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Motivating English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Adult Learners: Challenges to Prepare them for Future and Job Market.

Byline: Muhammad Sabboor Hussain

Abstract

This paper analyzes the factors that play the role in the high or low motivational level of adult EFL learners all over the world in general and in Saudi Arabia in particular. The study starts with the quantitative tool of 28 items survey designed on Academic Motivational Scale, administered on Likert 5-point scale at 200 adult EFL learners to measure their motivation and compare it across gender and across academic levels. With the qualitative research tools of structured interviews, all the categories of EFL teachers of various nationalities and English Language Unit administration have also been approached. The study recommends workable motivational reforms which can improve the existing scenario and raise the motivational level of Preparatory Year Programme EFL adult learners to prepare them well for the job market. The paper, unlike the previous studies which highlight the negativity only, presents both the positive and negative aspects of EFL adult learners' motivation in learning English.

Keywords: Adult EFL Learners; Motivation; EFL Teachers; Job Market

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

Motivation is crucial for success in every field of life in general and in effective language learning/teaching in particular. The role of motivation for adult language learners gets specifically significant as they have to do it at conscious level unlike the children who go through the process in a natural and unconscious way. If adult learners are not intrinsically motivated or steps are not taken to motivate them extrinsically, language learning process is affected badly. Saudi students are basically EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners unlike some other countries where English language teaching and learning is carried out in ESL (English as a Second Language) paradigm. There are some countries in the world with English having ESL status and the learners see the immediate utility of English language learning in their career growth and social status enhancement.

It is quite unlike the Saudi context where learners feel that they are not required much to use the English language in the society and media. There is dire need to bring about a deeper awareness in PYP students about the role of English language for their success in their future lives. With the world becoming a global village, they need to be proficient in the lingua franca of the world to play an effective role in the development of their country and nation. They need to realize that without proficiency in English language, they cannot represent and present their religion and culture to the rest of the world. It has been observed that there is still strong psychological resistance in the Saudi youth against English language. Some of them consider it as the language of infidels and do not count it essential for success in this world and the world hereafter.

This study tends to explore how far such notions are going through a change in the positive direction and impacting the motivational level of PYP students/EFL adult learners in Saudi Arabia. It is equally important to take into consideration the role of English language teachers and educational administrators dealing with PYP students in raising their motivational level since the curriculum, materials and education and examination policies are designed by the administrators and implemented by the teachers in the classes. This trio of administrators, teachers and students interplay on each other when it comes to motivating the PYP students/EFL adult learners to learn English. If PYP administration has a clear vision, and is well-directed and self-motivated, it automatically keeps the teachers charged up and motivated. Once the teachers are motivated, they can prove to be the biggest source of motivation for the students.

This research study gives due consideration to the feedback of the administrators and teachers regarding their roles in raising the motivational level of PYP students/EFL adult learners.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Saudi Arabia, English is considered to be a foreign language, and the citizens generally feel that they can lead a successful life without English language skills, since in most parts of the country, all official work and everyday businesses are carried out in Arabic. This attitude and approach goes through a diametrical change when Saudi students leave their high schools and enter Preparatory Year Programme (PYP) to prepare for the professional colleges and professional fields later. All of a sudden English gets the status of the academic language and a medium of instruction. Thus the knowledge of English becomes the prerequisite for dignified and successful survival in the professional life of the PYP students/EFL adult learners. As a matter of fact, learning a foreign language is highly dependent on the level of motivation of learners.

There is dire research need to analyze the current status of motivational level of PYP Saudi students to bring about awareness among all the stakeholders involved, and to bring reforms in such a way that the students are more motivated to focus on English to be well prepared for the professional colleges in general and the job market in particular.

1.3 Research Questions

The present research study tends to explore the following research questions:

i. What is the current status of motivational level of PYP students/EFL adult learners in Saudi universities?

ii. What is the role of PYP administration in raising the motivational level of teachers and Saudi PYP students/EFL adult learners to prepare the students for professional colleges and the job market?

iii. What is the role of PYP English language teachers in raising the motivational level of Saudi PYP students/EFL adult learners to prepare them for professional colleges and the job market?

2. Review of Literature

Motivation may be defined as eagerness and willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it. In other words Motivation is a set of forces that cause people to behave in a certain way. Thus defined it is the sum of the motives working on particular people for particular purposes. The word "motive" comes from the Latin term movere that means "to move" (Jang et.al, 2015). Therefore, motivation is the movement, development, growth or progress towards something. In short, motive is a psychical structure which deals with orientation, initiation and regulation of the actions towards a goal. Researchers and educationists in English language teaching paradigm refer to different aspects of motivation while defining and explaining the term in their contexts. Jang et al, (2015) pointed out the following major terms, aspects or factors of motivation:

* Attitude is considered to be a set of acquired feelings about learning English language that consistently predispose an individual to engage in or avoid learning English.

* Interest is a positive orientation toward learning English for a particular reason.

* Value is defined as an individual's beliefs about the extent to which learning English is generally useful, enjoyable, or otherwise important.

* Self-efficacy is an individual's judgment of his or her ability to accomplish a specific mission like English writing/speaking/listening/reading task.

* Self-concept is an individual's overall self-perception as an English language user, including his or her sense of competence and the role ascribed to language skills as a part of his or her personal identity.

* Goal is defined as an individual's orientation and intentions toward reading; the primary reason(s) individuals learn English.

Attitude develops over time and may get influenced by other factors like interest and value. It is important to make a distinction among attitude, interest and value. Any topic or activity or skill that a learner finds interesting may be of less value to him or her in his or her field. Moreover, a topic or an activity or a skill that is of a great value to a learner may not match with his or her interests. Attitude, interest and value develop gradually and are the result of many external factors like social acceptance, prestige given to the target language, the impact of instruction etc. An estimation of self-efficacy (in language learning, the learner's linguistic self confidence) is specific to the task, and differs with the nature of activities or tasks. Goal is important in learners' lives and drives them intrinsically to perform certain tasks. All the above factors together contribute in the formation of the students' self-concept.

These concepts and/factors lead us to various interpretations of the functions and processes of motivation and generate a number of theories in this regard. A brief study of some important theories of motivation is necessary as this study focuses on the need to motivate the students considering factors like the Saudi PYP students'/EFL adult learners' motivation resulting from their upbringing in an anti-English culture, their understanding and realization of the need to study English in response to the relevant demands of the job market; the efforts made and challenges faced by the teachers and administrators in motivating them to learn English. Some important theories of motivation developed over time are Behavioral Theories, Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) theory, Need Theories, Cognitive Theories, Attribution Theories and Self-Determination Theory.

To begin with behavioral theories, Reinforcement Theory studies relation between exterior stimuli, reward and punishment, and the resultant behavior after reinforcement. This theory can be applied to maximize results mainly by rewards, or punishments. Social Information Processing takes into consideration social cues or factors that help shape up new attitudes and behaviors, from examples, colleagues or impressionable, new starlets. This is observable in the young generation because it grows sometimes with undesirable consequences.

