NEUTRINO VELOCITY VELOCITY OF LIGHT NO CHALLENGE TO THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY (Critical Review).
1: Experimental Birth of Neutrino :
As per the given following nuclear decay equation:
Both neutrino and anti-neutrino are fermions. Statistics which is based on fermions is called Fermi-Dirac' statistics. The statistics which is base on bosons is called Bose- Einstein statistics. The mathematical theories in which particles are neither fermions nor bosons and in which the symmetry is more complicated such theories are called parastatistics. As yet none of such particle have been produced or discovered.
2: Theoretical Birth of a pair on neutrinos:
As scientists in their research strategies try to explore all the possibility of a probability. The same strategy was adopted by Herman Wyel in 1929using Dirac's equation. At that time a known particle with zero mass was only the Photon, a Boson, with tsh spin but he reduced mass of a fermion or an electron in Dirac's equation and got a pair of particles with zero mass and therefore with no electric charge because if a particle has no rest mass but spin half of tsh then we are forced to assign it, zero electric charge. A sort of a strange electron or positron. For example if we reduce mass of a Particle in Dirac's equation to zero then this equation, in a
Although at that time Herman Weyl's idea was rejected because by this parity or reflection law was violated which was considered as one of the sacred laws of Physics at that time but afterward when two China born Physicists Lee and Yang  pointed out that parity might not be remained conserved in beta decay which was confirmed by another China born Physicist working in America Madam C.S. Wu. Then a Pakistani Physicist A. Salam  and a Russian Physicist Landau  suggested that neutrinos follow the Weyl's equation (1) . About this topic some more discussion will be offered in some latter last section.
3: First experimental capturing of Neutrino:
Clyde. L. Cowan and Fred. Reines in 1953 made the first of all attempt to detect anti-neutrino basing on the following nuclear reaction equation directly through interaction with matter method. They placed their experimental apparatus near a larger Savanna River nuclear reactor in South Carolina USA. A large flux of of anti-neutrinos from this reactor passed through these detecting devices. The target contained water (protons) in the form of big tanks and some CdCl2 (Cadmium chloride) dissolved in these water tanks. As Cadmium is a good absorber of neutrons that is why they are used in Nuclear Reactors to control the speed of the reactor functioning and are called controlling rods. This sandwich target was placed between two big tanks containing the liquid scintillation detectors. The light signals from these scintillations were detected by photomultiplier tubes at the end of these tanks and then fed to oscilloscope.
If anti- neutrino is captured by a proton (as a hydrogen nucleus in water molecule) in the water tank as results we must get a positron and a neutron as depicted in the above decay equation. The positron preferably should be captured by an electron in the nearby water molecules producing through annihilation process two gamma rays each of 0.51Mev. Their pulse was recorded on the oscilloscope. The neutron released as mentioned above suffers collisions with cadmium nuclei resulting a cascade of emission of gamma rays totaling energy 9Mev. These gamma rays produce a high pulse on the same oscilloscope. The time interval between these two pulses was found 5.5 . This time interval corresponds to the time interval which is necessary between positron capturing by some electron and the neutron's absorption by some Cadmium's nucleus. The results of this experiment showed 2.88count per hour fairly in good agreement with the predicted cross-section of .
As result of this experiment Cowan and Reines were awarded Nobel Prize in 1995.
4: Subject matter:
OPERA experimental group which have published the results that they have been able to produce a superluminal Neutrino with velocity greater than velocity of light 60 nanoseconds. Suddenly a big rouse took place in not only Physics world but also in common talks since Albert Einstein has become a public figure even down to a common man. I also received a number of e-mails from my old student and the same shock was echoed in our last November 2011 Conference at the Physics department of University of Gujrat which basically was arranged by Islamabad NCP. We were simply boarding and hosting ends. Most of our conference people in fact were not well versed with these experimental results and therefore were of the view that these results are not yet confirmed independently so no need to contemplate with them. I personally assumed that if it is so then it is good luck to Relativity but if these results are true then what should be the fate of Relativity.
As per details of the OPERA group they had produced neutrinos at CERN through collisions between protons and a graphite fixed target with the help of super proton synchrotron (SPS) and directed neutrino beams through earth 11.4km in depth at half way to the ending detector placed at Gran Sasso in Italy. The total travelled inside the earth by the neutrino became 732 km. Allesandro Bertolin, a member of the experimental team said the OPERA team has not drawn any definitive conclusions from this apparently anomalous observation and He stressed that team has decided to publish the surprising findings so that physics community can go ahead and do a thorough check of these results. This means sometimes instead of pain taking for rechecking alone the vast community can be invited by publishing doubtful findings also. A Russian Scientist, a
As we discussed earlier in section-2 the emission mechanism of a beta particle and the neutrino that they both share the extra nuclear energy with variations. When beta particle gets more share of energy it is added as it kinetic energy and hence only velocity increases not the mass. What when neutrino gets more share of energy, does this adds to its mass or kinetic energy? Neutrino being fermions may have more attraction towards mass rather towards kinetic energy as no fixation its mass has yet been confirmed by any experiment. In OPERA experiment the increase of kinetic energy finds hardy any explanation. If we use neutrino oscillation idea even then in such a short distance neutrino oscillation looks difficult. In OPREA reports, they have not mentioned what generation of neutrino they had got from their accelerator at CERN and what generation they had received at detection site OPERA in Italy. The whole story looks fantasy and may have to revoke in some future studies. REFERNCES:
: ICTP Nnews Bulletin, 2011.1
:H.Weyl. Zs. f. Phys, 56, 330, 1929.
: T.d.Lee and .C.N. Yang, Phys. Rev.105, 1671.1957.
: A. Salam Nuovo cimento, 5, 299, 1956.
:L.D. landau, JETF., 32,407.1957.