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Multifactorial approaches to Lyme infection.

The term Lyme-literate is used to describe physicians and healthcare providers who regard Lyme disease as a complex multifactorial and hydra-headed clinical syndrome. There are numerous challenges to understanding the complex nature of its clinical manifestations and developing an effective approach to treatment. The 19th-century reductionist model of a pathogenic microbe as the sole cause of a disease and the corollary notion of curing the disease by killing the "bad germ" is obsolete for treating persistent chronic infections.

This reductionist viewpoint limits thinking. A treatment goal of killing the pathogen microbe is the traditional formula for failure. The clinical strategy of a systems biology viewpoint is not to attempt to kill the microbe by direct contact with a poisoning drug, but to change its habitat. A healthy condition of the gut and tissues will not support the overgrowth of toxic microbes. This is the traditional view of German biological medicine and the French concept of the terrain.

In German biological medicine, the model proposed by Dr. Hans-Heinrich Reckeweg in his seminal work Homotoxicology classifies all pathological phenomena in a system of nosological units based on each tissue of the body according to its stage of deterioration. Reckeweg developed a flow chart to be used as a fundamental model. His chart had a vertical line listing all of the body's tissues, grouped according to their embryonic origin. In the horizontal aspect, he listed 6 stages of pathological development, three "Humoral" phases and three "Cellular" phases. Phase One is the "Excretion Phase," followed by the "Reaction Phase," which is acute inflammation; and the Deposition, Impregnation, Degeneration, and Neoplasm Phases represent a nosology of disease vectors. Movement from Phase One toward Phase Six maps the decline of the body's structural and functional integrity. This model is called "The Health-Disease Continuum." In the early "humoral" phases of pathology, the principle of regulation is excretion of pathogens and all harmful elements. In the cellular phases, the principle is precipitation of nocive substances and a resulting congestion of the extracellular matrix, which is referred to by its older term, the mesenchyme. This congestion results in a loss of functionality and a chronic inflammatory condition or degeneration of proximate tissues as cells are deprived of nutrients and bathed in their waste products. One of the main characteristics of chronic disease in this model is the congestion and subsequent erosion of the matrix tissues and the ground substance, the intercellular material in which the cells and fibers of the connective tissue are embedded.

One of the important treatment strategies to relieve congestion is drainage, which is the process of removing obstruction and restoring what Reckeweg called "the dynamic flow" of the tissue fluids at this level of anatomical structure.

The term used to describe a model of the condition of the whole system is the terrain, a term in use since the late 19th century in France in the era of Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard. The terrain concept was originally a description of the body's fluids and the system of metabolism in its entirety. The most prominent proponent of the terrain philosophy was the famous physiologist Claude Bernard. Bernard proposed that the factors regulating the cellular environment play a primary role in the functioning of the organism as opposed to external factors. Bernard was famously at odds with the equally prominent and internationally famous Louis Pasteur when he said, "The germ is nothing; the terrain is everything." Pasteur's discoveries led to the "germ theory" of disease, in which toxic microbes are considered to be responsible for their related infectious diseases. In the terrain theory, treating an infection requires changing the microbial habitat; that is, the body's global condition, rather than simply attempting to kill a single type of microbe. Bernard also referred to the terrain as the internal medium (milieu interieur).

Of course external factors such as toxic microbes can also play an important role in pathogenesis, but Bernard and the terrain-model advocates claimed that disease germs were a trigger and a marker for infectious disease, but the actual cause was the internal predisposition or weakness in the body's internal environment. This emphasis on a person's biological individuality means that a terrain model is much more complex than a simple cataloging of diseases and the germs that supposedly cause them. In chronic infections, the terrain concept may be superior "software" for dealing with its inherent complexity.

Lyme disease in its chronic form is sometimes called "tick-borne illness" because of coinfections by other microbes including Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, Mycoplasma, and others. In addition, opportunistic infections with the yeast Candida albicans, the bacterium Brucella, and a host of viruses including herpes 1 and 2, HHV-6, Epstein-Barr, Coxsackie, and cytomegalovirus have been reported.