ERG (Existence, R elatedness and G rowth) Theory: ERG stands for existence, relatedness and growth. These are the core needs according to this theory. Existence needs are related to the psychological and social safety and security. Relatedness needs refer to the need to have relations with others. Growth needs refer to the personal progress and development. Need theories are the popular because motivation is based mainly on the needs. The clear understanding of the needs helps determine a particular procedure, conduct and related requirements, and ultimately fulfill these needs. Abraham Maslow, in 1943, presented the hierarchy of needs on the basis of the assumption that unsatisfied needs motivate, and once a need is satisfied, another takes its place in the prime plan of attention, so humans are "wanting beings". Needs are of two kinds: external needs like psyche and safety, and internal needs like social esteem and self-actualization.

There are some cognitive theories that study motivation on the basis of experience, intrinsic motivation, cognitive evaluation and goal setting perspectives. Some important cognitive theories are Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's self-efficacy (in language teaching, the learners' linguistic self confidence) and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory. Then there are attribution theories of motivation. These theories developed on the basis of the idea that the individuals try to bring order into their lives by developing personal or implicit theories about why things happen as they do in their lives and in the lives of others (Kelley, 1972). The attribution theories have their implication in language teaching as well. Teachers can apply these theories to understand the nature of their them so as to improve their students' performance in achievement-related tasks (Tollefson, 2000).

Self-determination theory (SDT) has great importance in educational domain and is the main focus in the present research study. Self-determination can be defined as an engagement in an activity 'with a full sense of wanting, choosing, and personal endorsement' (Deci, 1992:44), and is seen as a prerequisite for any behavior to be intrinsically rewarding. SDT distinguishes among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and a motivation. Intrinsic motivation is observed when one engages in an activity out of genuine interest and is truly self-determined, and is associated with deep learning, better performance and positive well-being. It is dependent on the fulfillment of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence and relatedness (Kusurkar et al, 2011). The phenomenon of motivation, when viewed at micro level opens different layers.

Extrinsic motivation refers to getting engaged in the activities as a means to an end such as, to gain reward or avoid criticism, rather than for satisfaction of the activity itself. In contrast, amotivation refers to amotivated behaviors which are non-regulated and non-intentional. Extrinsic motivation is considered to be moving along a continuum between self-determined and controlled forms of motivation. External regulation refers to the least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation, coming entirely from external sources such as rewards or threats. Introjected regulation involves externally imposed rules that the student accepts as the norms he/she should follow in order not to feel guilty. Identified regulation occurs when a person engages in an activity because he/she highly values and identifies himself/herself with the expected behavior and sees its usefulness.

Integrated regulation involves selective behavior (chosen from different behavior patterns) that is fully assimilated with t he person's other values, needs and identity. Extensive research in the fields of motivation in foreign language teaching and educational psychology has also generated many theories. The social psychological approach to the foreign language asserts that learners' attitude towards the specific language group are bound to influence how successful they will be in incorporating different aspects of that language (Gardner, 2007)- the integrative or educational-cultural view of motivation in contrast to the instrumental motivation. Gardner (2007) states that to understand the roots of motivation to learn a second language in the class, it is necessary to consider both the educational context and the cultural context.

This indicates that what actually happens in the class is also as significant as what the social image of the target language is in motivating the English language learners. Thus, there is a strong role of the classroom environment in activating motivational beliefs of the students (Pintrich, Marx, and Boyle, 1993). Gardner, Masgoret, Tennant, and Mihic (2004) in their research found that the university students' level of motivational intensity, desire to learn French, attitudes toward learning French, integrative orientation, French course evaluation, and French class anxiety decreased significantly with the passage of time. In fact, their more interesting finding in this research was the direct correlation between the desire to learn French, attitudes toward learning French, and French course evaluation and the students' grades in class. These decreased more in students who obtained low grades in the class.

Some other researches discussed the role of teachers as crucial in creating motivating learning environments by employing a number of conscious and proactive motivational strategies (Brophy, 2004) and that is called a "motivational teaching practice" (Dornyei, 2006). Dornyei (1994) outlined three key components of the teacher's role that impact on second language learners' motivation: the affiliative motive (i.e., students' desire to please the teacher), authority type (i.e. authoritarian, democratic or laissez-faire teaching style) and direct socialization of student motivation, which includes modeling, task presentation and feedback.

Bernaus, Wilson and Gardner (2009) concluded in a research on the relationship between students' and teachers' motivation that there is an association between how motivated teachers are to teach English, the extent to which their students perceive them as using strategies, the students' evaluation of the learning situation and their motivation to learn English. Their results confirmed the general expectations of the educational authorities and parents that a teacher's motivation plays an important role in the process of language teaching/learning. Classroom strategies applied by the language teachers are quite crucial in raising the morale, motivation and attitude of the learners towards the target language. Madrid (2002) examined 319 students and 18 teachers from Primary, Secondary and Upper-Secondary Education to find out the most effective motivational classroom strategies. Students' global motivation perception was observed and compared with the strategies used in class.

The results showed that the use of audiovisual resources and new technologies, group work, satisfying the students needs and interests, student participation in class, good grades and fulfillment of students' success expectations, and praises and rewards were the most effective motivational strategies. The teachers' main aim in class should be to increase the students' interest, attention and satisfaction by applying the effective motivational strategies. A very significant factor in motivating the students to learn the English language is the demand of the job market at present. Mbumina (2014) concluded in his research that experts tend to agree that there is a connection between second-language competence and employability in the 21st century. The main reason for this growing need of the learners to learn English as a foreign language is the rapid growth of the international job market due to globalization.

McQuaid and Lindsay (2005) predicted that by 2050, half the world's population would be competent users of English mainly due to the realization that people would be left behind in work and social situations unless they could communicate with the rest of the world. The demand for EFL tuition has continued growing, particularly due to its perceived benefits and actual impact on the ability to improve employment prospects. Thus, the motivation to learn the language is mainly due to the perceived economic benefits. However, there are many challenges in learning the language due to the social and political environment within the countries like Saudi Arabia (Alrabi, 2014).

For instance, research studies (Alrabi, 2014) (Al-Seghayer, 2005) (Alrashidi and Phan, 2015) found that Saudi students, and other non-academic language learners in the country, lack the motivation to learn a foreign language due to their inability to use it or practice the language in contexts other than the academic and employability purposes (Javid, 2014) (Alrabi, 2014). Learning English, however, is considered important for all students in Saudi Arabia at higher levels. It is taught as a core subject in all public as well as private schools. It is also the medium of communication and training in almost all international organizations and companies working in the country. The English language has gained this importance because of its role in the international world and its value in the economic progress of any country since its role is significant in encouraging foreign investment in the country.

Alrashidi and Phan (2015) state that English has enabled Saudis to communicate with approximately 9.5 million foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and that English language skills are among the competencies that Saudi workers direly need to participate in the labor market and ultimately replace foreign expatriates. Saudi students seem to have been encouraged to learn the language since the late King Abdullah established the scholarship program in 2005 enabling Saudi students to pursue tertiary studies in English-speaking countries such as the USA, UK, Australia, and Canada. Taylor and Albasri (2014) pointed out the dramatic tremendous increase in the number of the Saudi students studying in American colleges and universities. There is a bulk of research showing the opposite picture as well. Contrary to the above stated scenario, the social and layman's image of the English language and its learning is not so positive.

