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NATO EW - at the turning point.

NATO EW - At the Turning Point

As befits the birthplace of modern EW, the technology is alive and well in Europe despite the turbulence created by the dynamics of change within the Warsaw Pact, financial stringency and the onset of the single European market. Before considering the continent's EW industry, it is perhaps as well to consider the political and military environment in which the technology functions and operates.

To all intents and purposes, the European political framework means two things: NATO and the European Community (EC). Taking these in order, it is perhaps ironic that one of NATO's greatest strengths - its existence as a free alliance of sovereign states - is also one of its fundamental weaknesses as far as defense technology is concerned. Unlike the Warsaw Pact, NATO is unable to field common systems because each of the member states pursues a bilateral defense policy relating to both their role in the Alliance and their national needs. Whichever of these has the upper hand at any one time largely dictates the nature of the defense procurement in particular states.

This centrality of national interest combined with differing economic bases makes for varying levels of defense sophistication. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the field of EW provision which, in any case, is notoriously difficult to sell to political paymasters in times of peace. NATO itself tries to overcome this inertia through a number of bodies headed by its EW Advisory Committee, but in the end, the Alliance's planning staff can only express its needs rather than implement solutions.

The success of NATO's forward EW planning is hard to assess. On the one hand, EW provision of one sort or another exists in all the member states; on the other, the Alliance appears to have had little success in standardizing the implementation of "across the board" programs. Indeed the only real success story in the latter category is the creation of the Multi-Service Electronic Warfare Support Group (MEWSG). Created in 1979, MEWSG has a generally similar function to the USN's FEWSG; using a mixture of podded and van-mounted systems, it provides "realistic maritime, air-sea and air-sea-land ECM/ECCM training." Operationally, the picture is less rosy. Ongoing study programs (research into airborne towed decoys for instance) and outstanding staff targets (a multinational dedicated airborne jamming force for one) are no substitutes for deployed hardware.

Even greater operational difficulty is created by the virtual collapse of the Warsaw Pact. Indeed, the situation is so fluid that change seems to be occurring on an almost daily basis - hardly the most conducive atmosphere for effective forward planning! All that can be said with certainty is that the central plank of NATO war fighting doctrine - defense against a Soviet invasion of Western Europe - is now obsolete. Russian intentions are still viewed with suspicion, but there does seem to be a consensus forming which accepts that a war with the Warsaw Pact in Central Europe is not going to happen. This thesis is supported by statements such as "at present, the Soviets do not seem to anticipate war in Europe in the near future" (the DOD's Soviet Military Power 1989) and "I would suggest the threat to the central region is going down significantly . . . . in the north there is little change, but the threat to the south gets higher" (General Manfred Eisele, chief of combat requirements, SHAPE).

Thinking such as this (together with the ongoing CFE talks) suggests that NATO's future lies in high-technology, mobile forces capable of being deployed rapidly throughout the European theater, an increased emphasis on deterring aggression on the part of the Soviet naval and air units stationed on the Kola Peninsula and an increasing awareness of the "out of theater" threat posed by the instability of the Middle East.

Just as important for the future of EW provision within the alliance are the political and economic implications of the European single market and the move towards federalism within the EC. While these developments will have a massive effect on the defense electronics industries on both sides of the Atlantic, quite what that impact might be is, as yet, far from clear.

As of January 1, 1993, the EC is mandated to operate a free market in goods and services throughout its member states. Most importantly, the agreement is likely to incorporate what is known as the Common External Tariff (CET) which aims to harmonize import levies on goods and services coming into the community. As originally drafted, CET included tariffs on defense imports, a proposal which aroused considerable disquiet both in the US and interestingly, amongst certain of the member states. The specter of a trade war which the initial CET proposal unfortunately raised continues to obscure the reality of the situation in a welter of indignation and speculation. For the record, CET has not yet been accepted by the EC's member states and the best guess is that, yes, CET will be introduced in some form and, no, it will not totally discriminate against US imports. In this writer's view, EC members will in the future have to pay a premium for US defense equipment, but one which in no way will constitute total protectionism.

Whatever becomes of CET, there is no doubt that in the future, US industry will have to compete harder for orders following the implementation of the Single Market Act. For its part, the European defense electronics industry has faced up to the challenges presented by the act in three ways: growth, collaboration and multinationalism. To meet the needs of a market the size of the EC, European industry has radically reshaped itself to the point where the UK's GEC conglomerate and France's Thomson-CSF dominate the continent's defense electronics business. Through acquisitions and mergers, the two organizations have developed industrial bases large enough and diverse enough to be effective players both in the new European structure and on the world stage.

The same process of "giantism" is also apparent in moves by some of Europe's aerospace concerns to incorporate an electronics capability within their empires. Such developments appear to be taking two forms: outright incorporation (Telefunken System Technik as part of Deutsche Aerospace being an example, Italy's Finmeccanica's ownership of Selinia and part ownership of Elettronica being another) or the development of strategic alliances such as that being formed by British Aerospace and Thomson-CSF over a range of technology fields.

Collaboration and multinationalism go hand in hand as European nations grapple with the fact that it is now virtually impossible to produce sophisticated weapons systems on a national basis. The difficulties inherent in satisfying individual national requirements and, perhaps more importantly, national pride in such ventures are enormous and, despite the success of programs like the tri-national Tornado and four-nation European Fighter Aircraft (EFA), are still proving tricky things to run.

The emergence of multinationalism on the present scale has been a genuinely mold-breaking experience for European industry. Gone are the cozy national relationships between supplier and national procurement agency, with the game now being "competition" from whichever quarter has the price and the technology. While pure free market economics cannot be applied to programs where there are agreed work shares (such as EFA), there is no gain saying the current economic conditions have brought about radical rethinks on pricing, cooperation and appropriate levels of technology transfer.