Kristine Gedroic, MD

An increasing number of doctors are developing new strategies to accommodate the needs of patients with the range of symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease. Kristine Gedroic, MD, is the founder of the Gedroic Center for Integrative Medicine in Morristown, New Jersey. Her approach to Lyme disease reflects this view of a complex pathological syndrome, not as a specific entity with a microbial etiology (i.e., Koch's postulates), but an intricate set of interactions between the host and microbe populations. She uses various botanical, biological, and homeopathic medications in an integrative approach that involves detoxification of environmental toxins and heavy metals, correcting gut dysbiosis, draining and unburdening the extracellular matrix, and assisting the patient in cultivating lifestyle habits that support positive treatment outcomes.

Relieving congestion in the extracellular matrix is of primary importance in her treatment approach. For cellular detoxification to occur and to facilitate the clearance of microbes, the matrix must be detoxified in order to accommodate the flow of microbial debris. The body possesses an innate flow system that represents the natural inertia of healing. In the ideal scenario, the practitioner is able to harness this mechanism to facilitate the healing process naturally. Gedroic also believes that the cell membrane disruption is at the root of chronic Borrelia infection. She uses several diagnostic tests from Stony Brook University, Fry Labs, IgeneX Labs, Advanced Labs, Doctor's Data and Vitamin Diagnostics, BodyBio, as well as national labs--Quest, LabCorp, and BioReference, in order to run a comprehensive panel that assesses global balance of the immune system, as well as nutritional deficiencies that may be confounding the treatment paradigm. Testing can identify the presence of various toxins, as well as the presence of coinfections from Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Mycoplasmas, Chlamydias, viruses, and Protomyxzoa.

For a qualitative assessment of the patient's condition, she emphasizes the importance of using the Stained Blood Film Test (epierythrocytic bacteria) from Fry Labs to evaluate the presence of biofilms. Gedroic says, "If I could only do one test, it would be this. It gives a visual read on the degree of polymicrobial infection and congestion of the matrix."

Biofilms are multicellular communities held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The CDC estimates that 65% of infection today involves biofilms. Estimates suggest that biofilms are up to 1000 times more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic forms.

Constitutional assessment is another important factor to determine if the patient can withstand stimulation or a challenge to the immune resources; that is, if a patient is "stable" or "depleted." The depleted patient may require additional nutrient and herbal support.

Borrelia does not necessarily make someone symptomatic. It is opportunistic and takes advantage of a compromised host. Sometimes the Lyme microbes are simply there and don't play as important a role in the chronic nature of the problem. These are cases that need to be approached differently. This is described as membrane instability: when a patient's cellular membranes are impaired to the extent that they are not capable of maintaining immune regulation. In these cases, Borrelia is often only a small part of the problem. Once cellular membrane integrity is restored, symptoms abate. Antibiotics are rarely needed for longer than 2 or 3 months. If the patient continues to be symptomatic, it means that a different pathogen is dominant or cellular integrity needs to be restored.

he PEKANA medications play an important role for regulation and drainage of the matrix. Biological medicines from Syntrion and SanPharma are considered immunomodulatory or "cellular reprogramming therapy" and are vital to immune support for treatment of infections. Sylmmune is important for latent infections and to nudge the immune system out of anergy, SyCircue for inflammation and matrix congestion, SyResp and SyGest for gut dysbiosis, SyRegule for fungal infections, and Sylnfect as a broad-spectrum agent for infections. SanPharma medications have similar effects for infections, inflammation, and dysbiosis. Herbal tinctures from Beyond Balance are also used for disinfection, detoxification, and inflammation. Gedroic likes the traditional Ayurvedic herb guggul (Commiphora wightii) for treatment of biofilms.

Treatment of gut dysbiosis often requires a combination of the paleo diet with probiotics and Gl Repair Nutrients (from Vital Nutrients).

