Printer Friendly

Morphometric and Meristic Variation of Endangered Pabda Catfish, Ompok pabda (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) from Southern Coastal Waters of Bangladesh.

Byline: Md. Reaz Chaklader, Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddik, Md. Abu Hanif, Ashfaqun Nahar, Sultan Mahmud and Marina Piria

Abstract

The present study was aimed to determine the variation in diversity of Ompok pabda based on morphometric and meristic analyses of samples collected from four southern coastal rivers of Bangladesh. A total of 80 individuals ranging from 9.50-13.50 cm in total length (TL) and 4.44-14.83 g in body weight (BW) were compared for morphometric and meristic analysis to explore their taxonomic relationship. Eighteen morphometric characters out of 25 showed significant variation (pless than 0.05) while 3 meristic characters out of 5 differ significantly. In case of morphometric measurements, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd discriminant function (DF) accounted for 64.4%, 19.5% and 16.1%, respectively of among group variability explaining 100% of the total among-group variability.

The dendrogram based on morphometric data revealed that the Baleswer and Payra river population showed high degree of overlapping whereas Halda river population was more diversified with all population. The canonical graph also showed all population of Halda river was highly intermediate with the Baleswer and Payra river population compare to Tentulia River in isometric condition. The present findings may provide useful information for the conservation and sustainable management of this important fish.

Key words: Diversity, morphometric, meristic, conservation, Ompok pabda.

INTRODUCTION

The rivers and estuaries of southern coastal region of Bangladesh are characterized by high amounts of commercial fish catch having great contribution to the national economy of Bangladesh (Islam, 2003; Alam and Thomson, 2001; Belton et al., 2014; Hanif et al., 2015a,b). In spite of having vast potentiality, the coastal rivers are facing a continuous degradation which is caused by over exploitation, apparent deterioration of the habitat, recreational activities, demographic increase and even global change consequences (Ahamed et al., 2012; Chaklader et al., 2015; Murshed-e-Jahan et al., 2014; Siddik et al., 2013, 2015).

Pabda catfish Ompok pabda (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822), an indigenous freshwater catfish of Bangladesh popularly known as 'butter catfish'. The people of Bangladesh, East India, and Myanmar consider the fish is highly delicious and nutritious food item because of rich lipoprotein content and soft bony structure (Fagede et al., 1984; Pillay, 2000; Jhingran, 2004).

This species is widely distributed throughout the India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Myanmar (Jayaram, 1999; Chakrabarti et al., 2009). Earlier, the Ompok pabda was available in beels, haors, baors, wetlands, lakes, rivers and streams of Bangladesh (Rahman, 2005) but indiscriminate fishing during monsoon, application of pesticide in agriculture, soil erosion and siltation formation in river, contamination of habitat due to sewage and industrial pollution etc. over the decades have sharply declined the population of this fish species (Chakrabarti et al., 2009; Banik and Bhattacharya, 2012; Chaklader et al., 2014). Presently, this species is categorized as threatened species according to the criteria of conservation assessment (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000) and need to impose immediate adequate management plan in order to protect and conserve the species in this area.

The study of morphological characters on fishes play a vital role from various perspectives including evolution, ecology, behavior, conservation, water resource management, and stock assessment and may be applicable in order to study short-term and environmentally induced variations (Kalhoro et al., 2015; Basusta et al., 2014; Ozcan and Altun, 2015). These characters has also been widely used as a powerful technique for the determination of morphological relationships between the population of a species and for identifying fish stocks and describing their spatial distributions (Turan, 2004; Mustac and Sinovcic, 2010; Ivankovic et al., 2011). Moreover, the stock structure can be used as an effective tool for the development of management strategies that will be helpful in conserving the biodiversity associated with different species, subspecies, stocks and races (Turan et al., 2005; Sharker et al., 2015; Nahar et al., 2015).

Currently there is no knowledge of endangered butter catfish, Ompok pabda biology and ecology among fishing areas of the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh. Considering the above facts, the aim of the present study was to assess and describe intraspecies variation in morphometric and meristics characters of Ompok pabda from four different rivers in the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh.

Table I.- Sources, number of specimens and date of collection of O. pabda population.