Collaboration is not only restricted to multinational ventures but is increasingly playing a role in domestic programs. Thus, for France's Rafale, Thomson, Dassault Electronique and Matra are working together on the aircraft's defensive aids suite, a situation mirrored by Ericson, SAI Tech and Bofors Electronics in their work on the EW equipment for Sweden's JAS-39 multirole fighter.

Against such a background, what then of the continent's EW industry itself? Before looking at the players in more detail, the reader should be aware that what follows restricts itself (because of space limitation) to considering what might be termed "classical" EW systems (tri-service jamming, ESM and threat warning equipments) and does not pretend to be anything other than an overview. Equally, Israel is included in the survey because of its technological expertise and its close links with the West.

FRANCE

Traditionally covering domestic needs and buoyed by the success of France's aerospace exports, the French EW industry is approaching the 1990s with a much more outward-looking approach and an increasing willingness to cooperate with its European counterparts. The country's EW base is extensive, involving as it does a wide range of companies including Thomson-CSF, Dassault Electronique (formerly Electronique Serge Dassault), SAT, Matra, Alkan, Lacroix and CSEE.

Taking these in order, Thomson's EW activity is concentrated within its Division Radars/Contre-Mesures/Electronique de Missiles (RCM) and its Division Telecommunications based in Paris/Brest and Gennevilliers, respectively. As many readers will have noted, Thomson is in the middle of a major restructuring as part of an aggressive ongoing acquisitions program. As part of the process, the missile electronics aspect of the RCM Division's activities is to be hived off into the new British Aerospace-Thomson Eurodynamics joint venture company.

As might be expected, the company is a tri-service manufacturer. In the airborne sector, Thomson produces a wide range of equipment, including the Adelie 0.69-1.06 micron band laser warner; the ASTAC tactical ELINT pod; the 6-20 GHz Barem dual-mode, pod-mounted radar jammer; the Basilisk escort jamming pod; the D- to I-band Caiman pod-mounted noise jammer; the DR 2000/3000/4000 range of ESM systems; the Gabriel tactical SIGINT suite; the ICMS EW suite for the Mirage 2000 (in cooperation with Dassault Electronique, SAT and Matra); the Miriade millimetric RWR; the MSPS EW suite for light attack aircraft and the retro-fit market; the H/I/J-band Remora dual-mode, pod-mounted radar jammer; the SARIGE strategic SIGINT suite; the 2.5-18 GHz Serval RWR; and the 2-18 GHz Sherloc RWR.

Of these systems, the Gabriel/SARIGE SIGINT suites serve the national intelligence community, and are mounted in C-160 and DC-8 aircraft, respectively. The Serval RWR is standard equipment on French Air Force and export Mirage 2000s while Sherloc has been sold for use on a "fixed wing application" and forms part of both the MSPS suite and the Threat Warning Equipment (TWE) selected for use on the Franco-German Tiger battlefield helicopter. MSPS comprises Sherloc and either a pod-mounted or internalized Barem jammer. Such a system, which also incorporates a Matra chaff/flare dispenser, has been selected for installation on France's Orchidee battlefield surveillance radar platform.

The Miriade millimetric RWR is in development for the French Army helicopters, while the ICMS suite (made up of Thomson RWR/low-band jamming/management, Dassault Electronique high-band jamming, Matra chaff/flare dispensing and SAT MAW subsystems) has a launch customer in Jordan's Mirage 2000 aircraft. It has been proposed for use on the F-16 as well. Of the various jamming pods, the Barem is in service with both the French Air Force and Navy and has been exported. Likewise, the Caiman has been supplied to the national air force as well as overseas clients, while its successor, the Basilisk, will be initially used on French Air Force Jaguars.

The ASTAC ELINT pod is to be supplied to the French Air Force and is the subject of a licensed manufacturing agreement with Japan's MELCO. The DR 2000/3000/4000 series, like most current ESM systems, are suitable for triservice applications and have, in one form or another, been supplied to a "number of customers."

For the future, Thomson is acting as "industry representative" for the companies involved in the Rafale suite and has an active ongoing R&D program. Technology developments coming on stream include conformal antenna arrays, wideband TWTs, solid-state amplifiers, GaAs/MMIC/SAW receiver technology and VHSIC/GaAs data processing applications. The company is also heavily involved in the development of knowledge-based systems for EW applications, an area of research which can be expected to have practical results in Rafale.

For the land battlefield, Thomson's product range includes the Elabore/Elfa/Elodee/Emeraude range of intercept/DF systems for the French armed forces; the newly launched 600 series of "radio communications EW" equipment; the TRC 200 series of HF/VHF/UHF communications jammers; the nationally used Bromure/Binoc comms jammers; and the Fox HF/VHF/UHF combined COMINT/jamming system. The Fox is reported to be "in production and supplied to a number of customers." Naval systems include the ARBR-17 ESM system selected for use on French Navy air defense frigates; the Sapiens combined surveillance/ECM suite designed for use on "small- and medium-sized" warships; and the H/I/J-band Janet jammer which has been supplied to Saudi Arabia for use on its FL 2000 frigates. Thomson is also involved in the development of offboard active decoys for both airborne and naval applications.

Dassault Electronique is the new name for what was previously known as Electronique Serge Dassault; the company is based in Paris. Its product range includes the Carapace advanced threat warming receiver; the multimode H/I/J-band Barax jamming pod; the ABD 2000 "multirole jammer"; the ARBB-32 "large ship" deception jammer; and the ARBB-33 naval noise/deception jammer. Of these, the Carapace has been ordered by Belgium for use on its F-16s and is the subject of a teaming agreement with Westinghouse, which integrates it with the latter's ASPJ. The Barax is cleared for the Mirage F, ICR, Mirage III and Jaguar aircraft; it features an integral threat processing capability and has been supplied to Spain. The ABD 2000 is designed specifically for the export Mirage 2000s, while the ARBB-33 has been selected for use on France's new nuclear-powered aircraft carrier.