Her favorite protocol is:

SyGest or SyFungin (Syntrion): Vi tab to 1 tab t.i.d.

Apo-STOM +/- SyDetox (PEKANA/Syntrion): 5 drops b.i.d. to Vi tsp b.i.d.

Opsonat (PEKANA): 3 drops daily to 15 drops b.i.d.

Core Pau D'Arco (Energetix): 5 drops daily to 30 drops b.i.d.

Core Berberine Blend (Energetix): 5 drops daily to 30 drops b.i.d.

Stabilization of the nervous system: PsyStabil (PEKANA):

Viscum (PEKANA)

SyDetox (Syntrion)

SyCircue (Syntrion)

Dalektro N (PE KAN A), E-Lyte (BodyBio)

SR3 Balance Oil

Phosphatidylcholine (BodyBio or Nutrasal)

The triad of apo-STOM, SyDetox, and Viscum is particularly effective as a starting point.

Intravenous treatment can be a decisive element in intractable cases. Gedroic has discovered that intravenous phosphatidyl choline can break up the congestive membranes of biofilms. This is sometimes followed up with IV glutathione. Additional detoxification measures may also be taken intravenously.

Countermeasures for Herxheimer reactions:

Increase drainage of the extracellular matrix

Parsley/burbur/Pinella from NutraMedix

Options for alkalinization:

Alka-Seltzer Gold Alkabase

Magnesium carbonate (BodyBio or BioTech)

Potassium bicarb (BioTech)

Lemon water

Gedroic notes that since the introduction of matrix drainage and German biological medicine therapies, there has been a 75% reduction in Eterxheimer reactions in her practice.

Gedroic's research projects are under the umbrella of the Gedroic Research Initiative (GRI), associated with the Institute for Infectious and Inflammatory Disease (I3D) at Rutgers University, a project with more than 2000 contributing scientists. One proposed study is designed to assess the impact of helminthic infections in the gut microbiome and host susceptibility, another is to evaluate the influence of biofilms and molds on the intractability of chronic infection. A third research project involves examination of the effect of occult viral infection on ADHD.

Ann Corson, MD

Another physician who specializes in treatment of chronic infections in all their complexity is Ann Corson, MD, of Cochranville, Pennsylvania. To explain the complexities of how she treats a chronic infection, Corson uses a very vivid depiction of the terrain: "I'm not just going into battle. I need to get the lay of the land and get the situation to my advantage. I have to destroy the enemy and carry the dead bodies away and then break down the debris. Then, the battlefield needs to be cleaned up and restored. This can take time." This metaphor also describes the strategy of drainage of the extracellular matrix. This is how Corson has adapted the principles of German biological medicine to serve the needs of her patients.

Corson explains that German biological medicine provides a framework for restoration of overall vitality, gastrointestinal function, and endothelial integrity; for drainage of the extracellular matrix, restoration of GALT, MALT, spleen and bone marrow function, and assistance in the regulation of neuroimmune, neuroendocrine, and neurovascular control mechanisms. It is necessary to have a complex model because there are multiple challenges in treating patients with tick-borne disease: polymicrobial infections with all classes of organisms, gut dysbiosis, liver/gallbladder dysfunction, hormonal and metabolic dysfunction, systemic inflammation--unregulated and stuck in the "on" position, vasculitis and hypercoagulability, a toxin-encumbered extracellular matrix, metabolic faults in detoxification, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immune-system/bone marrow dysfunction.

For stable improvement, it's necessary to address all of these issues and take countermeasures as required. These include the control or elimination of dominant pathogenic microbes, elimination of environmental toxins, reduction of inflammation and neuroexcitotoxins, restoration of gut and respiratory mucosal integrity, the buffering and elimination of hypercoagulation, the support of genetic and epigenetic weaknesses and restoration of neuroendocrine system function. It requires identifying allergies to food or environmental factors, lifestyle changes, stress reduction to address emotional and spiritual needs, and, often, structural work. Throughout treatment it is to helpful to mitigate the effects of treatment such as Herxheimer reactions as progress is monitored.

