good characters were selected. Succeeding generation M3-M6 was evaluated, and as a result mutant with high yield potential was selected, which was later named as NIAB-2008. The comparison of selected mutant from parents (control) showed differences in plant traits (Table 2). The plants developed from the treated pollen showed different developmental plant features at seedling and normal plants development stages in the field conditions. Similar results were earlier observed in cotton (Muthusamy and Jayablan, 2000, 2001).

Field Evaluation of Mutant Line

A range of morphological variations was observed from seedling stage to maturity in M2, M3 and M4 generations. Plants with improved yield and yield contributing traits and ginning out turn percentage, staple length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and uniformity ratio etc were selected to record and analyze the effect of gamma rays treatments on the selected plants from the control (parents etc). The flowering periods of mutants were decreased compared to the parents whereas increase in seed cotton yield was observed. Similar results were earlier recorded (Swami and Swami, 1986). The plant height in selected mutants were ranged from 135-145 cm, which was comparatively higher than untreated plants having a range of 125-140 cm. Mutant lines also showed higher number of bolls as compared to control. Earlier, (Joseph et al., 2004) reported significant variations in plant height in cassava mutants.

As a requirement of mandatory evaluation in national and provincial coordinated trials, NIAB-2008 was evaluated in yield trials. The data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance technique (Steel et al., 1997). Significant differences were recorded for seed cotton yield compared to standard varieties. In local trials (preliminary and advanced), it produced 32.5% higher seed cotton than standard CIM-496 (Table 3). These standards are decided at national level and are the most popular and dominating cultivars.

In PCCT, it produced 17.8% and 61.8% higher seed cotton yield than standard during two years testing. On an average in PCCT, it produced 32.7% higher seed cotton yield. In NCVT, it produced 58.2% and 11.7% more seed cotton yield than standard in Punjab and on country basis respectively. During second year testing it produced 6.2% and 6.4% higher seed cotton yield than standard MNH-786 in Punjab and at country basis respectively (Table 4).

Table 1: Developmental History of NIAB-2008

Parentage/Pedigree###Remarks

Cross attempted (NIAB-78 x REBA-288) with irradiated pollen @ 10Gy of gamma rays###Field conditions

M1 - M5###Field conditions

M6###bulked

M7 (M-07/09)###studied in strain test

NIAB-2008###PYT

-###AYT

-###PCCT

-###NCVT and 1.25 acre PSC trial

-###PCCT, NCVT and 1.25 acre PSC trial

-###1.25 Acre trial at PSC, seed multiplication, spot

###examination by members of ESC

Table 2: Comparison of selected mutant with parents for different traits

Variety/###Plant Height CLCV###Bolls/###Boll###Yield/###GOT###Staple Length Fineness###Strength###U.I###Maturity

Traits###(cm)###rating###Plant###weight (g)###Plant (g)###(%)###(mm)###ug/inch###TPPSI###G/tex###(%)###(%)

NIAB-78 (P)###140###3-4###68###3.0###200###36.60###27.3###4.50###93.0###27.5###84.0###84.0

REBA-288 (P)###160###0###30###3.0###90###36.50###27.4###4.90###92.6###27.0###-###-

NIAB-2008###145###0-3###70###3.6###230###37.83###31.16###4.74###92.2###27.55###83.5###80.5

Table 3: Average yield Performance of NIAB-2008 in various trials at NIAB

Name of trial###Place###Yield (kg ha-1)###% increase

###NIAB-2008###CIM-496###MNH-786

Preliminary Yield Trials###1st year###NIAB, Faisalabad###4523###3582###-###26.3%

###2nd year###4592###3423###-###34.1%

###Average###4558###3502###-###30.0%

Advanced Yield Trials###1st year###NIAB, Faisalabad###4240###3251###-###30.4%

###2nd year###2662###1829###-###45.5%

###Average###3451###2540###-###35.9%

Table 4: Average yield performance of NIAB-2008 in multi-location adaptability trials

Name of trial###Place###Yield (kg ha-1)###% increase

###NIAB-2008###CIM-496###MNH-786

PCCT###1st year###Punjab###2663###2261###-###17.8 %

PCCT###2nd year###Punjab###1872###1157###-###61.8%

###Average###2268###1709###-###32.7 %

NCVT###1st year###Punjab###1993###1260###-###58.2 %

NCVT###2nd year###Punjab###1865###-###1756###6.2%

###Average###1929###1260###1756###32.2%

1.25 acre (PSC)###1st year###KWL###1715###1339###-###28.1%

1.25 acre (PSC)###2nd year###KWL###1698###-###-###-

1.25 acre (PSC)###3rd year###KWL###2117###-###-###-

###Average###1843###1339###-###37.6%

Average seed cotton yield (Tab 2 and 3)###2810###2070###1756###35.7%

The yield performance of candidate lines in PCCT and NCVT trials was compared using Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure. All the varieties showed significant differences (Table 5). Similar results were earlier reported in cotton (Nepolean, 1999).