Future developments include the modular Salamandre ESM/ECM system for naval applications; a family of offboard active decoys (in collaboration with Britain's Marconi Defense Systems); the Camel airborne active decoy (aimed specifically at monopulse emitters); an airborne towed responder decoy; and studies in "expert system" applications.

SAT's contribution to the national technology base is the DDM MAW, which is reported to have successfully detected each of 25 missles fired during a 40-hour flight test program with only two false alarms. The DDM forms part of the ICMS for the Mirage 2000 and may form part of the Rafale suite.

Matra SA, headquartered in Paris, specializes in airborne dispenser systems and is heavily involved in ARM development. Current dispensers include the conformal Corail system (for Mirage fighters); the Phimat pod (in service with the French Air Force/Navy and the RAF); the Saphir helicopter dispenser (used in the Orchidee Program); the wing-mounted Spirale system (used in the ICMS Mirage 2000 suite); and the Sycomor dispenser (for export Mirage F.1 aircraft). In terms of ARM business, Matra co-developed (with British Aerospace and Dassault Electronique) the first-generation AS.37 Martel missile (which continues in service with the British and French air forces) and has gone on to develop subsequent weapons in this class. The culmination is a ramjet-powered missile (with a range of more than 6 miles and weighing approximately 500 lbs) for the Mirage 2000N' Rafale and Super Etendard aircraft types. Full-scale development of this new weapon can be expected in the 1990/91 time frame. It should be noted that Matra's involvement in the ARM sector is airframe/power plant oriented with seeker development carried out by other contractors.

France's other major airborne dispenser contractor, Alkan, frequently cooperates with Matra on systems development. For example, it provides the LL 5020 and LL 5062 launch modules used in the latter's Sycomor and Spirale equipment, respectively. In its own right, Alkan produces both internally mounted and podded dispensers for various aircraft types. The range includes the LL 5080 system, which comes as a pod- or scab-mounted installation and is especially suitable for retro-fit to Soviet platforms such as the MiG-21.

Staying with the dispenser theme, France's major chaff/IR flare manufacturer is Lacroix. The company supports both nationally manufactured dispensers and foreign systems such as the ALE-39, ALE-40 and Bofors Electronics' BOZ/BOP/BOH range. For the naval market, CSEE produces the Dagaie and Sagaie chaff/flare launcher systems, both of which have had success in the marketplace. Of the two, Dagaie is in service with 15 navies worldwide, while Sagaie has been ordered for use on a range of French Navy vessels and is reported as being "in production for several [other] navies."

GREAT BRITAIN

Like France, Great Britain has a broad tri-service EW base centered around companies such as Marconi Defence Systems (MDS), MEL, Thorn EMI, Racal, Plessey, Vinten, ML Aviation, Pains-Wessex and Chemring. London-based Marconi Defence System (MDS) specializes in airborne systems with a current product range which includes the dual-mode, pod-mounted Sky Shadow radar jammer; the C- to J-band Hermes ESM system; the E- to J-band Sky Guardian 200 RWR; the RHAW used on the RAF's Tornado F.2/3 interceptors; the C- to J-band Zeus integrated EW suite; and the seeker head for British Aerospace's ALARM ARM.

Of these, the Sky Shadow is in full-scale service with the RAF (on Tornado IDS strike aircraft) and is scheduled for a mid-life update. Extensively proven in a number of "Red Flag" exercises. Sky Shadow is a standard kit item on export strike Tornados such as those being delivered to Saudi Arabia. The Hermes ESM system has been acquired by the Indian Navy for use on its Sea King ASW helicopters, while the Sky Guardian 200 RWR is carried by RAF Buccanneer maritime strike aircraft (with a frequency extension into the C/D-band), Royal Navy Sea Harriers, Austrian J-35 Draken fighters and Spanish Navy EAV-8A Harriers.

MDS sees a long life for Sky Guardian (stressing its abilities against airborne pulse Doppler radars) and anticipates an order to upgrade the RWR capability of the RAF's Phantom interceptors with the receiver. Zeus, which incorporates both warning and jamming functions, is in service with the RAF's Harrier GR.5 "jump jets" and has been tested by the USMC to assess its potential on the AV-8B. MDS has also finished a Zeus format for the F-16 with General Dynamics and is active in the Fighting Falcon EW market.

For land and naval use, the company has the land mobile Sentry ELINT system; a manportable battlefield unmanned radar jammer; the Mentor naval ESM (ordered by the Royal Navy under the designation UAG); and a new family of naval offboard active decoys being developed jointly with France's Dassault Electronique. For the EFA program, MDS is a key player in the EURODASS consortium bidding to provide the aircraft's defensive aids subsystem (DASS). Made up of MDS, Germany's Telefunken System Technik (TST), Spain's ENSA and INISEL concerns and Italy's Elettronica, EURODASS is thought to be bidding a fully integrated system which will talk intelligently with the onboard nav/attack suite. Eurofighter, EFA's management company, is close to issuing individual RFPs for the DASS ECM, ESM, process, laser warner and MAW subsystems (that for the chaff/flare dispenser apparently already having gone out) as individual items. Bids providing levels of integration together with consortium workshare potential will be better received than those quoting for stand-alone items. Sources close to the program suggest that bid selection will be completed by the end of the year. As might be expected, MDS's activities are backed by an ongoing R&D program looking at new technology applications.

MEL, the Philips Group's last remaining defense subsidiary, specializes in naval EW and fields a product range which includes the EMS portion of the Royal Navy's UAA(2) ESM/ECM system; the AN/SLQ-501 CANEWS ESM; the Manta submarine ESM; the Sceptre family of surface ship ESMs; the Matilda shipboard radar warner; and the Ramses/Scimitar jammers. Of these, the CANEWS is produced by a wholly owned Canadian subsidiary, while the Sceptre X is on order for the Swedish Navy. A variant of the Sceptre XL (designated as UAT) is being procured to outfit the Royal Navy's batch 2 Type 23 ASW frigates. Variants of the Manta have been chosen to equip a number of Royal Navy Oberon and Churchill class submarines (as the UAH and UAL) respectively. The Ramses and Scimitar noise/deception jammers have been supplied to at least five navies around the world, while the private-venture Matilda warner is in service with a similar number of civil and military customers.