Evaluation of each patient's needs requires a thorough history, physical examination, and strategic laboratory testing. A full history includes details from conception to the present, trauma history, both physical and emotional, surgical and dental history, and family history. A social history includes details of home, work, and school as well as environmental issues such as mold exposure, EMFs in home or work environment, and any arthropod insect exposure risk factors. History and physical exam include a history of symptoms and their time of onset, a complete review of systems, vital signs, and physical and neurological examination.

Laboratory evaluation necessarily includes tests for many classes of infection, a full medical workup with CBC with differential, CMP, UA, HLA typing for biotoxin illness, methylation genetic profiling, hypercoagulability evaluation, inflammatory cytokines, and autoimmune makers. Other important tests include hormonal evaluation, stool testing, food allergy assessment, urinary kryptopyrroles (KPU), heavy metal challenge test, and nagalase testing.

Treatment

Dietary compliance is of utmost importance. Diet should be fully organic, grass-fed meats, free-range poultry, wild fish, no processed foods, no GMOs, sugar limited to fresh fruit, no dried fruit, and often limited grains, gluten, and dairy. In this process, it is often necessary to support special nutritional needs. There are several homeopathic products for this purpose along with warming Chinese herbs and warming foods. Nutritional supplements such as EFAs, trace minerals, B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, R-lipoic acid, and transfer factors are sometimes needed. Some nutrients are necessary to target specific problems such as zinc, biotin, manganese, magnesium, B-6, P5P, arachidonic acid, L-methionine, lithium, and special B vitamin preparation. Mitochondrial resuscitation support can be invaluable.

Detoxification should be initiated very gently at first. It is also important to reduce inflammation at this time with homeopathic immune modulators. Proteolytic enzymes and cytokine modulators are also important in reducing inflammation.

Corson uses both allopathic and nonallopathic antimicrobials. Nonallopathic antimicrobials can be single botanicals or herbal mixtures and play a large role in reducing pathogenic microbe populations.

Spagyric combination homeopathics regulate organ function, restore the regulatory set points of metabolism, hormones, the immune system, and the extracellular matrix. Immunobiological medications are useful for specific targeted activities for disinfection and other vital functions such as detoxification support and tissue drainage.

The combination of nourishing and strengthening the patient, detoxification, disinfection, and drainage are essential features of any of Corson's treatment plans. But another necessary component is troubleshooting. There are two main categories of troubleshooting: nonresponsiveness and Herxheimer reactions. Both situations are discouraging for the patient and can affect compliance with the treatment plan. The first thing to do when patients are not getting better, however, is check for compliance. For recalcitrant patients, look again and again for unrecognized infections, a hypercoagulation state, biotoxin illness from mold exposure, methylation faults, heavy metal toxicity, and occult dental infections.

Hypercoagulation can be a problem for anyone, but a genetic abnormality found in 1 out of 5 people makes their blood more "sticky." This is exacerbated with acute and chronically upregulated systemic inflammation, exacerbated with Herxheimer reactions, with the vasculitis caused by infections and with any febrile illness. Treat with fibrinolytic enzymes or heparin. Note: According to Corson, heavy metals and mold toxins worsen hypercoagulable symptoms exponentially. Herxheimer reactions almost always require an increase in enzymes.

Biotoxin illness is another reason patients may not be getting better. To quote Corson, "Mold! Mold! Mold! Mold is everywhere!"

It is necessary to ask about mold once, twice, 3 ... 10 times, because it is an ubiquitous yet often hidden problem; ask about water intrusion, leaky pipes, musty smells, and so on. One in four people have a genetic fault that predisposes them to the chronic inflammatory state caused by exposure to molds and their toxins. The innate immune system doesn't recognize and "present" these biotoxins to the cellular immune system for antibody production and subsequent elimination.

Methylation is required in the synthesis and repair of RNA, DNA, and proteins; in immune system function; neurotransmitter production; intestinal barrier integrity; and removal of wastes. Methylation plays a key role in the ability of our immune system to recognize foreign bodies or antigens to which it needs to respond. Whenever there is an assault on the immune system, the body must synthesize new T cells (which fight viruses, parasites, and control functioning of B cells). Unless methylation is operative, the immune system may react when it's not needed, creating autoimmune disorders, or fail to respond to actual threats when it is needed. Methylation is also directly related to substances in your body that affect your mood and neurotransmitter levels of both serotonin and dopamine. In addition to its direct role as a neurotransmitter, dopamine is involved in assuring your cell membranes are fluid and have mobility. This methylation of phospholipids in the cell membranes has been related to ADD/ADHD. Membrane fluidity is also important for a variety of functions including proper signaling of the immune system as well as protecting nerves from damage. A number of serious neurological conditions cite reduced membrane fluidity as part of the disease process involved in modulation of NMDA (glutamate) receptors, acting to control excitotoxin damage.

Herxheimer reactions are always an emotional challenge for patients. They require reassurance and patients suffering from them may need help with motivation to continue compliance with the treatment regimen. Drainage remedies can be useful for symptomatic relief. Proteolytic enzymes can relieve the intensity of the symptoms by reducing inflammation. Fibrinolytic enzymes that dissolve excess soluble fibrin are an essential part of the treatment of all Herxheimer reactions. All of Corson's patients are treated with fibrinolytic enzymes at some point during their care. Never forget the chelate heavy metals when patients are having Herxheimer reactions, as killing off of infection often causes the release of toxic heavy metals from biofilm communities. Sequestration of toxic bile can relieve many symptoms of the reaction. Restorative fats, trace minerals, and correcting methylation problems can help relieve the "healing crisis." Corson warns other practitioners to be prepared to handle very toxic downloads when breaking up fibrotic debris by having proper drainage medicines, enzymes, and bile binders on board.

Patient protocols may include support for the hypothalamic pituitary axis, thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal systems that can be botanical or homeopathic. Methylation reactions and liver detoxification is supported as needed. Additional etiologies for patient symptoms are structural problems, which are often relieved by cranial osteopathy or other bodywork. Emotional therapy may be required. Spiritual concerns may benefit from participation in orthodox religions or personal cultivation. Corson recommends Falun Dafa, a life cultivation practice of both mind and body, as the best path to spiritual perfection.

Essential Oils for Disinfection

Another group of doctors who treat infections without antibiotics are practitioners of French phytotherapy, based on terrain models such as the Five Elements of acupuncture and the neuroendocrine system. In addition to tisanes and tinctures, pharmaceutical-grade essential oils are integrated into the treatment plan.

Jean Valnet, MD, was impressed with the effect of essential oils in treating infections from battle wounds and even gangrene when he was chief physician at the Gulf of Tonkin Hospital in Vietnam in the early 1950s. When he returned to France, he was determined to develop a clinical science of phytotherapy (botanical medicine) and incorporate the power of essential oils in primary care. The research he and his colleagues initiated uncovered several unique phenomena:

* A microbicidal effect is produced despite the fact that the concentration in vivo is far too low to kill microorganisms by direct contact.

* The most active essential oils are not always those reputed to have antiseptic properties or those that contain antiseptic active principles.

* A single type of microbe possesses no specific sensitivity to a particular essential oil and vice versa. There is no phenomenon of acquired resistance of microorganisms to essential oils. For a given microbe isolated at a given moment, the essence will retain all its efficacy.

* One of the proposed mechanisms of the disinfection properties of essential oils is the ability to dissolve biofilms.

* The same type of microbe appearing in different tests in contact with essential oils is affected differently in each aromatogram. The sensitivity of the microbe to essential oils is thus a function of the host organism; that is, a function of the terrain. In other words, essential oils that were effective against a pathogenic microbe in a petri dish were not necessarily effective in patients infected with the same microbe.

They realized that it was necessary to match the properties of an essential oil with the global physiological activity. They made clinical observations about the effects of essential oils as well as other plant extracts to determine how to treat the terrain. Doctors who practiced acupuncture classified plant medicines according to the Five Elements of Chinese Medicine and other groups of doctors used the neuroendocrine model.

For example:

Oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) has these various properties:

Immune: anti-infectious (ENT, pulmonary, intestinal, pharyngeal, urinary, genital, cutaneous), antifungal, antibacterial (gram + , gram-), antiviral, antiherpetic, wide spectrum antihelminthic, vermifuge; immune stimulant; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; febrifuge;

Pulmonary: mucolytic, expectorant, antitussive; thyme oil is the great mucous membrane cleanser, whether they are respiratory or digestive membranes;

Digestive: neurotropic digestive carminative, eupeptic, choleretic, antigastritic; ANS: parasympatholytic (strong vagolytic)

Endocrine: adrenal cortex stimulant; Gonad: binds to estrogen, progesterone receptors;

Neuro: analgesic;

Neuromuscular: spasmolytic;

Renal: volumetric diuretic;

Use: dysmenorrhea, paralytic fear, spasmophilia, hypotension, infections, digestive disorders, rheumatic disorders;

Contraindications: Pregnancy, glaucoma, hyposecretory states.

Oil of clove (Syzygium aromatica):

GI: eupeptic (stimulates all secretions), digestive, carminative, anti ulcerative, choleretic, balances intestinal flora; Metabolic: hypoglycemic;

Dental: all infectious maladies of teeth, pulp, gingiva;

ID: (tisane, too) anti-infectious (genital, urinary, gastric [H. pylori], intestinal, ENT, respiratory, mouth), antibacterial, antiviral (esp. herpes), antifungal, anti parasitic (protozoa, trypanosomes); GU: antigonorrheal;

Neuro: antispasmodic (Ca-channel blocker), increases alpha-brain waves; antialgic, antineuralgic, local anesthetic

Immune: anti-inflammatory (inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins and chemotaxis of leukocytes), antiallergic (reduces histamine release from mast cells); ANS: sympatholytic, parasympathomimetic;

Endocrine: central: oxytocic;

Use: dysbiosis, digestive disorders, chronic cough (dry), inflammatory disorders, dental disorders, osteoarticular and rheumatic disorders, emotional overactivity, spasmophilia, learning disorders, autistic children, headaches, sexual frigidity, impotence;

Contraindications: pregnancy (oxytocin I ike). Note: Avoid in bath; never use undiluted on skin or mucosa.

Endocrine phytoaromatherapy eventually evolved into a system of medicine called endobiogeny. Endobiogeny is the study of the internal networks and pathways within the body and in relationship with its environment, stressful influences, and so on, from the standpoint of the neuroendocrine system as the manager of human life. It combines an integrative understanding of the structures and functions of the body, a rational approach to understanding physiology, an empirical assessment of history and symptoms, and utilization of a dynamic, integrative metabolic assessment of network management of the organism called the biology of functions, which is based on calculations of several blood test values. (See www.endobiogeny. com.)

Essential Oils and Lyme

A pharmacist named Bernard Christophe in Strasbourg developed a natural antimicrobial compound for Lyme treatment containing essential oils from aromatic plants and concentrated extract of propolis. Even in France, treatment with essential oils is still too little known to doctors. Christophe's product contained more than 170 molecules. It was very successful as a treatment for Lyme, sometimes even as a stand-alone treatment. Although it was labeled for topical use, many Lyme patients used it internally. It was eventually taken off the market in France, supposedly because it contained oil of sage, which contains thujone. Even though the quantity of thujone was below the allowance made by the health authorities it was still removed from the market. There was a public outcry but the authorities refused to relent.

In 15 years of the marketing of this product, there had never been a case of a toxic reaction, even in subjects who took the product for years without interruption and sometimes at doses higher than recommended. Nonetheless AFSSAPS (Agence frangaise de securite sanitaire des produits de sante; French Department of Health Product Safety) took it off the market.

According to Christophe: "In the case of aromatherapy, known as essential oils, they also have several special properties: they easily cross the membranes of various tissues and organs and contain several active bactericidal or bacteriostatic substances. In the case of Lyme it appears that Borrelia is unable to adapt to the multiple substances in a single essential oil. This is the explanation of the fundamental superiority of essential oils over antibiotics."

In addition, they always recommended the product to pregnant women and young children at doses of 1 to 2 drops three times daily. No cases of poisoning occurred in 40 years of work and 15 years of marketing the product.

Phytomicrospheres

Another type of medication from France is phytomicrospheres. Phytomicrospheres are made using a special plant fiber that acts as a carrier to bring herbal constituents into the bloodstream unattenuated. Nothing is lost from the extraction process. The microspheres contain no excipients and they transport the phytochemicals to the serum without degradation from the digestive tract.

Iderne Pharmaceuticals developed the microspheres process, which has been designated an ethical medical modality that will replace the use of tinctures in phytotherapy practice by the European Union. Iderne Pharmaceuticals has produced a number of compounds, including one that is designated as a treatment for diabetes by the European Union. Stiruba, a microsphere extraction of the herb Simarouba amara, is a powerful antiparasitic and has proved helpful for some cases of Babesia. Several phytomicrospheres and essential oils products will be available in the US through Ormed and BioResource later in 2015.

Conclusion

Does it work? is the question that most of us ask about any supposed treatment or remedy, but I think that's the wrong question. Practically every nutrient or remedy that you have seen or heard about anecdotally has worked for someone. The real question is, what works for whom, and why? Obviously there is no single cure for everyone, but the complexity of Lyme infection requires a diverse approach and individual investigation and experimentation. Hopefully new scientific models will emerge and develop from traditional sources of whole-system thought. Meanwhile we can learn from these traditional European models of whole-system therapeutics.

References

German Biological Medicine

Reckeweg HH. Homotoxicology. 3rd ed. Albuquerque, NM: Menaco; 1989.

Stoodley P, Sauer K, Davies D, Costerton J. Biofilms as complex differentiated communities. Ann Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:187-209. Epub 2002 Jan 30.

Shishodia S et al. The guggul for chronic diseases: ancient medicine, modern targets. Anticancer Res. 2008;NovDec;28(6A):3647-3664.

Mold Resources

Ritchie Shoemaker, MD. www.survivingmold. com.

Public Health Alert, www.publichealthalert. org.

Gordon Medical Associates. Biotoxin Illness [DVD], Oct. 22-23, 2011. Available at www.aaimed.com/resourcesandevents. html#Anchor-Biotoxin.

May Dooley, www.moldcontrolonabudget. com, www.createyourhealthyhome.com.

Essential Oils and the Terrain

Kenner D, Requena Y. Botanical Medicine: A European Professional Perspective. Brookline, MA: Paradigm Publications; 1996.

Duraffourd C, Lapraz JC. Traite de phytotherapie clinique. Masson: Paris; 2002.

Dan Kenner, PhD, LAc, is a writer and consultant in integrative medicine with over 35 years of clinical experience in both Oriental and naturopathic medicine. In addition to authoring numerous articles, he is author of The Whole-Body Workbook for Cancer (New Harbinger; 2009), Acupuncture Core Therapy (Paradigm; 2008), AHCC--The Japanese Medicinal Mushroom Immune Enhancer (Woodland; 2001), The Science of AHCC (Basic Health Publications; 2009), and Botanical Medicine: A European Professional Perspective (Paradigm; 1996). He is author of The Science of Natural Cancer Therapy (Editions Trddaniel; 2015 [in French]). He is licensed to practice Oriental medicine in both Japan and the US. Dr. Kenner has constructed a website with alternative health-care research and information at www.dankennerresearch. com. He is also on the board of governors of the National Health Federation (www.thenhf.org).
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