###Sample Population###Collection###No. of###Date of

###No.###site###fish###collection

###(District)

###01###Tentulia###Sonatala###20###20.01.14

###river###(Bogra)

###02###Baleshwer###Kaukhali###20###01.03.14

###river###(Pirojpur)

###03###Payra river###Labukhali###20###10.05.14

###(Patuakhali)

###04###Halda river###Hathazari###20###20.08.14

###(Chittagong)

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area and sampling

A total of 80 individuals of Ompok pabda were sampled from four coastal rivers located in the southeastern coastal region of Bangladesh from January, 2014 to August, 2014 (Table I). The traditional fishing gears like Jhakijal (cast net), and Dughair (conical trap) were used to catch the specimen and preserved in 10% formalin. The collected samples were transferred to the wet laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, where all morphometric and meristic characteristics were detected by Froese and Pauly (2007). Measurement system is presented in Figure 1.

Statistical analysis

Separate statistical analyses were conducted on the meristic and morphometric characters. The discriminate function analysis (DFA) were used to differentiate characters among four different stock based on morphometric characters and Kruskal-Wallis test (non-parametric test) was performed to determine the difference significantly among the meristic characters of the samples. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was accomplished to identify the meristic and morphometric differences among the four groups. For the elimination of any variation resulting from allometric growth (Straus, 1985), all morphometric measurements were standardized according to Elliott et al. (1995).

Madj =M (Ls/Lo)b

Where, M is the original morphometric measurement, Madj is the size-adjusted measurement, Lo is the total length of fish, and Ls is the overall mean of total length for all fish from all samples for each variable. b is the constant value of the equation. The parameter b was estimated for each character from the observed data as the slope of the regression of log M against log Lo, using all specimens. SPSS v12 and SYSTAT v10 were used in order to perform all statistical analyses.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Morphometric characters

In the present study, twenty five morphometric characters were measured (Fig. 1, Table II) among which TL, FL, HBD, PsOL, PsDL, HVF and MNBL showed no significant variation (p>0.05). The head depth of Baleswer and Payra river population displayed significant variation compare to Tentulia and Halda river population (pless than 0.05). The lowest body depth of Tentulia and Baleswer population revealed significant variation from Payra and Halda river population, as well as the height of anal fin of Tentulia and Baleswer population (pless than 0.05). The length of dorsal base, length of ventral base and lower jaw length of Baleswer, Payra and Halda river population showed significant variation compared Tentulia river population. Also, the maximum barbell length of Baleswer and Payra river population differ significantly than the Tentulia and Halda river population (pless than 0.05).

These phenotypic variability may be related to the geography, ecology, human activities and genetic diversity of the population (Junguera and Perez- Gandaras, 1993). The phenotypic variability is considered to be the greatest in fish among the vertebrates, which have relatively higher within-population coefficients of variation of phenotypes (Carvalho, 1993; Sajina et al., 2011). The changes of environmental factors influence greatly phenotypic plasticity of fishes and these variability are arisen from these alteration (Wimberger, 1992). Moreover, some modification of aquatic environment are continuing all times due to manmade and natural factors and these modifications may responsible for changing their morphology (Stearns, 1983).

The different proportions of morphometric characteristics (TL:SL, HBD:LBD, HL:ED, TL:HBD, TL:LBD, TL:HL, SL:HL) of O. pabda are shown in Table III. The ratio of TL:SL of all river population did not show significant variation but the proportions of two morphometric characters of TL: LBD, TL:HL and SL: HL of all populations were significantly different (pless than 0.05) from each other. The ratio of HBD:LBD of Tentulia and Baleswer population showed significant variation with Payra and Halda population and the proportion of TL:HBD of Tentulia and Halda population differed significantly from rest two river populations. The total length of O. pabda populations were 1.2, 4.6-5.2, 20-14.2 and 8.1-5.4 times, respectively higher than SL, HBD, LBD and HL; and the highest body depth (HBD) was 3.8-3.1 times higher than the lowest body depth (LBD).

Again, the head length (HL) was 3.5-5.9 times higher than the eye diameter and the standard length (SL) was 7.2-4.7 times higher than the head length (HL). The univariate statistics (ANOVA) revealed that 15 (HL, HD, LBD, PrOL, ED, SnL, HDF, HPF, HAF, LDB, LPB, LVB, UJL, LJL and MXBL) out of 25 morphometric measurements significantly differed to varying degrees (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.01 or Pless than 0.001) among samples (Table IV).