Alongside this line of business, MEL has capabilities in land systems (the 1-18 GHz mobile Setter ESM system and the EWCAS EW command and analysis architecture) and supports Loral 1017 ESM equipment fitted to the RAF's Nimrod and Sentry aircraft together with the Bofors Electronics BOP 300 chaff/flare dispenser carried by the service's Harrier GR.5.

Thorn EMI addresses the same niche naval market with the SARIE ELINT/ESM analysis equipment and the Guardian combined ECM/ESM suite. SARIE is in service with the Royal and "other" NATO navies while Guardian, as the Type 657(2), has been supplied to the UK service. Currently, the company is in receipt of one of two 18-month project definition study contracts (the other going to the team of MDS/Dassault Electronique) covering offboard active decoys for the Royal Navy. At the end of the contract period, both competitors are to produce "complete technology demonstrators," the performance of which will be used in the award of final development and production contracts.

Racal produces tri-service equipment with a particular emphasis on battlefield communications EW. Company products in the field include the RA3700 family of ESM receivers; the MA1110 family of DF processing/analysis units; the RDF3120 HF interferometric DF station; the RS3135 tactical intercept/monitoring equipment; the FARS fast acquisition VHF receiver; the Seeker 2-MHz to 1-GHz mobile intercept/DF system; and the Weasel/TAC-Weasel series of mobile ESM stations covering the 2-18 GHz and 0.7-18 GHz bands, respectively. Supporting these are the RACJAM-V series responsive VHF jammers, the RJS3120 VHF/UHF jammer family covering the 20-120 MHz/100-512 MHz to 1 GHz bands; and the RACEWS [C.sup.3] system for the control of battlefield EW operations. To date, Racal is understood to have two contracts for RACEWS systems, both customers being described as "non-European."

The company's naval equipment includes the 2-18 GHz Cutlass and Sabre ESM systems together with the I/J-band Cygnus and 7.5-18 GHz Scorpion noise/deception jammers. Orders won by Racal for naval equipment include the Cutlass-based UAF ESM for the Royal Navy's batch 1 Type 23 ASW frigates; a combined ECM/ESM suite (Scorpion/Cutlass B1) for West Germany's S148-class patrol boats; the company's SADIE processing architecture for West Germany's integrated FL 1800S naval EW suite; and Scorpion/Cygnus/Cutlass equipment for Middle Eastern customers.

For airborne applications, Racal produces equipment such as the 0.6-18 GHz Kestrel ESM system; the C- to J-band MIR-2 helicopter ESM; the H/I/J-band Prophet RWR; and the 20-80 MHz RACJAM AIR communications jammer. Of these, Kestrel has been sold to Denmark for use on its Navy Lynx helicopters; MIR-2 is in service with both the Royal Navy and the RAF (on C-130 transports); at least 100 Prophets have been supplied for use on Hawk, AMX and MiG-21 aircraft; and RACJAM AIR has been supplied to the US Army for use on EH-1 helicopters.

Now jointly owned by GEC and Siemens, Plessey offers a small range of tri-service equipment which includes the battlefield HF PVS 2280 intercept receiver; the PVS 3800 series of COMINT receivers and processors; the land mobile Series 500 0.5-16 GHz ESM/ECM system; chaff/IR decoy rockets for both the Corvus and Shield systems; and a MAW. Plessey decoy rockets are in service with the Royal Navy as well as those of Canada and Brazil; the company's MAW has been selected for use on the RAF's Harrier GR.5/7 aircraft and is the subject of a US marketing agreement with Westinghouse.

Vinten Military Systems is in the dispenser market with at least two product lines, the pod-mounted Vicon 77 and the internal/external Vicon 78 systems. Vicon 78 Series 300 dispensers have been selected for use on Hawk training aircraft being supplied to a Middle Eastern customer (possibly the UAE). In the same field, ML Wallop produces both dispensers and loadings, the former including the airborne Cascade, Evade and Masquerade units together with the naval Barricade/Superbarricade launchers. As of 1989, ML has supplied at least 70 Barricade decoy launchers to eight navies worldwide.

The remaining companies cited - Chemring and Pains-Wessex - are among the UK's leading suppliers of chaff and IR flares. Chemring produces chaff packaging formats suitable for most of the leading dispenser systems (ALE-39, ALE-40, BOZ, Phimat, etc.) as well as specialized formats for hand and airbrake launching. Pains-Wessex, under the tradename Schermuly, produces IR decoy flares (in 25 x 25 mm and 52 x 25 mm formats) which have been supplied to the RAF and the air forces of Denmark, Norway and Italy.

ISRAEL

Israel's EW industry centers around five companies: Elta (a wholly owned subsidiary of IAI), Elbit, IMI, the Tadiran-Elisra combine and the state-run RAFAEL armament authority. Of these, Elta is in the process of privatizing part of its stock while Tadiran continues to experience deep financial troubles.

Looking at these companies in turn, Elta has a product range which spans such equipment as the EL/K-1150 series COMINT receivers; the EL/K-7001 20-500 MHz land mobile COMINT/comms jamming system; the 20-500 MHz EK/K-7032 airborne COMINT suite; the EL/L-8202 F- to J-band pod-mounted radar jammer; the EL/L-8230 G- to J-band dual-mode, internally mounted radar jammer; the EL/L-8231 H/J-band internally mounted repeater jammer; the EL/L-8240 internally mounted EW suite (an off-shoot of Lavi technology?); the EL/L-8300 airborne strategic SIGINT suite and the EL/M-2160 pulse Doppler missile warner. This last item is the subject of an agreement with Loral and has received the US designation AN/ALQ-199.