Pathological Studies

Screening against cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease for the selected mutants was continued after selection. The finally selected mutant NIAB-2008 was recorded resistant to CLCuV disease (old strain) like standards CIM-499 and CIM-496. The field response to different diseases of cotton in NCVT was analyzed (Table 6). NIAB-2008 showed stunting of 1.3% compared to GS-378 (1.4%) and VH-289 (1.7%). Whereas the boll rot analysis of NIAB-2008 showed the disease incidence of 2.8% compared to SLH-334 (3.1%), FH-4243 (3.5%), CIM-573 (2.4%), GS-321(5.6%), CRIS-486(4.7%), RH-625(3.0%) and MNH-786 (3.5%). The response of NIAB-2008 to CLCuV-B was also studied in NCVT. NIAB-2008 showed better performance against cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV-B) compared to standard MNH-786. For grafting studies, ten pots each for each variety were sown in glass house.

Table 5: Least significant difference (LSD) comparison of candidate's varieties and standards in PCCT and NCVT

Variety###SCY (kg/ha)###Variety###SCY (kg/ha)###Variety###SCY (kg/ha)###Variety###SCY (kg/ha)

###PCCT 2008-2009###PCCT 2010-2011###NCVT 2010-2011###NCVT 2010-2011

FH-942###3007 BCDEF###BH-172###1845 GHIJ###CRIS-486###2072 CDEF###FH-2015###1770 GHI

RH-620###2739 EFGHI###FH-114###2277 ABC###VH-289###2246 BC###VH-289###2262 BCDE

VH-255*###2995 CDEF###NIAB-2009###2490 BCDE###CIM-557###1753 EFGH###CIM-608###2158 BCDEF

CRSM-2007###3033 ABCDE###FH-4243 (ok)###1997 EFGH###NIA-78###16686 GHI###GH-114###1556 I

MG-6###2986 CDEF###MNH-814###2359 ABCD###BH-172###2192 BCD###BH-175###2073 BCDEFG

CIM-557###2553 HIJK###FH-113/326###2112 DEFGH###NIAB-852###2062 BCDE###NIAB-9811###2744 A

GS-1###2305 JKL###IR-NIAB-824###1522 JK###CIM-588###1564 HIJ###CRIS-486###1904 EFGHI

VH-277###2270 KL###VH-289###2125 DEFG###RH-514###1805 EFGH###SLH-334###2001 CDEFGH

NIAB-852###2996 6th CDEF###FH-207 Bt###1787 HIJ###NIAB-2008###1993 CDEF###FH-4243###1979 DEFGH

CRSM-38###2534 HIJK###MNH-886###1933 FGHI###PB-900###1764 FGHI###CIM-573###2343 BC

VH-207###2807 DEFGH###NIBGE-314###2181 CDEF###NN-3###2280 BC###GS-321###1654 HI

SLH-317###2608 HIJ###CIM-595###1366 KL###FH-942###1955 DEFG###GS-378###1657 HI

CIM-496(Std)###2261 KL###CIM-496 (St)###1157 L###CRSM-2007###1952 CDEF###NIAB-2009###2383 AB

GS-14###2558 HIJK###NIAB-2010###1633 IJK###SLH-317###2331 AB###NIBGE-314###2108 BCDEFG

CIM-554###2551 HIJK###VH-259###2517 AB###GS-27###1241 JK###MNH-814###2108 BCDEFG

PB-900###2202 L###CRSM-2007###2278 BCDE###MNH-814###2574 A###RH-625###2321 BCD

NIAB-777###2761 EFGHI###FH-113/128###2005 EFGH###CIM-573###2192 BC###MNH-786(St)###1756 GHI

SITARA-008*###2443 IJKL###NIAB-9811###2676 A###FH-941###1999 CDEF###CRIS-494###2048 BCDEFG

A-One*###3247 ABC###CIM-573###1175 L###GS-14###1464 IJK###NIAB-2008###1865 FGHI

FH-941###3226 AB###BH-175###1821 GHIJ###CIM-496(St)###1260 K###NIAB-2010###1962 DEFGH

BH-172###2691 FGHI###SLH-334###1945 FGHI

FH-2015###2973 CDEFG###MNH-888###2382 ABCD

NIAB-2008###2663 GHI###RH-826###1808 GHIJ

FH-113*###3108 ABCD###NIAB-2008###1872 FGHI

NN-3###2757 EFGHI

Alseemi-hybrid###3335 A

CV%###13.85###23.51###17.41###20.16

Graft inoculation of the plants with CLCuV-B was done by following the bottle shoot grafting method (Akhtar et al., 2002, 2010). Results showed that number of days taken to appear the symptoms (after grafting) in case of NIAB-2008 were 14-20 compared to 12-18 of MNH-786 (Table 7).

Fibre Quality Analysis

The results of fibre quality testing studies revealed that fibre quality traits of NIAB-2008 are either better or comparable to standard. Fibre quality testing was carried out at four standard laboratories. On an average of all labs, NIAB-2008 scored fibre quality i.e., ginning outturn (GOT) percentage of 37.99%, fibre length of 31.16 mm (fall in long staple category), fibre fineness of 4.74 ug/inch, uniformity index of 83.5%, maturity 80.5%, fibre strength of 92.2 TPPSI (Table 8). It has better fibre quality traits as compared to both parents. Ginning out turn percentage, staple length, fineness, strength etc has been improved through irradiation treatment as compared to control parents. Similar observations were earlier reported (Ibragimov et al., 1965) and significant variation between individual tetraploid lines for fiber contents was observed (Smith et al., 2004).

Table 6: Field Response of NIAB-2008 to different diseases in comparison to standard

NCVT###Disease incidence (%age)###CLCV disease

Strain###Stunting###Boll rot###Index (%age)

NIAB-2008###1.3###2.8###98.46

GS-378###1.4###3.3###98.48

VH-289###1.7###3.4###94.08

MNH-786 (St)###0.0###3.5###99.14

SLH-334###0.0###3.1###96.03

CIM-573###1.2###2.4###96.85

FH-4243###0.4###3.5###98.42

GS-321###2.1###5.6###99.25

CRIS-486###0.4###4.7###93.29

RH-625###0.0###3.0###98.81

Table 7: Screening of different strains against CLCV through petiole graft transmission technique at CCRI, Multan

Variety/Strain###No. of days taken to appear the symptoms (after grafting)

BH-175###13-18

SLH-334###15-24

FH-4243###12-16

GS-321###14-18

RH-625###14-20

MNH-786###12-18

NIAB-2008###14-20

GS-378###13-18

VH-289###13-25

Table 8: Fibre quality characteristics of NIAB-2008 compared to standard MNH-786 tested at four standard labs

Lab./Parameters###GOT (%)###Staple Length (mm)###Mic. ug/inch###Strength###U.I (%)###Maturity (%)

###Tppsi###g/tex

CRI, Faisalabad###37.99###31.00###4.60###90.0###-###-###80.5

CCRI, Multan###-###30.70###4.95###94.3###-###83.7###-

NIBGE, Faisalabad###-###31.20###4.80###-###29.90###84.8###-

APTMA, Lahore###-###31.75###4.60###-###25.20###82.0###-

NIAB-2008 (Av.)###37.99###31.16###4.74###92.2###27.55###83.5###80.5

MNH-786 (St)###38.59###28.71###4.86###103.2###31.5###82.1###82.5

Table 9: Salient morphological and plant characteristics of NIAB-2008

Plant character###Range###Plant character###Range

Days to maturity###130-150 days###Flower Characteristics

Days to opening###120-125 (50%)###Days to flowering###45-55 days (50% flowering)

Seedling Characteristics###Flowering duration###Medium

Seedling length###6.2-7.3cm###Boll Characteristics:

Plant Characteristics:###Boll length (cm)###3.9- 4.6cm

Plant height###120-145 cm###Boll breadth (cm)###2.3-2.8

Nodes to 1st Monopodia###7-8###Boll/plant###60-70

Monopodial/plant###0-3###Boll opening###Good

Sympodia/plant###20-28###Boll weight###3.3-3.6 gram

Leaf Characteristics:###Seed Characteristics:

Leaf length###15-17cm###Seed length (mm)###7.0-7.5 mm

Leaf width###16-18 cm###Seed width (mm)###4.1-4.7 mm

Leaf nectaries###Present###Seed index (g)###8.0-8.7g

Leaf hairiness###Medium###Best Sowing time:###15st April to 30th May

Various important morphological, plant, leaf, flower, boll and seed characters are given in Table 9. It is maintained regularly at NIAB and breeder nucleus seed (BNS) is being provided to farmers/seed producing agencies.

Discussion

This study provides an extensive research on the induced mutations through (g) gamma rays used on pollen grains (germ cell) in cotton and variations in succeeding generations. The results showed that the low doses of gamma rays are useful to create the desired variation in the mutated populations. The overall changes recorded in the selected mutant line are may be due to genetic variation caused by gamma irradiation. In some earlier findings such type of reports i.e. variations in leaf shape (Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2000), in term of increase in yield (Muthusamy et al., 2005), twin boll and boll shape irregularities (Muthusamy et al., 2004) and other morphological variations (Muthusamy and Jayabalan, 2001) was observed in cotton mutant lines.

The result of NIAB-2008 has showed that, pollen irradiation of suitable parent before cross pollination is an appropriate technique to create useful variability in cotton. By suing seed irradiation method, a large M2 population is required because the whole genome is irradiated and whole genetic makeup is disturbed (Iqbal, et al., 1994). Whereas in case of pollen irradiation half of the genome receives the irradiation, hence major changes are less compared to seed irradiation (Aslam, 2000; Aslam et al., 2009). These results support the effectiveness of pollen irradiation technique to improve crop plants.

In pollen irradiation technique, male pollen is irradiated at low doses of gamma rays before cross pollination and therefore more recombinations are brought as compared to seed irradiation, simple cross breeding and backcrossing (Aslam et al., 2009). Due to this a small M2 population is required in case of pollen irradiation because of higher rate of mutations/recombination's (Wang, 1990).

In this study, lower dose of gamma irradiation showed enhancing effects on growth of vegetative and reproductive parts of plants along with yield and yield contributing characters. Such type of enhancement is due to increase in enzymes activity, which is required in biosynthesis of hormone in the cell (Vagera et al., 1976; Yue and Zou, 2012), which ultimately increases the growth and number of cells and the whole plant. Induction of mutations through this comparatively easier method was earlier reported by different researchers (Aslam et, al., 1994; Aslam and Ealahi, 2002) and is in accordance with our present finding in cotton.

Due to irradiation effects, NIAB-2008 on an average exhibited 35.7% higher yield than standard in NCVT and PCCT. NIAB-2008 being moderately hairy with medium sized erect plant type with short to medium short sympodia is suitable to obtain good yield. It has better leaf foliage which is suitable for high density planting. Its plant type facilitates the easy application of pesticides to control the cotton insect pests. Its fibre quality characters are according to prescribed standard and as per requirement of textile sector, which is the dire need of national production and good quality cotton for meeting the domestic textile industry requirements.

Due to these useful characters, the mutant NIAB-2008 was recommended and approved by Punjab Seed Council (PSC) in its 46th meeting in May, 2016. It is being recommended to farmers' community for general cultivation in Punjab province of Pakistan. Its cultivation will be adding to the national exchequer through export of raw cotton and value added products and to meet the demand at national and world level as well. Being a long staple variety, it will have very positive implications of obtaining additional returns at national economy to meet the demand of long staple cotton at national as well as at international level.

Conclusion

With substantial varietal difference, the pollen irradiation technique can be effectively used to produce high seed cotton yield with fiber of long staple. Further studies are needed to find the possible mechanism(s) of induced mutations at molecular level that cause improvement as noted in the present study.

Acknowledgements

Technical help and cooperation extended by Plant Protection Division NIAB, Directorate of CRI, Directorate of Agronomy, AARI, Faisalabad, PCCC, CCRI, Multan, FSCandRD), Islamabad and Khanewal, Punjab Seed Corporation (PSC) and Department of Agriculture Punjab are greatly acknowledged in testing of this mutant variety.

Reviewer's suggestions to improve the write up of manuscript are also acknowledged.

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Author:Haidar, Sajjad; Aslam, Muhammad
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
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Date:Aug 31, 2016
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