Since all every day business and all social communication is mostly made in the native language viz., Arabic, English is regarded a worthless subject by some students and many parents (Alshlowiy, 2014). Many researchers have indicated that Saudi English language learners have generally low achievement and progress since they are not motivated to learn the language (Al-Khairy, 2013; Alrabai, 2014; Alrahaili, 2013; Alrashidi and Phan, 2015; Elyas and Picard, 2010; Rahman and Alhaisoni, 2013; etc.). In order to motivate the students, there are diverse techniques and methods suggested by many researches. Gardner (1983) and Dornyei and Skehan (2003) find it important to consider the students' diverse needs and use of multiple methods of learning/teaching to facilitate expression and engagement.

Teachers can involve students in class activities by using interesting materials for the class, making them set their own language learning goals and arranging such activities that require students to use the language in and outside the class. In other words, the learners feel more motivated to learn if they are allowed to partially or totally control their learning. Therefore, the university's English courses should provide opportunities for students to partake in choice of the content, methods and evaluation that may enhance their learning and help achieve program objectives (Bahous et al, 2011). These days, the Internet has become a very effective educational resource. The English language is the language of technology, mass media, and the Internet; therefore, the use of technology and the Internet can be helpful in learning of the language. This phenomenon can be more effective in teaching English to the Saudi adult students.

Teachers must encourage their Saudi students to use media and the Internet in their English language learning because these may involve learners in metacognitive processes and help them improve their skills and abilities to use English in different contexts. Some interesting and engaging options could be movies, emails, chatting rooms, and games. Since these are the favorite hobbies of Saudis in their free time, the language teachers can use them as their major motivational moves and encourage their students to learn English during their leisure time (Al Shlowiy, 2014).

Research Methodology

Sampling may be defined as the process of selecting a set from the target population of interest in such a way that by studying the sample we may be able to generalize our results back to the same population. In case of present research study the target population includes PYP EFL teachers, PYP administrators and PYP students/EFL adult learners in Saudi Arabia. The Academic Motivation Scale (Vallerand et al.1992) has been adapted in this study to serve the research purposes of finding out the existing motivational level of the students of PYP in Saudi universities. This instrument is based on the self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan 1985), one of the most widely known theories on motivation.

Though the instrument of Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) measures students' motivation to attend school and is not associated with specific academic subjects, it is a potential instrument that could be adapted to measure motivation in English language learning in PYP, in accordance with SDT. The AMS comprises 28 items that measure motivation using seven sub domains of motivation: Amotivation (AMOT), Extrinsic Motivation External Regulation (EMER), Extrinsic Motivation Introjection (EMIN), Extrinsic Motivation Identification (EMID), Intrinsic Motivation to Accomplish (IMTA), Intrinsic Motivation to Know (IMTK), and Intrinsic Motivation to Stimulate (IMTS). The following table shows how this scale has been adapted and modified and how the survey items have been thematically categorized according to the level and nature of motivation:

Table 1: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) for Present Research Study

Question: Why do you spend time in studying English?

No.###Label###Answers

1###AMOT1###Honestly, I don't know; I feel that it is a waste of time studying

###English.

2###AMOT2 I###can't see why I study English and frankly, I couldn't care less.

3###AMOT3 I###don't know; I can't understand what I am doing in English.

4###AMOT4 I###once had a good reason for studying English; however, now I don't

###see how English is of any value to me.

5###EMER1###Because without a good grade in English, I will not be able to find a

###high-paying job later.

6###EMER2###I study English in order to obtain a more prestigious job later on.

7###EMER3###I study English because I want to have the good life later on.

8###EMER4###I study English in order to have a better salary later on.

9###EMIN1###I study English because of the fact that when I do well in English, I

###feel important.

10###EMIN2###I study English to prove to myself that I am capable of using

###(speaking and writing) English.

11###EMIN3###I study English to show myself that I am an intelligent person.

12###EMIN4###I study English because I want to show myself that I can do well in

###English.

13###EMID1###I study English because I think that English will help me better

###prepare for my future career.

14###EMID2###I study English because eventually learning English will enable me

###to enter the job market in a field that I like.

15###EMID3###I study English because I believe that learning English will improve

###my competence as a worker.

16###EMID4###I study English because learning English will help me make a better

###choice regarding my career orientation.

17###IMTA1###I study English for the pleasure I experience while making progress

###in English.

18###IMTA2###I study English for the satisfaction I feel in completing assignments

###requiring English language skills.

19###IMTA3###I study English for the pleasure that I experience when I can use

###English language successfully in writing, reading, listening and

###speaking.

20###IMTA4###I study English because I want to feel the personal satisfaction of

###using English.

21###IMTK1###I study English because I feel pleasure and satisfaction while

###learning English.

22###IMTK2###I study English for the pleasure that I experience when I learn new

###words, structures and expressions in the English language.

23###IMTK3###I study English for the pleasure that I experience in broadening my

###knowledge about the English language.

24###IMTK4###I study English because learning English language allows me to

###continue to learn about many things that interest me.

25###IMTS1###I study English for the excitement that I experience when I am

###communicating my own ideas to others in the English language.

26###IMTS2###I study English for the pleasure that I experience when I read

###interesting English works or watch interesting English movies.

27###IMTS3###I study English for the pleasure that I experience when I feel

###completely absorbed by what certain English writers have written/

###the English language used by the English speakers.

28###IMTS4###I study English for the high feeling that I experience while

###communicating in English.

Using the mixed method approach, the qualitative tool of semi-structured interview has been administered at the sample population of PYP EFL teachers- 25 FT (female teachers) and 25 MT (male teachers). 22 PYP administrators were also made to participate in the study using another structured interview with 10 items. 50 Level-2, 50 Level-1 male and 50 Level-2 and 50 Level-1 female PYP students/EFL adult learners participated in the study by responding to the quantitative tool of 28 survey items on 5-point Likert scale ranging from Strongly Disagree-Disagree-Not Sure-Agree-Strongly Agree. Following are the items in the structured interview for PYP EFL teachers:

Table 2: Interview Items for PYP EFL Teachers

i.###What is your knowledge about the prevalent motivational theories in ELT?

###Which one is the most effective and useful for your PYP students?

ii.###Do you think the teachers need training to put the theories into practice to play

###their role as motivators' in PYP English language class?

iii.###What are the advantages of a motivated teacher in the English language class in

###PYP?

iv.###How does an unmotivated teacher harm the English language learning process

###in PYP?

v.###What are the factors, in your opinion which may bring the motivational level of

###the English language teachers down in Saudi Arabia?

vi.###What intrinsic motivational factors do you find in your Saudi PYP students in

###learning English language?

vii.###What are the factors chiefly responsible for the slow learning in PYP English

###language learning/teaching context?

viii. What steps do you take in the class to motivate your PYP students to learn

###English language?

ix.###Do you agree that PYP students can be categorized into i) not motivated to

###learn English ii) less motivated to learn English and iii) highly motivated to

###learn English? How would you compare these three categories of your PYP

###students?

x.###How far are you satisfied with the facilities and classroom aids which can

###support your role as a motivator in teaching English to PYP students?

Twenty Two PYP administrators have been interviewed through the following questionnaire items:

Table 3: Interview Items for PYP Administrators

i.###What administrative moves do you make to keep the PYP students involved

###and motivated in English language learning?

ii.###What challenges and barriers do you face in motivating PYP students for

###effective English language teaching/learning?

iii.###What challenges and barriers do you face in motivating the teachers in PYP to

###teach English?

iv.###What steps should be taken administratively to motivate the teachers so that, in

###turn, they may motivate the PYP students given under their charge?

v.###How do the motivational level of the teachers and PYP student interplay with

###each other? What is the role of educational administrators to promote the

###positivity and negate the negativity in this regard?

vi.###How can the coordination in trio of PYP, ELU administration, PYP English

###teachers and PYP students be made better for the more motivated English

###language learners in PYP?

vii.###What are the advantages of a motivated teacher in the English language class in

###PYP?

viii. How does an unmotivated teacher harm the English language learning process

###in PYP?

ix.###What are the factors, in your opinion which may bring the motivational level of

###the English language teachers down in Saudi Arabia?

x.###Please throw some light on the role of PYP in preparing PYP students well for

###the professional colleges and the job market.

4. Data Analysis

4.1 Teachers Motivation

A motivated EFL teacher is an asset in the class since all what is and how beneficial it is depends on the role of teacher. Teacher's motivation gets transferred to the students through the effective teaching techniques and their planned administration. An effective teacher is motivated and motivating, in addition to being the possessor of knowledge and skills. The knowledge about the English language and pedagogical aspects includes the awareness of students' psychology and their motivation. The teachers use the skills to bring this knowledge into practice by applying effective techniques in presenting the lesson and involving and motivating the students to understand it together. To understand how effective our teachers in PYP are in this regard, the interviews were conducted with PYP EFL teachers.

The responses show that though most of the PYP EFL teachers do not have sufficient and up-to-date knowledge about the motivational theories and their pedagogical implications, they understand the impor tance of students' motivation in learning EFL and make special efforts to involve their PYP students in the learning process. However, majority is aware of the distinction between the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and try to understand the students' intrinsic motivational level and build up their motivation extrinsically through certain techniques. They also realize the need to get some professional training to learn about the existing motivational theories and their pedagogical implications in EFL set up in PYP. However, there is a group of teachers who opine that the teachers do not need to get any training to learn about the motivation theories, since "these things are learnt through job experience and personal interest in the profession" (MT-4). The teachers should be self-motivated.

In the w ords of MT-1, "It needs more innate empathies than training. A teacher needs to feel for his students." They all agree that a motivated teacher is essential for a successful EFL class in PYP. A motivated teacher in an EFL class in PYP brings about numerous benefits to the language learners. Two major benefits as stipulated by the respondents in the interview are i) the transfer of teacher's energy to the students and ii) optimization of language learning process. MT-19 thinks, "Enthusiasm is contagious!" MT-3 opines, "a motivated teacher plays a huge role. The dynamics of a classroom can change if students sense the desire and enthusiasm of the teacher". MT-2 is of the view, "(his/her) motivation will rub off on the students. They will get energy from the teacher". MT-25 also agrees to this, "the (teacher's) positivity can help students feel more motivated themselves."

The teachers consider "teacher's enthusiasm" the key to maximum learning and believe that the teacher's motivation brings out positive results in terms of students' learning. The teacher makes conscious efforts to bring effective, innovative and involving activities and engages the students in them. MT-16 is of the view, "the teacher comes to class prepared to make a difference in the lives of students." MT-14 opines, "His (a motivated teacher's) teaching will be more effective and more groomed". MT-11 makes a strong point in this regard and says, "Motivated teachers always think about how effective learning can take place, and, then, experiment with different new techniques and approaches. They examine what works and what doesn't. They encourage learning among their students. They create strong motivational flow in their classrooms to attain great results.

They are interested in their students and want to motivate their students to do things in the classroom that will nurture that kind of phi losophy. Their students develop an interest and a responsibility for their own learning. Motivated teachers teach more than just the syllabus. They know that the individuals in their classroom all learn in different ways and that different things will motivate them". "Students, in general are not afraid of learning and more willing towards language learning if their teachers arrange a positive and psychologically healthy environment in class. As a result, they can achieve fruitful learning" (MT-10). A motivated teacher, thus, becomes an asset for any educational institution in general and in PYP in Saudi Arabia in particular as s/he makes his/her classes lively and full of innovative and interactive activities to make students feel comfortable and more interested in the subject to speed up English language learning process.

In the words of MT-12, "A motivated teacher facilitates critical thinking, engages minds, listens to questions, supports struggle and cultivates dreams in student". On the other hand, an EFL teacher in PYP will not be able to achieve the goals and objectives of PYP if he/she himself/herself is not motivated. In the end, the students will be the great sufferers. According to MT-8, in this scenario, "students are actually educated into becoming unmotivated". FT-1 is of the view, '"an unmotivated teacher may transfer his/her lack of motivation to his/her students by a boring, lethargic and inefficient teaching, and sometimes may even harm the intrinsic motivation of his/her students".

In the words of MT-25, "an unmotivated teacher can bring negativity to the class that drains the enthusiasm of students, making class more tedious and boring". FT-5 extends the point, "If a teacher is not motivated.... there'll be dull, bored and uninterested students in his class- the factors which are totally detrimental to language teaching". Thus, an unmotivated teacher can severely and adversely affect the entire English language learning process in teaching EFL adult learners in Saudi Arabia. There are numerous factors stipulated by the respondents which affect the teacher's motivation in EFL classes in PYP.

These include low salaries, stress due to job insecurity, lack of performance based evaluation, absence of study-scholarships and promotion, lack (or a perceived lack) of support, encouragement and/or due respect from the administration, linguistic and cultural barriers, lack of the teaching aids, weak relation with colleagues and physical condition of a teacher, poor h ousing and transport, work overload and bad health, the very low language proficiency level of our PYP students, lack of interest in studies on the part of some students, and lack of cooperation from the students and parents. The most important among all these is the social disapproval of the use of the English language which limits students to speak only Arabic (L1) and discourages them from using English outside the class. This, in turn, affects the teacher's motivation. In the words of FT-8, "The students comment that they will never use English after completing PYP.

This is an Arabic speaking country, and they are only studying English for one year, so it is useless." However, this contradicts with the results obtained on AMS which shows that the EFL adult learners in Saudi Arabia are quite motivated to learn the target language. Furthermore, there are some factors related to the administration that may de-motivate the teachers in general and EFL teachers in particular. MT-1 is of the view that, "the refusal to let students accept responsibility for their own writing and poor planning of syllabus from admin" snatches the motivation from the teachers. MT-3 extends the same point by saying, "over stapled rules can make teachers feel tied down and restricted". MT-14 is of the view, "I think teachers here don't have result based evaluation and a raise in their salaries." MT-23 opines, "subservient archetypes for the expatriates including teachers and chauvinistic approach of students" affect teacher's motivational teaching practice.

Almost all the participant teachers in this study agree that the teacher motivation also gets affected by certain policies. In present scenario, economic measures that are being taken in Saudi Arabia can play a vital role in bringing the motivational level of all the teachers down in Saudi Arabia. MT-15 comments, "... our motivation level goes down if coercive measures are taken. It's true not just for PYP English teachers but for any workplace. Cutting down allowances or salaries may also harm the motivational levels of teachers." Teachers' motivational teaching practices are important for the successful teaching learning process. If teachers get the due respect, remuneration and administrative support, they will have the peace of mind required to focus on their research based reflective teaching and will be able to transfer their motivation to their students for the optimum learning results.

4.2 PYP Students' Motivation

Contrary to the researcher's observation and the findings of many researches reviewed earlier, the results on AMS and the responses of some of the respondents show a different picture about the students' motivation in PYP. Many, if not all, Saudi PYP students/EFL adult learners are intrinsically motivated. Globalization and use of social media also encourages them to learn English. In the words of FT-1, "they (PYP students) have had an exposure of the outside world through internet, and are well aware of the need of the English language proficiency to get success in the international world especially after Saudi government's incentives of providing scholarships to the students to study abroad". Many of them understand the importance of learning English because it would help them secure good future in terms of better education and better jobs.

MT-6 comments, "PYP students are motivated to learn English so that they could grasp the subjects of science to pursue their careers in the fields of engineering, m edicine and information technology." However, some respondents think that the students are motivated to learn English mainly to enter in the profession of their choice. MT-13 is of the view, "Many students have a desire to become doctors and engineers. I think it ends there. Perhaps we can give them other shorter term goals on the way to becoming a doctor or engineer". The results on the AMS applied to the PYP students also reflect the same: once the students enter level-2 and have been grouped into scientific track or medicine track to follow their professional studies later, their motivation gets a little lower after achieving this sort-term goal (refer to table 1). On the other hand, there are some other teachers who think that their adult EFL students are sufficiently intrinsically motivated to learn English.

MT-9 comments, "they (students) communicate with their foreign teachers. They visit different English speaking countries to learn English. They are equipped with latest technology that they use in their everyday life. They don't learn English for getting reward; rather they want to learn for their own satisfaction which is a proof of their intrinsic motivation." Some students are found intrinsically motivated to learn English language for the love of travelling, some others wish to understand movies and the world more, for some other, their future career jobs is the main reason for learning and then for a few others, the reason for English language learning is the love and passion of learning languages. Another short term motivating factor for some EFL adult Saudi students is the desire to get good grades. It is a common complain of EFL teachers in Saudi Arabia that their students work only for better grades to get promoted, so they tend to study the English language to get marks only.

FT-25 is of the view, "students value things which have marks". However, MT-5 comments, "Two out of ten are naturally gifted. Two out of ten want but have no capacity to learn. Remaining six students don't find good reason to learn English and have to be motivated by making the process easy, interesting and effective." The AMS applied on the students of PYP also reflects that they are both extrinsically and intrinsically motivated to study English. However, the research study at hand finds a slight deterioration in their motivation as they enter level-2. This could be interpreted in terms of their achievement of the short term goal - getting enrolled for their specific field of studies i.e. medicine, engineering etc.

Table 4: Means and Standard Deviation of all Seven Variables

Variables###Boys Level-1###Boys Level 2###Girls Level 1###Girls Level 2

###Mean###Standard###Mean###Standard###Mean###Standard###Mean###Standard

###Deviation###Deviation###Deviation###Deviation

###AMOT###2.205###1.1216674###2.04###0.978545359###2.08###0.797700778###2.14###1.040211909

###EMER###3.76###0.970167248###3.58###1.084962145###3.705###0.983525001###3.605###1.024682629

###EMIN###3.745###0.984561956###3.35###1.244375099###3.84###0.992008887###3.7###0.994884877

###EMID###4.075###0.947270515###3.92###0.927801879###3.975###0.823367277###3.835###0.935564328

###IMTA###3.69###0.87125291###3.6###0.892142571###3.86###0.80203822###3.64###0.936994762

###IMTK###3.825###0.847791248###3.6###0.958314847###3.805###0.918614196###3.72###0.953832228

###IMTS###3.68###0.896478371###3.715###0.960322544###3.895###0.853549013###3.76###0.893514044

Table 5: Means and Standard Deviations of 3 Variables

###Boys Level-1###Boys Level 2###Girls Level 1###Girls Level 2

Variables###Mean###Standard###Mean###Standard###Mean###Standard###Mean###Standard

###Deviation###Deviation###Deviation###Deviation

Amotivation###2.205###1.121667###2.04###0.978545###2.08###0.797701###2.14###1.040212

Extrinsic###3.86###0.979588###3.616677###1.118871###3.8402###0.942567###3.7132###0.990437

Motivation

Intrinsic###3.7314###0.874849###3.6382###0.939008###3.8532###0.860262###3.7068###0.929578

Motivation

A comparison of the means of the PYP students various motivations (refer to table 6) shows that there are very less students who are amotivated and need strenuous effort from the teacher and other sources to get them inclined towards studying English. However, most of the students are both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to study the English language. This validates the teacher respondents' opinion that the Saudi EFL learners in PYP are well aware of the need to study English language and are desirous of learning it with full enthusiasm to reach their future goals.

Table 6: Means and Standard Deviations for Three Variables for the Whole Sample

Variables###Means###Standard Variations

Amotivation###2.11625###0.986204

Extrinsic Motivation###3.7575###1.007307

Intrinsic Motivation###3.7324###0.898122

The chi-square applied to the PYP students of level-1 and those of level-2 resulted in the value I2 = 59.048. Since the calculated value of I2 = 59.048 is greater than the critical value of I2 0.05 = 9.488 that lies in the critical region, we reject Ho at 5% level of significance. We therefore conclude that there is association between levels and motivational level. This reinforces the results shown in the table-5. The students are more motivated in level-1 which is decisive of their placement in groups for various professional degrees. Once it is decided, their motivational level gets a little low. There are many factors which affect the PYP students'/EFL adult learners' motivation in Saudi universities. The EFL teachers' job gets easier and more effective if the students are motivated to learn the language. However, the situation in PYP in Saudi Arabia poses great challenges to EFL teachers in this regard. Many teachers in the interview pointed out this difficulty.

They are of the view that the social disapproval of the use of the English language outside the classroom and the encouragement to use the native language Arabic for social interlocution make some students think low of the English language and thus the students pay less than required attention to learning the language. MT-3 comments, "Students don't have settings where they can and should speak English outside the classroom." MT-9 is of the view, "Some students do not see a connection between English and the wider working world. If a student's goal is to mainly work in a situation where Arabic is used more than 75% of the time, then students become disinterested with perfecting English." In words of FT-23, "some (students) are amotivated i.e they do not see any relation between the efforts they make and the outcomes they get."

Such students need strong external motivational stimuli to survive successfully in PYP and professional colleges later on to be prepared to meet the job market demands after completing their education. The quality of background school education of the PYP students is also crucial. Their school education has not been up to the mark especially in English and as a result, their pace in learning English in PYP is quite slow. Many teachers agree with MT-11 who is of the view, "For our PYP students, we use the term beginners, more appropriately, false beginners... Actually they have weak foundation at school level that is why they are not able to understand the basic things and the process of learning becomes slow." Another important factor affecting students' motivation may be their sound financial position.

In the words of MT-4, "Generally majority of Saudi students seem to lack intrinsic motivation because their financial position, which is one of the compulsions, is much better as compared to many countries in the world." Teachers agree that though every nation has its own ups and downs in their youngsters' performance and motivation level in learning English language, yet on certain points, the level of motivation of the Saudi PYP students can be compared with that of the university students in other nations. Generally perceived, the Saudi students are found comparatively less motivated than other nations and the reason agreed upon may be their sound financial position. In words of FT-25, "Battle of survival is the basic thing which triggers motivation". Other reasons could be lack of competition, lack of strict evaluation, school culture and weaker English language learning background, and lack of urgency for their professional future.

MT-4 says, "In other countries such as Pakistan and UK, the students are highly motivated because they know that their academic success is the only hope that can change their destiny. However, in KSA the students are relaxed because they are not under any financial burden or responsibility. Moreover, they get paid by the government unlike other students in the world who pay for their education." Another reason for this difference is stated by FT-19, "In general, Saudi students are pampered. The school culture needs to be changed so that when the students come here, they should not expect to be spoon-fed". Some female teachers argued that the girls do not find enough job opportunities in different fields. As a result, they are not motivated enough to learn the English language.

The results of chi-square test on the responses of the students on AMS also reflect the same: the calculated value of X2 = 504.111 is greater than the critical value of X20.05 = 9.488 that lies in the critical region, we reject H0 at 5% level of significance; therefore, conclude that there is a strong association between gender and motivational level. The same is reflected in the results on AMS. The comparison of the means of the responses of boys and girls show that the girls are less intrinsically motivated to study English language. However, their extrinsic motivation is a little higher than the boys studying in PYP.

Table 7: Means and Standard Deviations for Variables in Boys and Girls in PYP

Variables###Boys###Girls

###Means###Standard Deviation###Means###Standard Deviation

Amotivation###2.1225###1.050489905###2.11###0.922721053

Extrinsic###3.738333###1.053228429###3.776667###0.964062439

Motivation

Intrinsic###3.685###0.904036031###3.5858###0.981866813

Motivation

Interestingly, when the chi-square was applied to the responses of girls and boys of level-1, the value of I2 = 1404.185. Since the calculated value of I2 = 1404.185 is greater than the critical value of I2 0.05 = 9.488 that lies in the critical region, we reject Ho at 5% level of significance. We therefore conclude that at level 1, there is association between gender and motivational level. However, the chi-square applied to the responses of girls and boys in level-2 gave the value of I2 = 8.592. The calculated value of I2 = 8.592 is less than the critical value of I2 0.05 = 9.488 that does not lie in the critical region, we accept Ho at 5% level of significance. We therefore conclude that at level-2 there is no association between gender and motivational level. This indicates that as the students enter level-2, they are segregated in different groups meant for specific professional colleges on the basis of their previous results, and this is a big achievement for them.

Therefore, they may not have the same kind of motivational level to study further. Considering the motivational level of the students in PYP, teachers try their level best to motivate them extrinsically and bring about a plethora of motivating techniques in their classes. Most of them are found to follow the 'ten commandments' (Zoltan Dornyei and Kata Csizer 1998: 215) and take following steps to motivate their PYP students:

* set a personal example with their behavior

* administer praise selectively and judiciously

* create a pleasant atmosphere in class

* present the tasks properly

* develop a good relationship with learners

* increase the learners' linguistic self-confidence

* make the language classes interesting

* promote learners' autonomy

* help learners set some personal goals

* personalize the learning process

* give learners opportunities to make choices in activities, topics, discussions, etc.

* increase the learners' goal-orientedness

* bring the students' focus on interesting and relevant subject-matter content

* familiarize learners with the target language culture

4.3 Role of Administration in Motivating PYP Teachers and Students

Administration is a very important bonding force in PYP. It is mainly responsible for inducting students, hiring teachers, choosing textbooks, preparing syllabus breakdown, making examinations, conducting examinations, evaluating teachers' performance and making the policy. Administration plays an important role in facilitating the teachers to motivate their students in EFL classes. Administration in PYP is responsible for providing all the equipments needed in the classroom, giving the teachers the breakdown of the syllabus to ensure all students study at the same pace, arranging for the examinations and evaluation procedures and practices, and providing every kind of support to the teachers to facilitate them in their job. The responses of the teachers in the interview reveal that most of them are satisfied with the kind of help/support they get from the PYP administration. However, a few have certain reservations.

First of all, a number of teachers show a desire to be given some freedom in the breakdown to be able to use some extra materials to motivate their students at times. In other words, they think that the syllabus breakdown provided by the administration is challenging and does not let them focus on anything other than the textbook provided. Moreover, the teacher respondents also point out the lack of technical support to operate and maintain the equipments in the class, which are needed to involve the students in lessons, e.g. projectors, speakers, etc. In the words of MT-4, "...a proper mechanism of maintenance and rapid technical support are required to fix the problems that surface from time to time so that the students should not suffer in case of any technical fault". Some teachers even complain that they have not been provided with the laptops, and they had to buy their own personal laptops for the purpose of making their lessons motivating and involving.

Moreover, a few point out the need to equip EFL classrooms with "teachers' desks", Audio devices fixed in the rooms", "internet" and "desktops" since they have to carry all these things to the classrooms. Even the administrators admit that there are such problems which may de-motivate the teachers. The administrators interviewed point out a number of such factors: job insecurity, the gap between teaching processes and evaluation techniques, lack of international training workshops, lack of professional trainers and supervisors, covering the syllabus in the given time, "extra work", lack of motivation in terms of incentives to the teachers, the poor performance of some students in exams and their results, teachers being overconfident about their teaching skills, teachers' limitation in decision making, and lack of communication between the administration and faculty to discuss the syllabus or any other valuable suggestion.

If the teachers do not feel empowered and if they are not involved in making policies and decisions, this may bring their motivational level down. Job insecurity, lack of appreciation for work and unfriendly working relationships can also make teachers less motivated. ADMN-1 states these problems, "Sometimes the teachers are overloaded and this lowers down their motivational level. At other times, some teachers do not have the professional training and background. Even they do not have the command over the subject which is the basis for a good motivated teacher." ADMN-5 is of the view, "Unnecessary monitoring by the administration, lack of appreciation on the part of the administration...cold and indifferent attitude on the part of the administrators" can become a problem for a motivated teacher. ADMN-17 thinks that "no payment for any extra work (and) too much importance given to students' opinion" may also harm teachers' motivation".

However, the PYP administration understands the need to play its part in motivating the teachers to teach Saudi PYP students in various ways. For instance, they assert that workshops should be held for all teachers to train them how to teach English skills, they should be allowed to carry on their educational or action research to develop themselves intellectually, they should be encouraged to participate in local and international conferences, they should be allowed to exchange class visits to learn from their colleagues, the best teacher should be promoted on the basis of a clear and honest evaluation process, teachers' efforts should not only be appreciated by certificates but also by an increase in salaries, and they should not be overburdened and stressed for petty things and be facilitated in every way possible. ADMN-5 is of the view, "Their (teachers') genuine and legal demands should not be turned down.

For example, if a teacher wants to travel abroad during holidays, he should be facilitated. He should have an easy access to books, and copying and printing facilities." ADMN-6 recommends "a flexi-time scheme" to motivate teachers. ADMN-18 opines, "In order to achieve better results and quality, teachers should not be overburdened. Deadlines should not be too close that they find it hard to perform well. Quality should be preferred over quantity." PYP administration's main job is to prepare the students for the professional colleges to have a better input for the available job market later. ADMN-1 is of the view, "PYP plays a vital role in the future education and careers of our students. It prepares students to continue their studies in the professional colleges. Without PYP, many students will not be able to continue their studies at professional colleges as they have to read, write, listen and speak only in English."

The PYP is mainly a bridge between the schools and the professional colleges and mainly caters for the job market by enabling the students to perform well in the professional colleges and in their practical life later. In the words of ADMN-10, "it (PYP) enables them to get prepared to encounter the challenges they are going to face in their targeted colleges and in their practical life." ADMN-12 is of the view, "The skills and knowledge that students acquire in PYP is essential and very much helpful for them in professional work setting."ADMN-13 reiterates, "PYP is an extensive and intensive English language learning program. It helps to develop integrated language skills which enable students to perform positively and potentially in a target situation." However, PYP administration requires a lot of support from the external offices for making the output for job market more efficient.

ADMN-2 summarizes the needs and steps to make PYP more efficient in response to the demands of the job market in these words, "The PYP team should cooperate with the targeted institutions and companies via identifying the objectives and future vision for this program. Students should be made to recognize what the requirements of the targeted colleges and the markets are to be successful in the future. The targeted college should declare and specify their expectation from PYP". PYP administration motivates the teachers mainly to enable them to motivate the students in turn. They understand that only a motivated teacher can motivate the students by involving them and by having students centered activities. This is possible if the administrators involve teachers in decision making processes, making them an important part in transferring the motivation to the students.

In this regard, ADMN-2 is of the view, "Motivated teachers recognize the best way to teach and identify the students' need in learning new language by dealing with individual differences among students and trying to control unexpected variables, whether they are positive or negative. As a team work, educational administrators, with the cooperation of English instructors should develop their program according to the students' level- whether positive or negative- through the evaluation process, tools, feedback etc." ADMN-3 opines, "The administrators can help both the students and teachers by providing better tools and infrastructure."ADMN-10 says, "A motivated teacher means we have motivated students. Our role is to create a friendly working environment." It is an important job for the administration to keep the PYP students involved and motivated in the classes. They prepare syllabus breakdown, quizzes and examinations for the students according to the level and expectations of the students.

The admini stration has to meet the demands of the PYP students: equipment, professional teachers and useful interaction with the students. ADMN-1 claims that they "prepare tests and exams carefully according to the level and expectations of students and consider tests as part of learning process... make sure that our writing exams are current, valid, and reliable and tie our assessment to our course objectives.... modify the curriculum to some extent to include student-centered learning and teaching."

In the words of ADMN-2, the administration must 'explain the policy and the aims of teaching English skills for all targeted students in PYP, arrange tours for involved students in the target colleges and majors of PYP, establish a unit to deal with the stage before accepting students in PYP in other words, make a link between PYP and schools to support the aim and policy of this program; cooperate with the teachers in school and PYP English staff through making regular meetings and conferences to clarify the aims of learning English language in PYP, focus on extracurricular activities in learning English language learning, hold many meetings with the students to identify their needs in learning English language, and give chances to the students who face obstacles in learning English language in evaluation process." In conclusion, PYP is an extensive and intensive English language learning program.

It helps to develop integrated language skills which enable EFL adult learners to perform positively and potentially in a target situation. It enables them to get prepared to encounter the challenges they are going to face in their targeted colleges and in their practical life. The students of PYP are quite aware of its importance and are intrinsically motivated to study. However, in order to motivate them extrinsically further, the teacher must play their important role as motivators, which is quite possible if they have the administrative support. Administration, teachers and students all must recognize what the requirements of the targeted colleges and the markets are to be successful. This will not only make the students more motivated to study and learn the English language in PYP with full enthusiasm, but also optimize the quality of the program and make it efficient in achieving its objectives.

5. Conclusion and Recommendations

The research at hand concludes that the students of PYP at present are different from the students of past in that they are both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to study the English language. They are aware of the importance of the English language acquisition for professional reasons. This is proved by the results on AMS. The same has been endorsed by the teachers engaged in teaching English to these students. These results oppose the findings of many other researches (Al-Khairy, 2013; Alrabai, 2014; Alrahaili, 2013; Alrashidi and Phan, 2015; Elyas and Picard, 2010; Rahman and Alhaisoni, 2013) that proved otherwise. However, the results on AMS and teachers' responses point out an important issue: the students' motivation deteriorates as they move on in the PYP.

Moreover, this deterioration is faster and more intense in the case of the female students, who tend to get highly de-motivated when they are unable to qualify for the medical track, and not finding enough desirable job opportunities in the job market adds to their frustration. This poses a big challenge to the teachers as well as the administrators to bring changes in their planning and practices to reverse the situation: raise the motivation level of the students as they progress in PYP. The output of PYP viz. EFL adult learners must be motivated and competent enough to cope with the tougher studies in the professional colleges and the practical field in the job market later. Motivated administrators, teachers and students are a key to prepare the young generation for their efficient performance in the professional colleges and the job market.

Multilingual matters, Highly qualified teachers, (since the new policy is to recruit only PhDs), native speakers (to provide the students with realistic models of English speech), more relevant and challenging syllabus, the importance of PYP for admission in professional colleges, introduction of ESP in PYP and scholarships offered for higher education abroad, etc are some major factors controlling students' motivation and thus should be given full focus at policy making level. It is a big challenge for the PYP administration and teachers to maintain and sustain the motivation of highly motivated students, make the less motivated ones more motivated and create the spark of motivation in amotivated PYP students. As a result of the present research study, following are the key recommendation to make PYP more effective to motivate the EFL adult learners and prepare them for the professional colleges and the job market: The teachers must:

- Go to the classes well prepared for reflective and planned teaching to keep the students motivated, involved and interested in learning English.

- Set personal examples with their behavior and be the role models for the students given under their charge.

- Administer praise selectively and judiciously using it as a teaching and motivational tool.

- Create a pleasant atmosphere in class and never lose their sense of humour.

- Present the tasks properly making the thematic links between what has been taught and what is being taught.

- Develop a good relationship with learners by giving great value to their voices.

- Increase the learners' linguistic self-confidence by treating their errors sensibly.

- Make the language classes interesting to keep the affective filter of the learners low for comprehensible input.

- Promote learners' autonomy in order to give them a strong sense of achievement and let them take the responsibility for their own learning.

- Help learners set some personal goals by regular counseling sessions.

- Personalize the learning process by having friendly relations with their students.

- Give learners opportunities to make choices in activities, topics, discussions, etc.

- Increase the learners' goal-orientedness by bringing the spirit of cooperation and competition in the class.

- Bring the students' focus on interesting and relevant subject-matter content.

- Familiarize learners with the target language culture.

- Foster positive attitudes in PYP students by reading aloud in the classes.

- Create interest in the students by offering and allowing digital choices in the classroom.

- Stress the value of reading by making instruction personal and interactive.

- Promote self-efficacy in the PYP students by offering/explaining to them clear roles in text discussion.

- Build self-concepts by providing specific feedback to the PYP students/EFL adult learners given under their charge.

- Strengthen mastery of goals for classroom reading by designing activities that are neither too easy nor too difficult.

- Build their own knowledge about the motivation theories to create such a classroom environment that fosters student motivation and engagement in the learning process.

The PYP students/EFL adult learners must:

- Be given shorter term goals to keep their motivational level up.

- Be strictly disciplined in level-2 to counter their declining motivational level.

- Be motivated both administratively and academically by making the whole system and the processes easy, interesting and effective.

- Revise their anti-English approach towards English language and culture.

- Be made to see relationship between their language learning efforts and the outcomes.

- Have had good schooling before entering into PYP.

- Not let the blessings of prosperity turn into curse by getting too relaxed and de-motivated.

- Bring the spirit of competition side by side cooperation in the classes for the higher motivation and learning zeal and zest.

- Be evaluated a bit strictly to force them into making motivated efforts in learning English.

- Improve their weak English language background by taking steps at home such as watching English programs etc.

- Not be paid the monthly stipend, if their performance in PYP is not up to the mark.

- Be given enough hopes and future job prospects based on their proficiency in English language particularly the female PYP students.

- The administration must:

- Raise the salaries of the teachers based on their performance and good work.

- Remove the stress of the teachers resulting from job insecurity by either providing regular jobs to them, or at least long period contracts with substantial end-service benefits.

- Give the best teachers study scholarships and periodic promotions.

- Provide the teachers with the opportunities to participate and attend international training workshops and seminars.

- Provide the teacher with the professional trainers and supervisors to refresh their teaching practices.

- Give chance to the teachers to be a part of decision making and policy making.

- Bridge the communication gap between the administration and the faculty by holding regular meetings and establishing proper dialogic structure.

- Make the teachers feel empowered related to any issue of teaching, timetable, syllabus, exams etc.

- Make the teachers less overloaded and provide remuneration for the extra tasks such as extra classes, exam contribution, paper marking and invigilation duties.

- Facilitate educational and action research to keep the teaching practices reflective and updated.

- Issue appreciation certificates to the teachers for outstanding performance in the class.

- Allow the teachers to have exchange class visits to learn from their colleagues.

- Give the teachers full respect and support.

- Remove all the linguistic and cultural barriers in the ways of teachers and teaching.

- Provide the teachers with the best teaching aids in the class including the laptops, teachers' desks and printing facilities.

- Provide the teachers with speedy technical support and teaching aids maintenance facilities to continue uninterrupted and smooth and motivated and motivating teaching in the class. Audio visual devices in the class must be fixed and updated.

- Promote social relationships among the faculty by arranging get together parties from time to time.

- Solve the teachers' housing, transportation and kids' education problems.

- Allow the teachers to travel abroad during holidays and facilitate the process instead of building hurdles in their way.

- Provide the teachers easy access to books, copying and printing facilities.

- Give the teachers the logical and convenient deadlines for the tasks assigned to them.

- Prefer quality to quantity.

- Establish communication links with the targeted colleges and companies and design clear objectives and future vision of Preparatory Year Program.

- Have clear concepts of the expectations of the targeted colleges from PYP.

- Revise and update PYP according to the level and needs of PYP students by conducting regular feedback sessions of the teachers and students.

- Establish a friendly working environment.

- Reduce the workload of the teachers to their satisfaction level.

- Conduct admission test for the PYP students to screen out the amotivated students to make teachers' job easier.

- Make policies and rules in such a direction that students respect the teachers in the real sense.

- Promote English speaking culture inside and outside the classes.

- Make syllabus breakdown and courses taking the teachers into confidence allowing them to use extra materials in the class to keep the students motivated.

- Bridge the gap between the teaching processes and evaluation techniques.

- Make the tests and exams as part of learning process and not as a separate entity.

- Make exams current, valid and reliable by matching the assessment with the course objectives.

- Modify the curriculum to promote student-centered learning and teaching.

- Explain the policy and aims of teaching English to the PYP students by holding student seminars and embellishing the walls with charts for visual impact.

- Make motivation theories, concepts, complications and implementation hurdles as an important component of both pre-service and in-service educational programs if teachers are to develop strong efficacy beliefs and also to help their students develop strong efficacy beliefs.

- Advocate the rules where students/EFL adult learners minimize their Arabic usage in class whether it be an English club, homework club or even a reading and exam preparation club, students need to have a facility that will enable them to continue to speak English outside of class because realistically speaking 1 hour and 40 minutes per English class is nothing.

- Make the PYP team cooperate with the targeted institutions and companies via identifying the objectives and future vision for this program. The targeted college should declare and specify their expectation from PYP.

- Arrange tours for PYP students in the target colleges and majors of PYP.

- Focus on extracurricular and co-curricular activities which may create English speaking environment in the university.

In short, the issue of PYP students'/EFL adult learners' motivation in learning English in Saudi universities has to be taken holistically by involving all the stakeholders. If failure to achieve high standards in PYP is just attributed to external factors that are difficult to alter e.g., student ability to learn English, low level of student effort, non-supportive families of the students, high school policies in KSA, and lack of social support, there is little motivation and room left for teachers to change, reform and improve their teaching approaches, methodologies and techniques. In such a scenario they will stop making extra efforts in working individually with students to raise their morale and motivation.

If the administrators recognize teachers' efforts to implement interactive, individualized and motivating teaching strategies and moves, and play their effective roles and responsibilities by involving the teachers in decision and policy making, the teachers may become more motivated and adopt such teaching strategies that increase the likelihood of improved scenario in PYP and they may put their students on the track leading to the successful and dignified survival in professional colleges immediately after PYP and the job market in the long run.

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Publication:International Journal of Arts and Humanities
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