Elbit is active in a number of technology fields (avionics, [C.sup.3], training systems, munitions, weapon control and electro-optics) and has a limited EW product range centering on naval applications. Examples of the company's EW equipment include the shipboard ACDS chaff/IR decoy/smoke round dispenser and the multi-platform 2-18 GHz Timnex-4CH ELINT equipment. Equally niche oriented is IMI (Israel Military Industries), which produces the MPMN-36 (V) chaff/flare dispenser and, possibly, the Samson air-launched decoy for the Israeli Air Force. A limited number of Samson decoys have been purchased by the USN.

The Tadiran-Elisra EW product range centers primarily on naval and airborne systems. In the naval field, Elisra produces the 0.5-18 GHz NS-9001/2-18 GHz NS-9003/NS-9004/2-18 GHz NS-9009/2-18 GHz NS-9010 series of ESM systems together with the NS-9005 noise/deception jammer. For the airborne market, the company offers the AES-210 helicopter ESM/RWR; the LWS-20 laser warner; the SPS-65 combined laser/radar warner; the 2-18 GHz SPS-200 and SPS-2000 radar warners; the SPS-3000 "EW equipment" (developed for use on Israeli F-15 and F-16 aircraft); and the VHF/UHF Sky Jam-200 communications jammer. Tadiran contributes the 20-500 MHz ASC-500 Harvest COMINT system; the 0.5-18 GHz Owl/RAS-2A and the 2-18 GHz Owl-MT ESMs; the 0.7-18 GHz RAS-1B ELINT equipment; the 200-500 MHz RDF-500 DF receiver; the TACDES strategic ELINT (0.7-18 GHz) COMINT (20-500 MHz) suite; and the 20-500 MHz TDF-500 automatic DF system. In this context, it is worth noting that Elisra was the licensee for Israeli production of the AN/ALQ-178 Rapport III integrated EW suite. Rapport III appears to have been applied to the country's existing F-16s with some of the aircraft being currently supplied under "Peace Marble III," incorporating a version of the system to which the entirety of the Israeli EW industry appears to be contributing!

RAFAEL has an EW portfolio which includes the Beamtrap/LRCR/SRCR naval chaff rocket systems; the SEWS integrated naval EW suite (for fast patrol/missile craft); the Rattler power-managed radar jammer; and the RAJ 101 mobile battlefield radar jamming system. RAFAEL is also known to have had some involvement in airborne pod-mounted jammers and ELINT/COMINT systems but no specific details of work in either of these fields are available.

As a general comment on Israeli industry, it should be noted that during the 1980s it became increasingly export oriented. While it is possible to speculate on its successes and customers, the industry will only rarely comment (such as in the case of Elta's procurement of an ESM system order for Australian P-3 Orions) on such trade. Accordingly, it is very hard to assess how well or badly it is doing on the world stage.

ITALY

Key Italian players in the field are Electtronica and Selenia, both now wholly or partly owned by the Finmeccanica conglomerate - part of the "process of integration and rationalization of the sector's industries in preparation for the challenges of the Single European Market." This "process" may be of little help to the industry's future success unless Italy can sort out the draconian export restrictions imposed on its defense industries in the mid-1980s.

Claiming a 10% share of the world EW market, Electtronical is a tri-service manufacturer which, in the airborne market, has a product range which includes the Aries multipurpose EW suite; the 3-10 GHz Colibri helicopter ESM/ECM system; the ELT/156 and ELT/158 RWRs; the E- to J-band ELT/263 fixed-wing ESM; the G-to L-band ELT/400 series of pod-mounted, noise jammers; the ELT/553/J-band 554/ 555/558/H- to J-band 562/H- to J-band 566 range of deception jammers; and the ELT/999 VHF/UHF strategic COMINT system. Of these units, some 60 Aries suites are thought to have been delivered; Coliribi is in service with at least 10 navies world-wide plus that of Italy itself; the ELT/263 has had at least eight customers; the ELT/999 probably forms part of the onboard equipment of the Italian Air Force's G.222VS SIGINT platform; the ELT/553 an 554 jammers have been associated with the AMX strike aircraft and the A.129 battlefield helicopter, respectively; while the ELT/156, 400 series, 555 and 562 units are all noted as being "in production."

For the naval market, Elettronica's portfolio includes the fast patrol boat/destroyer ELT/211 ESM; the Thetis submarine ESM; the CO-NEWS surface ESM; the ELT/318 noise jammer; the ELT/521 deception jammer; and the FARAD (small ship)/Nettuno (large ship)/Newton (dense environment) ECM/ ESM suites. Most, if not all, of these systems are quoted as being "in production and/or service." For the land battlefield, the company produces the VHF to J-band ISIS ELINT system (also suitable for naval/airborne applications); the HF/VHF/UHF G-100 DF equipment; and the GECO communications ESM/ ECM suite. Like its naval systems, these various battlefield equipment are said to be in production or operational service.

Selenia addresses the same tri-service market. In the airborne sector, the company's product range includes the 1-18 GHz IHS-6 ECM/ESM suite; the SR/ ALR-730, ALR-740 and ALR-780 families of ESM/RWRs; and the H/J-band SL/ALQ-234 pod-mounted, dual-mode redar jammer. Sales successes include examples of the IHS-6 for the Egyptian Air Force, selection of the ALR-735 ESM for Italy's EH-101 ASW helicopters and use of the ALQ-234 by the Italian and a "number of other" air forces.

Selenia naval and land systems include the battlefield ESS-2 ELINT system (in service but no longer in production); the battlefield IGS-1/IGS-3P ECM/ ESM suite (same status as ESS-2); the naval RQN-1 radar intercept/analysis equipment (same status as ESS-2); the RQN-5 ELINT/ESM system;] and the naval INS-5 ECM/ESM suite.

As a final point concerning Italian industry, mention should be made of companies such as Elmer (ESM recivers), Selenia-Elsag (SCLAR naval decoy launcher), Breda (naval chaff lauchers) and SNIA (chaff rockets) who occupy niche positions within the overall technology.

SPAIN

Spain is currently developing an EW based centered around companies such as ENSA, INISEL EISA and RYMSA. During 1985, the Spanish Ministry of Defense initiated a comprehensive national program to reduce Spain's reliance on outside suppliers. As a whole, the program involves coordinated state/industry R&D and is aimed, primarily, at providing the country's armed forces with ELINT, radar warning, secure communications and passive countermeasures equipment. Examples of current Spanish EW equipment in development and/or deployed include an EW signals analysis center and fixed-wing/helicopter RWRs from ENSA; ENSA/INISEL participation in the DASS for EFA; and an ENSA land-based COMINT suite and a major ground-based ELINT system codenamed Calatrava.

SWEDEN

A large part of Sweden's national EW industry is based around four companies - Ericson, SATech, Bofors Electronics and Saab. Taking these in order, Ericson has teamed with US contractor Rodale to develop the Responsive EW Training System (REWTS). As currently structured, the REWTS program includes the development of a number of equipment including the G/H/I/J-band A.100 and E/ F/G-band B.100 pod or internally mounted ECM/ECCCM training jammers and the H/I/J-band Digital Airborne Radar Threat Simulator (DARTS) pod. Alongside this range, Ericson also has the H/I/J-band Erijammer 200 pod-mounted radar jammer in service and is developing the Erijammer 300 system for the JAS-39 program. The DASS to be used on this aircraft comrprises an RWR, and ECM control computer, active jammers and chaff-flare dispensers. Ericson is handling the control computer and jammer (the Erijammer 300, which will be carried both internally in a pod) subsystems, while the RWR is likely to come from SATech and the dispenser from Bofors. Ericson is acting as team leader on the program.

SATech appears to be concentrating on the RWR market with equipment such as the 6-18 GHz GR 872 hand-held battlefield radar warner, the AR 830 combined airborne laser/radar warner and the 6-18 GHz AR 871 helicopter RWR. In addition, the company has interest in the airborne jamming field with systems such as the ARR 777 signal acquisition/ jammer set-on receiver, the I/ J-band AQ 861 airborne noise/ deception training jammer and the AQ 9-- S/X/Ku-band airborne pod-mounted radar jamming system.

Bofors Electronics (formerly Philips Elektronikindustrier AB) is one of Europ's largest suppliers of dispensers, particularly in the airborne sector. For this market area, the company produces the BOZ series of podded equipment (including the high-capacity BOZ3 training aid); the BOP 300 dispenser for light- to medium-size combat aircraft; the BOH 300 helicopter system; and the BOL chaff unit for installation in the new generation of modular missile launch rails. Some measure the company's success in the field can be gauged from the fact that variants of the BOZ dispenser are standard issue on the 800(+) Tornado/IDS equipment which have been delivered or are currently on order. The RAF in particular is continuing via the installation of the BOP 300 on the Harrier GR.5 and consideration of retro-fitting the BOL to both the Harrier and Tornado. For the naval market, Bofors produces the 9CM family of chaff/flare dispensing systems, the 100 variant of which is in service with the Swedish Navy.

The remaining contractor, Saab, is quoted as being responsible for the EWS-900E naval decoy system and the EWS-905 ESM equipment, both of which are thought to be in service with the Swedish Navy.

WEST GERMANY

West Germany (perhaps something of a misnomer in view of the imminence of reunification) has an active EW industry centered around companies such as Telefunken System Technik (TST), Rohde & Schwarz, Siemens and Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL). Taking these in order, TST is a tri-service manufacturer which, for th airborne market, produces a range of equipment including the Cerebus pod-mounted multimode radar jammer and a range of fixed-wing RWRs. The Cerebus forms part of the German Tornado Defensive Aids Subsystem (TDASS) and has been developed in at least three distinct variants, culminating in the Tactical Self Protection Jammer (TSPJ) model scheduled to appear in the 1990/ 95 time frame. In these later formats, the Cerebus is though to interface directly with the aircraft's RWR whichs, in its own turn, has been progressively enhanced. Co-developed with Litton, the latest member of this family is the C/D/E- to J-band Enhanced Radar Warning Equipment (ERWE) II.

Alongside the Tornado program, TST is heavily involved in the Improved Combat Efficiency (ICE) program for West Germany's F-4F fleet. In terms of EW, ICE involves the implementation of new jamming programs, closer interaction with aircraft's radar, extended frequency coverage and the provision of a threat warning system. Elsewhere, the company is involved in the development of a combined laser/radar warner for helicopter applications.

For the naval and battlefield environments, TST produces the battlefield EF 1650 VHF/UHF COMINT system; the E 1600/ 1700/1800/1900 family of COMINT receivers; the 20-500 MHz Telegon 7 and 10 kHz to 30 MHz Telegon 8 direction-finders; the land mobile Hummel VHF comms jammer; the 0.5-18 GHz FL 400 series naval ESMs; and the complementary FL 400 G naval noise/deception the FL 1800 7.5-17.5 GHz naval ECM/ESM suite and the land-based Blast anti-radar ECM/ESM system. Of these, the EP 1650 and Hummel are in service with the West German Army; the Blast is being developed for the same service and the FL 1800 has been selected for use on the country's Bremen class frigates.

Rohde & Schwarz appears to specialize in battlefield communications EW with a product range which includeds the ESM 500 and ESM 1000 series VHF/UHF COMINT receiver; the ESP 10 kHz to 1,300 MHz scanning receiver; the PA 055/ 555/010/510A family of Doppler direction-finders; the PA 025 VHF DF system; the PA 2000 2-512 MHz intercept/location suite; the Babylon HF communications jammer; and a VHF/ UHF ground-air COMINT system. Most of these items are described as being "in production."

The Siemens EW line includes systems such as a battlefield HF/ VHF/UHF COMINT net, the HELAS ELINT/ESM equipment and a familiy of HF communications jammers. SEL produces (under license) the AN/APR-39 (V) 1G used on Germany's PAH-1 anti-tank helicopter and has developed a Helicopter Laser Warning Equipment (HLWE) which forms part of the Threat Warning Equipment mandated for the Franco-German PAH-2/ HAP/HAC Tiger battlefield helicopter.

PHOTO : MDS's Sky Shadow jamming pod seen here under test in the company's anehoic chamber (Photo courtesy MDS.)

PHOTO : TST Cerebus jamming pods mounted on the outer wing stations of a West German Navy Tornado strike aircraft. (Photo courtesy MBB.)

PHOTO : The prototype of Ericson's A.100 REWTS pod under test (Photo courtesy Ericsson.)

PHOTO : One of the operator stations used in Elta's EL-L-8300 strategic SIGINT suite when installed in a Boeing 707 aircraft. (Photo courtesy Elta.)

PHOTO : The mast head assembly used with Thomson-CSF's Janet jammer (Photo courtesy Thomson-CSF.)

PHOTO : The display console and antenna heads associated with Elettronica's Thetis submarine ESM. (Photo courtesy Elettronica.)

PHOTO : Elisra's SPS-200 threat warning system. (Photo courtesy Elisra.)

As a general comment on Israeli industry, it should be noted that during the 1980s it became increasingly export oriented. While it is possible to speculate on its successes and customers, the industry will only rarely comment (such as in the case of Elta's procurement of an ESM system order for Australian P-3 Orions) on such trade. Accordingly, it is very hard to assess how well or badly it is doing on the world stage.

ITALY

Key Italian players in the field are Elettronica and Selenia, both now wholly or partly owned by the Finmeccanica conglomerate - part of the "process of integration and rationalization of the sector's industries in preparation for the challenges of the Single European Market." This "process" may be of little help to the industry's future success unless Italy can sort out the draconian export restrictions imposed on its defense industries in the mid-1980s.

Claiming a 10% share of the world EW market, Elettronica is a tri-service manufacturer which, in the airborne market, has a product range which includes the Aries multipurpose EW suite; the 3-10 GHz Colibri helicopter ESM/ECM system; the ELT/156 and ELT/158 RWRs; the E- to J-band ELT/263 fixed-wing ESM; the G- to L-band ELT/400 series of pod-mounted, noise jammers; the ELT/553/J-band 554/555/558/H- to J-band 562/ H- to J-band 566 range of deception jammers; and the ELT/999 VHF/UHF strategic COMINT system. Of these units, some 60 Aries suites are thought to have been delivered; Colibri is in service with at least 10 navies worldwide plus that of Italy itself; the ELT/263 has had at least eight customers; the ELT/999 probably forms part of the onboard equipment of the Italian Air Force's G.222VS SIGINT platform; the ELT/553 and 544 jammers have been associated with the AMX strike aircraft and the A.129 battlefield helicopter, respectively; while the ELT/156, 400 series, 555 and 562 units are all noted as being "in production."

For the naval market, Elettronica's portfolio includes the fast patrol boat/destroyer ELT/211 ESM; the Thetis submarine ESM; the CO-NEWS surface ESM; the ELT/318 noise jammer; the ELT/521 deception jammer; and the FARAD (small ship)/Nettuno (large ship)/Newton (dense environment) ECM/ESM suites. Most, if not all, of these systems are quoted as being "in production and/or service." For the land battlefield, the company produces the VHF to J-band ISIS ELINT system (also suitable for naval/airborne applications); the HF/VHF/UHF G-100 DF equipment; and the GECO communications ESM/ECM suite. Like its naval systems, these various battlefield equipment are said to be in production or operational service.

Selenia addresses the same tri-service market. In the airborne sector, the company's product range includes the 1-18 GHz IHS-6 ECM/ESM suite; the SR/ALR-730, ALR-740 and ALR-780 families of ESM/RWRs; and the H/J-band SL/ALQ-234 pod-mounted, dual mode radar jammer. Sales successes include examples of the IHS-6 for the Egyptian Air Force, selection of the ALR-735 ESM for Italy's EH-101 ASW helicopters and use of the ALQ-234 by the Italian and a "number of other" air forces.

Selenia naval and land systems include the battlefield ESS-2 ELINT system (in service but no longer in production); the battlefield IGS-1/IGS-3P ECM/ESM suite (same status as ESS-2); the naval RQN-1 radar intercept/analysis equipment (same status as ESS-2); the RQN-5 ELINT/ESM system; and the naval INS-5 ECM/ESM suite.

As a final point concerning Italian industry, mention should be made of companies such as Elmer (ESM receivers), Selenia-Elsag (SCLAR naval decoy launcher), Breda (naval chaff launchers) and SNIA (chaff rockets) who occupy niche positions within the overall technology.

SPAIN

Spain is currently developing an EW base centered around companies such as ENSA, INISEL, EISA and RYMSA. During 1985, the Spanish Ministry of Defense initiated a comprehensive national program to reduce Spain's reliance on outside suppliers. As a whole, the program involves coordinated state/industry R&D and is aimed, primarily, at providing the country's armed forces with ELINT, radar warning, secure communications and passive countermeasures equipment. Examples of current Spanish EW equipment in development and/or deployed include an EW signals analysis center and fixed-wing/helicopter RWRs from ENSA; ENSA/INISEL participation in the DASS for EFA; and an ENSA land-based COMINT suite and a major ground-based ELINT system codenamed Calatrava.

SWEDEN

A large part of Sweden's national EW industry is based around four companies - Ericsson, SATech, Bofors Electronics and Saab. Taking these in order, Ericsson has teamed with US contractor Rodale to develop the Responsive EW Training System (REWTS). As currently structured, the REWTS program includes the development of a number of equipment including the G/H/I/J-band A.100 and E/F/G-band B.100 pod or internally mounted ECM/ECCM training jammers and the H/I/J-band Digital Airborne Radar Threat Simulator (DARTS) pod. Alongside this range, Ericsson also has the H/I/J-band Erijammer 200 pod-mounted radar jammer in service and is developing the Erijammer 300 system for the JAS-39 program. The DASS to be used on this aircraft comprises an RWR, an ECM control computer, active jammers and chafflare dispensers. Ericsson is handling the control computer and jammer (the Erijammer 300, which will be carried both internally and in a pod) subsystems, while the RWR is likely to come from SATech and the dispenser from Bofors. Ericsson is acting as team leader on the program.

SATech appears to be concentrating on the RWR market with equipment such as the 6-18 GHz GR 872 hand-held battlefield radar warner, the AR 830 combined airborne laser/radar warner and the 6-18 GHz AR 871 helicopter RWR. In addition, the company has interests in the airborne jamming field with systems such as the ARR 777 signal acquisition/jammer set-on receiver, the I/J-band AQ 861 airborne noise/deception training jammer and the AQ 900 S/X/Ku-band airborne pod-mounted radar jamming system.

Bofors Electronics (formerly Philips Elektronikindustrier AB) is one of Europe's largest suppliers of dispensers, particularly in the airborne sector. For this market area, the company produces the BOZ series of podded equipment (including the high-capacity BOZ 3 training aid); the BOP 300 dispenser for light- to medium-size combat aircraft; the BOH 300 helicopter system; and the BOL chaff unit for installation in the new generation of modular missile launch rails. Some measure of the company's success in the field can be gauged from the fact that variants of the BOZ dispenser are standard issue on the 800+ Tornado/IDS equipment which have been delivered or are currently on order. The RAF in particular is continuing its association with the company via the installation of the BOP 300 on the Harrier GR.5 and consideration of retro-fitting the BOL to both the Harrier and Tornado. For the naval market, Bofors produces the 9CM family of chaff/flare dispensing systems, the 100 variant of which is in service with the Swedish Navy.

The remaining contractor, Saab, is quoted as being responsible for the EWS-900E naval decoy system and the EWS-905 ESM equipment, both of which are thought to be in service with the Swedish Navy.

WEST GERMANY

West Germany (perhaps something of a misnomer in view of the imminence of reunification) has an active EW industry centered around companies such as Telefunken System Technik (TST), Rohde & Schwarz, Siemens and Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL). Taking these in order, TST is a tri-service manufacturer which, for the airborne market, produces a range of equipment including the Cerebus pod-mounted multimode radar jammer and a range of fixed-wing RWRs. The Cerebus forms part of the German Tornado Defensive Aids Subsystem (TDASS) and has been developed in at least three distinct variants, culminating in the Tactical Self Protection Jammer (TSPJ) model scheduled to appear in the 1990/95 time frame. In these later formats, the Cerebus is thought to interface directly with the aircraft's RWR which, in its own turn, has been progressively enhanced. Co-developed with Litton, the latest member of this family is the C/D/E- to J-band Enhanced Radar Warning Equipment (ERWE) II.

Alongside the Tornado program, TST is heavily involved in the Improved Combat Efficiency (ICE) program for West Germany's F-4F fleet. In terms of EW, ICE involves the implementation of new jamming programs, closer interaction with the aircraft's radar, extended frequency coverage and the provision of a threat warning system. Elsewhere, the company is involved in the development of a combined laser/radar warner for helicopter applications.

For the naval and battlefield environments, TST produces the battlefield EF 1650 VHF/UHF COMINT system; the E 1600/1700/1800/1900 family of COMINT receivers; the 20-500 MHz Telegon 7 and 10 kHz to 30 MHz Telegon 8 direction-finders; the land mobile Hummel VHF comms jammer; the 0.5-18 GHz FL 400 series naval ESMs; and the complementary FL 400G naval noise/deception jammer. It also is developing the FL 1800 7.5-17.5 GHz naval ECM/ESM suite and the land-based Blast anti-radar ECM/ESM system. Of these, the EP 1650 and Hummel are in service with the West German Army; the Blast is being developed for the same service and the FL 1800 has been selected for use on the country's Bremen class frigates.

Rohde & Schwarz appears to specialize in battlefield communications EW with a product range which includes the ESM 500 and ESM 1000 series VHF/UHF COMINT receiver; the ESP 10 kHz to 1,300 MHz scanning receiver; the PA 055/555/010/510A family of Doppler direction-finders; the PA 025 VHF DF system; the PA 2000 2-512 MHz intercept/location suite; the Babylon HF communications jammer; and a VHF/UHF ground-air COMINT system. Most of these items are described as being "in production."

The Siemens EW line includes systems such as a battlefield HF/VHF/UHF COMINT net, the HELAS ELINT/ESM equipment and a family of HF communications jammers. SEL produces (under license) the AN/APR-39 (V)1G used on Germany's PAH-1 anti-tank helicopter and has developed a Helicopter Laser Warning Equipment (HLWE) which forms part of the Threat Warning Equipment mandated for the Franco-German PAH-2/HAP/HAC Tiger battlefield helicopter.

PHOTO : MD's Sky Shadow jamming pod seen here under test in the company's anechoic chamber.

PHOTO : TST Cerebus jamming pods mounted on the outer wing stations of a West German Navy Tornado strike aircraft.

PHOTO : The prototype of Ericsson's A.100 REWTS pod under test.

PHOTO : One of the operator stations used in Elta's EL/L-8300 strategic SIGINT suite when installed in a Boeing 707 aircraft.

PHOTO : The mast head assembly used with Thomson-CSF's Janet jammer.

PHOTO : The display console and antenna heads associated with Elettronica's Thetis submarine ESM.

PHOTO : Elisra's SPS-200 threat warning system.
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Title Annotation:electronic warfare
Author:Streetly, Martin
Publication:Journal of Electronic Defense
Date:Aug 1, 1990
Words:8265
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