The discriminate function analysis (DFA) showed that the 1st DF accounted for 64.4%, the 2nd DF accounted for 19.5% and the 3rd accounted for 16.1% of among group variability, and together they explained 100% of the total among-group variability. According to the 1st and 2nd discriminant function (DF), the relationships among the 4 stocks were different (Fig. 2). Considering 1st DF, the Halda stock exposed intermediate characteristics between the Baleswer and Payra stocks. Since the Tentulia River has more salinity compare to others, the Halda stocks showed some nearness to Baleswer and Payra stocks. Based on the 2nd DF, the Baleswer, Payra and Halda stocks, however, broadly overlapped, while the Tentulia stock clearly different which might be due to the geographic isolation and environmental condition of the river.

These results are similar to the findings of Mir et al. (2013) who reported variation among the stocks of six populations in Ganga basin due to uncommon hydrological conditions such as differences in alkalinity, current pattern, temperatures, turbidity, and land-use patterns among these drainages, as well as closeness between stocks may be due to their similar habitat attributes and to environmental impacts. The 1st DF accounted for much more (64.4%) of the among group variability than did the 2nd DF (19.5%) and 3rd DF (16.1%). It is noticeable that the 3rd DF explains much less of the variance than does the 1st DF and 2nd DF. The 3rd DF therefore, much less informative in explaining differences among the stocks.

Table II.- Morphometric characters observed in three river populations of O. pabda (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822).

Acronyms###Tentulia river###Baleswer river###Payra river###Halda river

TL###10.67.20a###10.70.19a###10.74.24a###11.20.27a

SL###9.31.21ab###9.03.17b###9.44.22ab###9.75.25a

FL###9.85.19a###9.81.19a###10.01.24a###10.26.24a

HL###1.99.06a###1.83.04ab###1.32.08c###1.73.04b

HD###1.27.05b###1.44.06a###0.80.05c###1.13.05b

HBD###2.31.06a###2.14.07a###2.15.07a###2.15.05a

LBD###0.75.03a###0.69.02a###0.58.03b###0.56.02b

PrOL###0.74.04a###0.63.02b###0.67.02ab###0.65.02b

PsOL###1.07.04a###1.03.03a###1.04.03a###1.02.01a

ED###0.34.01b###0.40.02a###0.38.01ab###0.37.01ab

SnL###0.94.04a###0.83.02b###0.87.02ab###0.85.02b

PrDL###3.23.09a###2.91.10b###3.06.07ab###3.09.07ab

PsDL###6.42.11a###6.01.12a###6.40.18a###6.44.18a

HDF###1.45.03a###1.38.04ab###1.26.05b###1.29.03b

HPF###1.71.06a###1.60.06b###1.48.03ab###1.59.04ab

HVF###0.6403a###0.57.03a###0.64.05a###0.56.03a

HAF###0.54.02c###0.59.02bc###0.77.03a###0.62.03b

LDB###0.14.01a###0.10.00b###0.10.00b###0.12.01b

LPB###0.66.03a###0.63.02ab###0.58.01bc###0.54.03c

LVB###0.43.03a###0.31.01b###0.24.02c###0.28.01bc

LAB###6.33.12a###5.95.12b###6.02.10ab###6.12.15ab

UJL###0.82.03a###0.79.03ab###0.73.02bc###0.71.02c

LJL###0.99.05a###0.89.03b###0.87.02b###0.82.02b

MXBL###3.93.11a###3.52.11bc###3.61.05bc###3.85.08a

MNBL###0.85.07a###0.80.05a###0.93.05a###0.79.04a

Table III. - Different morphometric proportions of O. pabda from four coastal rivers of Bangladesh.

Group###TL:SL###HBD:LBD###HL:ED###TL:HBD###TL:LBD###TL:HL###SL:HL

Tentulia river###1.15a###3.08c###5.85a###4.62c###14.23d###5.36d###4.68d

Baleswer river###1.18a###3.10c###4.58b###5.00b###15.51c###5.85c###4.93c

Payra river###1.14a###3.71b###3.47c###4.99b###18.52b###8.14a###7.15a

Halda river###1.15a###3.84a###4.68b###5.21a###20.00a###6.47b###5.64b

The dendrogram which were employed on the basis of morphometric characters produced 2 clusters: the Baleswer, Halda and Payra stocks in one and the Tentulia stock in another (Fig. 3). The difference between the Tentulia and other stocks may have been due to environmental changes as well as genetic deviations (Tomljanovic et al., 2011).

Table IV.- Univariate statistics (ANOVA) of morphometric characters observed in four river populations of O. pabda.

Characters###Wilks'###F###df1###df2###Significance

###Lambda

TL###0.96###1.14###3###73###0.340

SL###0.93###1.72###3###73###0.171

FL###0.97###0.79###3###73###0.506

HL###0.57###18.50###3###73###0.000***

HD###0.47###27.29###3###73###0.000***

HBD###0.95###1.36###3###73###0.261

LBD###0.65###13.29###3###73###0.000***

PrOL###0.88###3.21###3###73###0.028*

PsOL###0.96###0.62###3###73###0.607

ED###0.87###3.53###3###73###0.019*

SnL###0.89###3.21###3###73###0.028*

PrDL###0.93###1.82###3###73###0.151

PsDL###0.95###1.34###3###73###0.267

HDF###0.85###4.15###3###73###0.009**

HPF###0.87###3.70###3###73###0.015*

HVF###0.95###1.35###3###73###0.265

HAF###0.60###16.31###3###73###0.000***

LDB###0.81###5.59###3###73###0.002**

LPB###0.80###5.98###3###73###0.001**

LVB###0.51###23.82###3###73###0.000***

LAB###0.94###1.54###3###73###0.213

UJL###0.83###5.16###3###73###0.003**

LJL###0.82###5.42###3###73###0.002**

MXBL###0.85###4.29###3###73###0.008**

MNBL###0.94###1.50###3###73###0.223

Meristic characters

Five meristic characters were counted of which VFR and NB didn't show significant variation from each other. The DFR and CFR of Payra and Halda river population differ significantly from the Tentulia and Baleswer river population while the BSR of Baleswer, Payra and Halda river population revealed significant variation compare to Tentulia river population (Table V). This differences may be caused due highest degree of inheritance of meristic counts which have better reliability for distinguishing fish populations (Treer, 1993) but if they are affected by environmental factors such as pH and water temperature, heritability may vary (Treer, 1993). Meristic counts for all population were varied from 10-12 for BSR, 3-4 for DFR, 11-14 for PFR, 7-9 for VFR, 54-57 for AFR and 16-18 for CFR which coincide with data presented by Talwar and Jhingran (1991) and Rahman (2005).

Sometimes it is difficult to expound the causes of morphological variances between populations (Cadrin, 2000). Genetics and environment, and their interaction determine the morphological characteristics of fish suggested by Poulet et al. (2004). Apparently, the different location of river impoundments can lead to an enhancement of pre-existing genetic differences, providing a high interpopulation structuring (Esguicero and Arcifa, 2010). Therefore, the observed morphological variations in the present study are probably due to genetic differences among the populations.

Table V.- Meristic characters observed in four river 1822).

Acronyms###Tentulia###Baleswer###Payra###Halda

BSR###10.20.12c###11.00.23b###11.20.20ab###11.70.15a

DFR###3.60.11b###3.55.11b###3.95.05a###3.90.07a

PFR###12.75.12a###12.20.29ab###11.95.22b###11.60.21b

VFR###7.95.09a###7.55.40a###7.60.11a###7.85.08a

AFR###55.30.26a###54.20.12b###54.75.19ab###54.50.20b

CFR###17.30.11b###17.15.13b###17.95.05a###18.00.00a

NB###4.00.00a###4.00.00a###4.00.00a###4.00.00a

CONCLUSION

The output of the research will provide useful baseline information of Ompok pabda populations not only in southern Bangladesh but on its whole geographic region. The morphometric and meristic diversity which were observed in this study will definitely also help monitoring the species status in the southern coastal regions of Bangladesh as a bid to take appropriate management measures for the populations in future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are very grateful to Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh for providing fund and laboratory facilities of the research.

REFERENCES

Ahamed, F., Hossain, M.Y., Fulanda, B.E., Ahmed, Z.F. and Ohtomi, J., 2012. Indiscriminate exploitation of wild prawn post-larvae in the coastal region of Bangladesh: A threat to the fisheries resources, community livelihoods and biodiversity. Ocean Coast. Manage., 66:56-62.

Alam, M.F. and Thomson, K.J., 2001. Current constraints and future possibilities for Bangladesh fisheries. Fd. Polic., 26: 297-313.

Banik, S. and Bhattacharya, P., 2012. Ompok pabo (Hamilton, 1822) of Tripura, India: an endangered fish species in relation to some biological parameters. Res. J. Biol., 2: 91-97.

Basusta, A., Ozer, E.I., Girgin, H., Serdar, O. and Basusta, N., 2014. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Hippocampus hippocampus and Hippocampus guttulatus inhabiting Eastern Black Sea. Pakistan J. Zool., 46: 447-450.

Belton, B, Asseldonk, I.J.M. and Thilsted, S.H., 2014. Faltering fisheries and ascendant aquaculture: Implications for food and nutrition security in Bangladesh. Fd. Policy, 44: 77-87.

Cadrin, S.X., 2000. Advances in morphometric identification of fishery stocks. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10: 91-112.

Carvalho, G.R., 1993. Evolutionary aspects of fish distribution: genetic variability and adaptation. J. Fish Biol., 43: 53-73.

Chaklader, M.R., Nahar, A., Siddik, M.A.B. and Sharker, R., 2014. Feeding habits and diet composition of Asian catfish Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1794) in shallow water of an impacted coastal habitat. World J. Fish mar. Sci., 6: 551-556.

Chaklader, M.R., Siddik, M.A.B. and Nahar, A., 2015. Taxonomic diversity of paradise threadfin Polynemus paradiseus (Linnaeus, 1758) inhabiting southern coastal rivers in Bangladesh. Sains Malays., 44: 1241-1248.

Chakrabarti, N.M., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Mondal, S.C., 2009. Ompak bimaculatus and Ompak pabda comparative morphometric and meristic study of embryonic larval development. Fish. Chimes, 29: 8-9.

Elliott, N.G., Haskard, K. and Koslow, J.A., 1995. Morphometric analysis of orange roughy, Hoplostethusatlanticus of the continental slope of southern Australia. J. Fish Biol., 46: 202-220.

Esguicero, A.L.H. and Arcifa, S.A., 2010. Fragmentation of a Neotropical migratory fish population by a century-old dam. Hydrobiologia, 638: 41-53.

Fagede, S.O., Adebisi, A.A. and Aatanda, A.N., 1984. The breeding cycle of tilapia, Sarotherodon galilaeus in the IITA Lake, Ibadan, Nigeria. Hydrobiologia, 100: 493-500.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D., 2007. Fishbase: World Wide Web electronic publication. Available at: http://www.fishbase.org, 2007.

Hanif, M.A., Siddik, M.A.B. and Chaklader, M.R., 2015a. Fish diversity in the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh: present status, threats and conservation perspectives. Croatian J. Fish., 73: 251-274.

Hanif, M.A., Siddik, M.A.B., Chaklader, M.R., Mahmud, S., Nahar, A., Hoque, M.S. and Munilkumar, S., 2015b. Biodiversity and conservation of threatened freshwater fishes in Sandha River, South West Bangladesh. World appl. Sci., 33: 1497-1510.

Islam, M.S., 2003. Perspectives of the coastal and marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Ocean Coast. Manage., 46:763-796.

IUCN, 2000. Bangladesh, red book of threatened fishes of Bangladesh. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 116 p. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/166509/0

Ivankovic, P., Piria, M., Treer, T. and Knezovic, Z., 2011. Meristic and morphometric characteristics of endemic Neretva chub, Squalius svallize from the Neretva River area, Bosnia and Herzegovina. J. appl. Ichthyol., 27: 1031-1032.

Jayaram, K.C., 1999. Freshwater fishes of Indian region. New Delhi, Narendra Publishing House, p. 551.

Jhingran, V.G., 2004. Fish and fisheries of India. Reprint ed. Delhi, Daya Publisher.

Junguera, S. and Perez-Gandaras, G., 1993. Population diversity in Bay of Biscay anchovy, Engraulisen crasicolus (L., 1785) as revealed by multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic characters. ICES, J. Mar. Sci, 50: 383-391.

Kalhoro, M.A., Liu, Q., Valinassab, T., Waryani, B., Abbasi, A.R. and Memon, K.H., 2015. Population DYNAMICS OF GREATER Lizardfish, Saurida tumbil from Pakistani waters. Pakistan J. Zool., 47:921-931.

Mir, J.I., Sarkar, U.K., Dwivedi, A.K., Gusain, O.P. and Jena, J.K., 2013. Stock structure analysis of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) across the Ganga basin (India) using a truss network system. J. appl. Ichthyol., 29: 1097-1103.

Murshed-E-Jahan, K., Belton, B. and Viswanathan, K.K., 2014. Communication strategies for managing coastal fisheries conflicts in Bangladesh. Ocean Coast. Manage., 92: 65-73.

Mustac, B. and Sinovcic, G., 2010. Morphometric and meristic parameters of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus, walbaum, 1792) in the Zadar fishing area. Croatian J. Fish, 68: 43-48.

Nahar, A., Siddik, M.A.B., Alam, M.A. and Chaklader, M.R., 2015. Population genetic structure of paradise threadfin Polynemus paradiseus (Linnaeus, 1758) revealed by allozyme marker. Intl. J. zool. Res., 11:48-56.

Ozcan, G. and Altun, A., 2015. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of three endemic and threatened freshwater fishes from Orontes River. Pakistan J. Zool., 47: 1637-1643.

Pillay, T.V.R., 2000. Aquaculture- Principles and practices. Cambridge, Fishing News Books.

Poulet, N., Berrebi, P., Crivelli, A. J., Lek, S. and Argillier, C., 2004. Genetic and morphometric variations in the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) of a fragmented delta. Arch. Hydrobiol., 159: 531-554.

Rahman, A.K.A., 2005. Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh, 2nd edition, Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, pp. 187-188.

Sajina, A.M., Chakraborty, Jaiswar, S.K., Pazhayamadam, A.K. and Sudheesan, D.G., 2011. Stock structure analysis of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758) along the Indian coast based on truss network analysis. Fish. Res., 108:100-105.

Sharker, M.R., Siddik, M.A.B., Nahar, A., Shahjahan, M. and Faroque, A.A., 2015. Genetic differentiation of wild and hatchery populations of Indian major carp Cirrhinus cirrhosis in Bangladesh. J. environ. Biol., 36:1223-1227.

Siddik, M.A.B., Hanif, M.A., Chaklader, M.R., Nahar, A. and Mahmud, S., 2015. Fishery biology gangetic whiting Sillaginopsis panijus (Hamilton, 1822) endemic to Ganges delta, Bangladesh. Egypt. J. Aquat. Res., 41: 307-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2015.11.001.

Siddik, M.A.B., Nahar, A., Ahamed, F., Masood, Z. and Hossain, M.Y., 2013. Conservation of critically endangered olive barb Puntius sarana (Hamilton, 1822) through artificial propagation. Our Nature, 11: 96-104.

Stearns, S.C., 1983. A natural experiment in life-history evolution: field data on the introduction of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to Hawaii. Evolution, 37: 601-617.

Strauss, R.E., 1985. Evolutionary allometry and variation in body form in the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Callichthyidae). Syst. Zool., 34: 381-396.

Talwar, P.K. and Jhingran, A.G., 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries, Vol. 2, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi, pp. 612-613.

Treer, T., 1993. The use of meristic and morphometric characteristics in differentiation of fish populations. Croatian J. Fish., 48:13-26.

Tomljanovic, T., Piria, M., Treer, T., Safner, R., Sprem, N., Anicic, I., Matulic, D. and Kordic, V., 2011. Morphological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations in Republic of Croatia. Ribarstvo, 69: 81-93.

Turan, C., 2004. Stock identification of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) using morphometric and meristic characters. J. mar. Sci., 61: 774-781.

Turan, C., Yalcin, S., Turan, F., Okur, E., Akyurt, I., 2005. Morphometric comparisons of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, populations in Turkey. Fol. Zool., 54: 165-172.

Wimberger, P.H., 1992. Plasticity of fish body shape. The effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 45:197-218.
COPYRIGHT 2016 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jun 30, 2016
Words:4465
Previous Article:Foes can be Friends: Laboratory Trials on Invasive Apple Snails, Pomacea spp. Preference to Invasive Weed, Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau Compared...
Next Article:Dietary Effect of Fermented Wheat Powder (Lisosan G(r)) on Productive Performance and Meat Quality in Intensively-Reared Rabbit.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters