Printer Friendly


Byline: N. Nargis, M. Naeem, L. Vilhelmsen, I. Bodlah and M.S. Nadeem

Keywords: Taxonomy; Hymenoptera; Braconinae; new records; distribution; Pakistan.


Braconinae 1812, with 200 genera and 2500 described species is one of the largest subfamilies in the family Braconidae, order Hymenoptera. Most members of this subfamily act as idiobiont ectoparasitoids of various members of order Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, of which, some are important pests(Shaw and Huddleston, 1991; Quicke, 2015). The tribe Adeshini is comprised of seven genera: Adesha Cameron 1912, Adeshoides van Achterberg 1983, Africadasha Quicke 1986, Spinadesha Quicke 1988, Aneuradesha Quicke and Polaszek 2000, Furcadesha Quicke 1986 and Indadesha Quicke 1986. The tribe comprises of only 13 described, rarely encountered species mainly reported from tropical regions in the Oriental, Afrotropical and Indo-Australian realms(van Achterberg, 1983; Quicke, 1986, 1988; Quicke and Ingram, 1993; Quicke and Polaszek, 2000; Wang et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2007; Ranjith et al., 2017).

Members of Adeshini tribe are distinct and can be differentiated from other tribes by combination of the following characters: scapus sub-globose, shorter on ventral side than dorsal; parallel-sided basal flagellomeres; fore-wing 2nd sub marginal cell almost parallel-sided or narrow on distal side both forewing veins Cu1a and 2-Cu1 arising at same level resulting in vein Cu1b being longer than vein 3-Cu1; hind wing, vein r-m short; propodeum having complete medial longitudinal carina short(van Achterberg, 1983; Quicke, 1986).

Adesha is the type genus for Adeshini tribe. Adesha albolineata Cameron, 1912, from Malaysia was the first described species, yet it was re-described by van Achterberg(1983). Thereafter two more species were added i.e. Adesha acuta Quicke, 1986,(from the Malay Peninsula) and Adesha narendrani Ranjith et al., 2017(from southern India). The two genera Aneuradesha Quicke and Indadesha Quicke are represented by single species viz. Aneuradesha harleyi Quicke and Polaszek, 2000 and Indadesha achterbergi Quicke, 1986, from India. Very little information regarding the biology of members of tribe Adeshini is known except for Aneuradesha harleyi which is reported as a parasitic wasp of Asmangulia cuspidata Maulik, a pest of rice and sugarcane in India and Indonesia, and Adesha albolineata Cameron which is a parasitoid of coconut leaf miner beetle Promecotheca cumingi Baly(Quicke and Polaszek, 2000).

Climatic parameters including temperature, rainfall and relative humidity have a great impact over insect population and it influences their distribution as well(Siswanto et al., 2008). However, taxonomic and ecological studies on braconids in relation to climatic parameters are very few(Fernandez-Triana et al., 2011). The distribution of parasitoid wasps may be affected by relative humidity, rainfall and temperature ranges throughout the year(Sorribas et al., 2010). Variation in climatic factors may result in changing population dynamics of species and ecological system stability(Meisner et al., 2014).

Despite their multiple importance as stated above, No significant work has been done in Pakistan exploring Braconinae fauna. In this lieu present study was planned to study effect of climate parameters(temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) over seasonal abundance Adeshini braconids, for the first time in Pakistan.


Spatio-temporal distribution of members of Adeshini was determined in selected sites during 2017-18 in the Pothwar tract of Punjab. Collection was done from Islamabad district: NARC research farm(33Adeg44.811N 073Adeg07.809E, 491 m), agricultural lands(Sugarcane, maize, fodder crops, cucurbitaceae, guava, citrus, pomegraint, olive orchards); Chakwal district: Kallar Kahar(32Adeg47.734N 72Adeg43.779E, 711 m), agricultural land and rangeland habitats(citrus, olive and loquat orchards); Chakwal city(32Adeg56.638N 072Adeg35.811E, 446 m), maize fields; Rawalpindi district: Poultry Research Institute(PRI)(33Adeg39.211 N 073Adeg04.697 E, 510 m), agricultural land habitat(citrus orchard, maize); Koont Farm(33Adeg07.013 N 073Adeg00.694E 447 m), maize fields.

Collection was done using sweep net and malaise traps emptied every two weeks. Ethanol-preserved specimens were stored in the Biosystematics Entomology Laboratory, PMAS-AAUR, Pakistan. Specimens were later dried using Hexamethyldisilazane(HMDS) and mounted on card points. Specimens were examined using Labomed CZM6 stereozoom microscope(10X / 22 W.F) and photographs were taken by Visionary Digital stacking system in the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen. After taking measurements of the specimen's body parts via micrometry, all specimens were deposited in the Entomology Department of PMAS-AAUR, Pakistan. Month-wise climatological data of rainfall(mm) and temperature(AdegC) was taken from the Pakistan Meteorological Department of selected sites. Distributional map for recorded taxa(Fig. 6) was plotted by Q-GIS 2.13.

Terminology: For morphological terms in illustrations, we follow van Achterberg(1974, 1979) for wing venation. For body sculpturing, Eady(1968), Harris(1979) and Quicke(1986) were followed.


A total of 42 specimens of tribe Adeshini were collected from Pothwar region belonging to 4 species under 3 genera.

(a) Taxonomy

Family Braconidae

Subfamily Braconinae Nees, 1812

Tribe Adeshini Achterberg, 1983

Key and diagnostic characters of genera and species are given as under:

Key to genera of Tribe Adeshini Achterberg

1. Propodeum with complete medial longitudinal carina(Figs. 1D, 3D and 4D); vein Cu1b present in forewing(Figs. 1B, 3B and 4B)...................................... 2

_. Propodeum with median-longitudinal carina extending more or less half the length(Fig. 2C); vein Cu1b absent in forewing(Fig.2B).......................................Aneuradesha Quicke

2. Laterope on 1st metasomal tergum absent(Fig.1D); T-2 without a medial longitudinal carina(Fig. 1D); mesoscutum without a medio-longitudinal groove; mesosternum coriaceous......................Indadesha Quicke

_. Laterope on 1st metasomal tergum well-developed(Fig. 3D and 4D); T-2 with almost complete medial longitudinal carina(Fig. 3D and 4D); mesoscutum with medio-longitudinal groove; mesosternum smooth ................................................ Adesha Cameron Genus Indadesha Quicke, 1986(new record to Pakistan)

Diagnosis: Antennal scape not baso-dorsally swollen; mesoscutum smooth and hairless on anterior side; veins C+SC+R and 1-SR angled above 47Adeg; laterope on 1st metasomal tergum absent(Fig. 1D); 2nd metasomal suture crenulated; 5th metasomal tergite with prominent lateral semicircular emarginations(Fig. 1E).

Distribution: Oriental(India) and Pakistan(present study).

Indadesha achterbergi Quicke, 1986(Fig. 1A-E) Material examined: Islamabad, 33Adeg44.811N, 073Adeg07.809E, 491m, 2 aa, 15.iv.2017, 5aa, 14.v.2017, leg. Nargis; Chakwal, 32Adeg47.734N, 72Adeg43.779E, 711m, 2 aa,, leg. Nargis, 2aa and 1a, 16.viii.2017, leg. Naeem.

Diagnosis: Mean female body length 2.9 mm(2.6-2.10 mm, n=9); mean fore-wing length 3.0 mm(2.8-3.2 mm, n=9); mean male body length 2.65 mm(2.5-2.8 mm, n=3); mean forewing length 2.8 mm(2.7-2.9 mm, n=3); antenna bearing 38 flagellomeres; Antennal sockets not protruding anteriorly; first flagellomere 1X length of 2nd flagellomere; mesosoma 1.6X longer than high; metasomal sculpture coarse anteriorly; first metasomal tergite 0.63X as long as wide posteriorly; posterior tergites almost equally reticulate-rugulose; fifth tergite smooth anteriorly to transverse with sub-basal depression at postero-lateral margins; ovipositor sheath 0.13X length of forewing; antennae usually distally black, basally brown; head including legs and body yellowish light brown except hind tarsi, medial part of 1st metasomal tergite and second to 4th tergites sub-medially infuscated except brownish yellow mid-longitudinal line; wings with venation brown; ovipositor sheath black.

Host Plant: S. officinarum and Z. mays.

Distribution: India, Pakistan. Indadesha achterbergi is hereby first time reported for Pakistan.

Genus Aneuradesha Quicke and Polaszek, 2000(new record to Pakistan)

Diagnosis: Flagellomeres usually longer than wide; notauli usually deeply impressed anteriorly and slightly depressed, punctuate part in posterior third of mesoscutum; forewing without vein Culb(Fig. 2B); propodeal longitudinal carina reduced(Fig. 2C); second metasomal suture crenulated.

Distribution: Oriental(India) and Pakistan(present study).

Aneuradesha harleyi Quicke and Polaszek, 2000(Fig. 2 A-E)

Material examined: Islamabad, 33Adeg44.811N, 073Adeg07.809E, 491 m, 1 a, 28.iv.2017, 3 aa, 14.v.2017, leg. Nargis; Rawalpindi, 33Adeg39.211 N, 073Adeg04.697 E, 510 m, 2 aa, 5.viii.2017, leg. Nargis.

Diagnosis: Mean male body length 2.56 mm(2.5-2.7 mm, n=6); mean forewing length 2.51 mm(2.4-2.6 mm, n=6); antennae bearing 32 flagellomeres; first flagellomere 1.1 X length of 2nd flagellomere; mesosoma 1.15 X longer than high; scutellum having small distinct pit with fine crenulate scutellar sulcus; vein 1cu-a of forewing slightly postfurcal; hind wing base uniformly setose; first and 2nd metasomal tergites with granulose reticulate rugose sculpture(Fig. 2E); first metasomal tergite 0.83 X as long as wide posteriorly; 5th metasomal tergite having lateral semicircular emarginations(Fig. 2D); yellowish brown in color except flagellomeres, with blackish marks on median part of 1st metasomal tergite, medio-basal part of 2nd metasomal tergite and also on 3rd and 4th metasomal tergites.

Host Plant: S. officinarum and C. reticulata. Host: A. cuspidate(Quicke and Polaszek, 2000).

Distribution: India and Pakistan. Aneuradesha harleyi is hereby first time reported for Pakistan.

Genus Adesha Cameron, 1912(new record to Pakistan)

Diagnosis: Head and mesosoma usually smooth; antennae bearing more than 50 flagellomeres; mesoscutum heavily setose, with well-developed notauli anteriorly; propodeum with median longitudinal carina(Figs 3D and 4D); forewing veins C+SC+R and 1-SR angle below 45Adeg; vein 1-SR+M straight; claws with basal lobes absent; metasoma rugose; second metasomal tergite having a medial carina usually reaching middle of tergite(Figs. 3D and 4D); fifth metasomal tergite posterior margin with well-developed semicircular emarginations(Figs. 3E and 4E).

Distribution: Oriental(India and Malaysia) and Pakistan(present study).

Key to species of Adesha Cameron

1. Fifth metasomal tergite with postero-lateral emarginations shallow and poorly developed(Fig. 3E); scutellum usually dark brown(Fig. 3C).......A. albolineata

_. Fifth metasomal tergite with postero-lateral emarginations well-developed(Fig. 4E); scutellum usually yellow-brown(Fig. 4C)......................A. acuta

Adesha albolineata Cameron, 1912(Fig 3 A-E)

Material examined: Islamabad, 33Adeg44.811N, 073Adeg07.809E, 491 m, 3 aa, 29.v.2017, 4 aa,, leg. Nargis; 4 aa, 17.vii.2017, 2 aa, 29.viii.2017, leg. Naeem.

Diagnosis: Mean female body length 3.78 mm(3.60-3.80 mm, n=11); mean fore-wing length 2.9 mm(2.78-3.1 mm, n=11); mean male body length 3.57 mm(3.45-3.70 mm, n=2); mean forewing length 2.42 mm(2.35-2.50 mm, n=2); first flagellomere 1 X length of 2nd flagellomere; antennal sockets weakly protruding anteriorly; frons slightly convex, smooth; face weakly convex, smooth; mesoscutum rather convex, reduced mid-longitudinal groove on medial lobe(Figure 3C);

2-SR, 3-SR and r veins uniformly thick; first metasomal tergite 0.63 X as long as wide posteriorly, medial area coarsely reticulate; second metasomal tergite bearing mid-basal quadrate part rugose, median longitudinal extending carina well beyond middle of tergite(Fig. 3D); 5th metasomal tergite having semicircular emarginations shallow(Fig. 3E); ovipositor sheath 0.09 X length of forewing, hypopygium apically truncate; antennae,largely dorsal part of head, meso-and metasoma brownish yellow; metasoma yellowish laterally and 5 tergite apically; wing subhyaline with pterostigma, wing venation brown; hind tibia, tarsi and ovipositor sheath dark brown to black.

Host: P. cumingi Baly(Quicke and Polaszek, 2000).

Host plants: P. guajava.

Distribution: Malaysia and Pakistan. A. albolineata is hereby first time reported for Pakistan.

Adesha acuta Quicke, 1986(Fig. 4 A-E)

Material examined: Islamabad, 33Adeg44.811 N, 073Adeg07.809E, 491 m, 1 a and 3 aa, 15.iv.2017, leg. Nargis; Chakwal, 32Adeg56.638N, 072Adeg35.811E, 446 m, 2 aa and 4 aa, 30.v.2017, leg. Nargis; Rawalpindi, 33Adeg07.013N, 073Adeg00.694E, 447 m, 2 aa, 5.viii.2017, leg. Nargis.

Diagnosis: Mean female body length 3.12 mm(2.92-3.15 mm, n=9); mean fore-wing length 2.92 mm(2.85-3.14 mm, n=9); mean male body length 2.85 mm(2.75-2.90 mm, n=3); mean forewing length 2.62 mm(2.51-2.70 mm, n=3); first flagellomere 1.25 X length of 2nd flagellomere; mesosoma 1.45 X longer than high; mesoscutum with well developed medial longitudinal groove posteriorly; first metasomal tergite 1.32 X as long as wide posteriorly with coarsely rugose raised area; second metasomal tergite rugose with mid-longitudinal carina extending middle of tergite, with mid-basal triangular part(Fig. 4D); fifth metasomal tergite with pronounced semicircular emarginations(Fig. 4E); colour brown yellowish except for brown antennae, venation and pronotal groove anterolaterally, middle lobe mid-anteriorly and largely lateral lobes of mesoscutum, 1st tergite raised median area, between sublateral furrows of 2nd tergite and ovipositor sheath black; mid, hind leg tarsi and tibia slightly infuscate.

Host: P. cumingi Baly(Quicke and Polaszek, 2000).

Host plant: P. guajava and Z. mays.

Distribution: Malaysia and Pakistan. A. acuta is hereby first time reported for Pakistan.

(b) Ecological parameters of Adeshini

Details for recorded taxa: The occurrence of Adeshini from five sampling sites in Pothwar region is shown in Fig. 6. From collected specimens, 26%(11 specimens) belong to Indadesha achterbergi, 14%(6 specimens) belong to Aneuradesha harleyi, 31%(13 specimens) belong to Adesha albolineata and 29%(12 specimens) belong to Adesha acuta(Fig. 5).

Spatio-temporal graphical representation in Islamabad: Twenty-eight specimens of four species, I. achterbergi, A. harleyi, A. albolineata and A. acuta were collected from agricultural habitats: sugarcane fields, maize fields and guava orchards. Members of tribe Adeshini were not found from January-March, July and September-December(Fig. 7). Abundance and diversity of Adeshini parasitoids was observed in the months of April, May, June and August at an average temperature of 26.5AdegC, comparatively less rainfall, humidity, as compared to other months of the study period at this location.

Spatio-temporal graphical representation in Rawalpindi: Four specimens of two species A. harleyi and A. acuta were collected from predominantly agricultural land type habitat viz., maize fields and citrus orchard. Presence of recorded taxa was observed in the months of May and September(Fig. 8) at an average temperature of 30AdegC, less rainfall, at sampling site as compared to the remaining study periods. Adeshini declined to zero in the remaining months of the year(Fig.8).

Spatio-temporal graphical representation in Chakwal: Ten specimens of two species viz., I. achterbergi and A. acuta were collected from agricultural land type habitat including citrus orchards and olive orchards. Recorded taxa were collected in the dry months of June and September at an average temperature of 29.6AdegC. Members of tribe Adeshini declined to zero in remaining months of the year(Fig. 9).


In the present study, a total of 42 specimens of tribe Adeshini were recorded from Pothwar region which revealed four species in three genera. All these are new additions to the braconid fauna of Pakistan. Among these A. harleyi was previously reported as a parasitoid of A. cuspidate,(rice and sugarcane pest) in India and Indonesia while A. albolineata was documented as parasitoid of P. cumingi(coconut leaf miner beetle) in Malaysia(Quicke and Polaszek, 2000). During current study, A.harleyi was recorded from fields of sugarcane and citrus orchards, I. achterbergi from sugarcane and maize fields, A. albolineata from guava orchards and A. acuta, from orchards of guava, olive and maize fields. These species can possibly parasitize pests of guava, olive, citrus, maize and sugarcane; yet it need further study.

No data on the actual host organisms of Adeshini available from Pakistan and thus further taxonomic work and exploration of host associations is crucial for evaluating applicability of members of Adeshini in pest management in different parts of the country.

Parasitoids are mainly dependent upon their hosts, host plant physiology and are thus highly susceptible to climate change. The spatio-temporal study indicates that species of Adeshini are mostly observed in the months of April, May, June, August and September. This also might be due to the presence of host, suitable microclimate, macroclimate and food resources in these months. The results are in agreement with Wolda(1988). In addition to hosts, some additional resources e.g., adult food, mating sites etc might also be suitable in the collection period. The results are in line to Dyer and Landis(1996).

Braconid wasps e.g., Apanteles spp., Meteorus spp., Chelonus spp., Agathis spp., Cotesia spp., Microplitis spp., Diaeretiella spp., Apanteles spp., Cotesia spp. of different vegetables belonging to family Leguminoseae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Cruciferae and Cucurbitaceae were reported in the months of February, March, April, June, August and September due to the availability of their hosts(Halder et al., 2018). Members of Adeshini were mostly recorded at sampling location(NARC) in district Islamabad because there is more diversity of crops(sugarcane, maize, cucurbitaceae vegetables, fodder crops) and orchards(guava, citrus, pomegranate, olive) as compared to sampling location(PRI) and Koont farm, district Rawalpindi(citrus orchard, maize field) and Kallar Kahar farm, district Chakwal(citrus, olive and loquat orchards) and maiz fields.

This might be because of more diversity of crops, the height of grasses, weeds and ground cover at sampling sites in Islamabad as compared to other sampling localities. Our results are also in agreement with Stamps and Linit(1997), Thomson and Hoffmann(2010), Smith et al.(2015) and Andow et al.(2016). In the Pothwar Region, the occurrence of recorded taxa is inversely related to rainfall, might be because of survival strategy at low humidity and in search of their hosts in the absence of rains. Similar results for parasitoid wasps have been observed by others(Fernandez-Triana et al., 2011; Aranda and Graciolli, 2015). It is also observed that recorded taxa usually found at an average minimum temperature range of 22AdegC to a maximum temperature range of 32AdegC.

The results are in line with Akhtar et al.(2010) that emergence of aphid parasitoids of family Braconidae was high at maximum temperature of 30.66AdegC and at minimum temperature 14.80AdegC. Some members of family Braconidae preferred 25AdegC as observed by Zamani et al.(2007). Same results were observed by other workers relating to parasitoid distribution which is usually higher at high temperature during warm months of the year(Sorribas et al.,2010). Braconid wasps, e.g., Cotesia species are strongly affected by climate change and among these, Cotesia sesamiae is most prevalent in regions of higher rainfall(Mohyuddin and Greathead, 1970) whereas Cotesia flavipes is mostly observed in warm regions with less rainfall(Songa et al., 2001; Niyibigira, 2003).

Acknowledgments: We are thankful to Mr. Anders Illum and Mr. Mikkel Hoegh Post(Natural History Museum Denmark, University of Copenhagen) for technical assistance. We are also thankful to Prof. John Richard Schrock,(Emporia State University USA) for English proof reading of this manuscript. This study was supported by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.


Achterberg, C.V.(1974). The features of the petiolar segment in some Braconidae(Hym.). Entomol. Ber. 34: 213-214.

Achterberg, C.V.(1979). A revision of the subfamily Zelinaeauct.(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Tijkschr. Ent. 122: 241-259.

Achterberg, C.V.(1983). Six new genera of Braconinae from the Afrotropical region(Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Tijdschr. Entomol. 126: 175-202.

Akhtar, M.S., D. Dey, M.K. Usmani, and R. Choudhury(2010). Seasonal abundance of Diaretiella rapae(Mintosh)(Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitizing Lipaphis Erysimi(Kaltenbach)(Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Brassica juncea variety Pusa Bold. Mun. Ent. Zool. 5(2): 692-696.

Andow, D.A., J.P. Harmon, and N.A. Schellhorn(2016). Using cultural practices to enhance insect pest control by natural enemies. CRC Press; Florida(USA). 157-181 pp

Aranda, R. and G. Graciolli(2015). Spatial-temporal distribution of the Hymenoptera in the Brazilian savanna and the effects of habitat heterogeneity on these patterns. J. Insect Conserv. 19(6): 1173-1187.

Dyer, L.E. and D.A. Landis(1996). Effects of habitat, temperature, and sugar availability on longevity of Eriborus terebrans(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Environ. Entomol. 25(5): 1192-1201.

Eady, R.D.(1968). Some illustrations of microsculpture in the Hymenoptera. Proc. Royal Entomol. Soc. A. 43: 66-72.

Fernandez-Triana, J., M.A. Smith, C. Boudreault, H. Goulet, P.D. Hebert, A.C. Smith, and R. Roughley(2011). A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time. PLoSONE. 6(8): e23719.

Halder, J., A. Rai, D. Dey, and B. Singh(2018). Abundance of important parasitoids in the vegetable ecosystem and their prospects in integrated pest management. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 6(4): 762-769.

Harris, R.A.(1979). A glossary of surface sculpturing. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Occas. Pap. Entomol. 28: 1-31.

Liu, J.J., J.H. Chen, and J.Q. Yang(2007). The genus Furcadesha Quicke(Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) in China, with description of two new species. J. Anim. Taxon. 32(3): 574-578.

Meisner, M.H., J.P. Harmon, and A.R. Ives(2014). Temperature effects on long-term population dynamics in a parasitoid-host system. Ecol. Monogr. 84(3): 457-476.

Mohyuddin, A. and D. Greathead(1970). An annoted list of the parasites of graminaceous stem borers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control. Entomophaga. 15(3): 241-274.

Niyibigira, E.I.(2003). Genetic variability in Cotesia flavipes and its importance in biological control of lepidopteron stem borers. Ph.D. thesis. Deptt. of Entomol., Wageningen Univ., Netherland.

Quicke, D.L.J.(1986). A revision of the Adeshini van Achterberg with descriptions of three new genera from the Palaeotropics(Insecta, Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zool. Scr. 15(3): 265-274.

Quicke, D.L.J.(1988). A new genus and species of Adeshini(Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Braconinae) from Thailand. Entomol. Mag. 124: 203-205.

Quicke, D.L.J. and S.N. Ingram(1993). Braconine wasps of Australia. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 33(1): 299-336.

Quicke, D.L.J. and A. Polaszek(2000). A new genus and first host records, for the Adeshini: parasitoids of hispine beetles(Braconidae: Braconinae; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Hymenopt. Res. 9(1): 104-107.

Quicke, D.L.J.(2015). The braconid and ichneumonid parasitoid wasps: biology, systematics, evolution and ecology. John Wiley and Sons; Chichester(UK).

Ranjith, A.P., J.T. Jenning, and M. Naseer(2017). Review of the rarely collected genus Adesha Cameron(Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Braconinae) with description of a new species from Southern India. Insect Diver. Taxon. 11: 97-110.

Shaw, M. and T. Huddleson(1991). Classification and biology of braconid wasps(Hymenoptera Braconidae). 7th Ed. Royal Entomological Societies; London. 54-55 pp

Siswanto, R.M., O. Dzolkhifli, and K. Elna(2008). Population fluctuation of Helopeltis antonii Signoret on Cashew Anacardium occidentalle L. in Java Indonesia Pertanika. J. Trop. Agric. Sci.31(2): 191-196.

Smith, I.M., A.A. Hoffmann, and L.J. Thomson(2015). Ground cover and floral resources in shelterbelts increase the abundance of beneficial hymenopteran families. Agr. Forest Entomol. 17(2): 120-128.

Songa, J., W. Overholt, J. Mueke, and R. Okello(2001). Colonisation of Cotesia flavipes(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in stem borers in the semi-arid Eastern Province of Kenya. Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 21(4): 289-295.

Sorribas, J., R. Rodriguez, and F. Garcia-Mari(2010). Parasitoid competitive displacement and coexistence in citrus agro ecosystems: linking species distribution with climate. Ecol. Appl. 20(4): 1101-1113.

Stamps, W. and M. Linit(1997). Plant diversity and arthropod communities: Implications for temperate agroforestry. Agrofor. Syst. 39(1): 73.

Thomson, L.J. and A.A. Hoffmann(2010). Natural enemy responses and pest control: importance of local vegetation. Biol. Control. 52(2): 160-166.

Wang, Y.P., X.X. Chen, and J.H. He(2006). The discovery of the genus Spinadesha(Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) in China, with description of a new species. Biologia. 61(2): 145-147.

Wolda, H.(1988). Insect seasonality: why?. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19(1): 1-18.

Zamani, A.A., A. Talebi, Y. Fathipour, and V. Baniameri(2007). Effect of temperature on life history of Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), two parasitoids of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae(Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ. Entomol. 36(2): 263-271.
COPYRIGHT 2020 Knowledge Bylanes
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2020 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:N. Nargis, M. Naeem, L. Vilhelmsen, I. Bodlah and M.S. Nadeem
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Oct 31, 2020

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |