Morphometric analysis of glenoid fossa of scapula.
1. Maximum Superior-Inferior glenoid diameter.
2. Maximum Anterior-Posterior glenoid diameter.
OBSERVATION: The following observations were made from the morphological study of glenoid fossa of sixty scapulae obtained from the department of Anatomy Government Medical College Jammu:
1. Side of scapula-Out of sixty scapulae, thirty were of the right side and thirty were of the left side. (Fig-1).
2. Shape of the glenoid cavity-The glenoid cavity was observed to be of following shapes based on the presence of a notch on anterior glenoid rim:
a. Inverted comma shaped--The glenoid cavity has a distinct notch as shown in figure-2
b. Pear shaped or Tear drop shaped-The glenoid cavity was having an indistinct notch as shown in figure-3.
c. Ovoid or oval or Round shaped-The glenoid cavity had no notch as shown in figure-4.
d. The results were compared on the two sides (Right and left) in all the scapulae.
e. It was observed that in 38% the glenoid cavity was inverted comma shaped i.e. seen in 12 scapulae on the right side and 11 scapulae on the left side. Pear shaped glenoid cavity was seen in 42% of scapulae i. e. 13 on the right side and 12 on the left side. Ovoid shape of the glenoid cavity was seen in 20% of scapulae i.e. 5 on right side and 7 on the left side (Table-1) (Pie chart).
3. Morphometry of the glenoid fossa-Two diameters were taken:
a. Superior-Inferior glenoid diameter -Maximum Superior--Inferior length of the glenoid cavity was measured with the help of Vernier Calliper. Mean, Range and Standard Deviation of this diameter calculated (in cms) on right and left side. (Table-2) It was observed that Mean of the Superior-Inferior diameter was 3.49 cm on the Right side (Range 2.6 cm-4.3cm) and 3.30 cm on the Left side (Range 2.6cm-4) The Standard deviation on the Right side was 0.440 and on the Left side was 0.330.
b. Anterio-Posterior glenoid diameter-Maximum Anterio-Posterior length of the glenoid cavity was measured with the help of Vernier Calliper. Mean, Range and Standard Deviation of this diameter calculated (in cms) on right and left side. (Table-3). The Mean of the Antero-Posterior diameter of glenoid cavity was 2.31 cm on the Right side (Range 1.8 cm -3cm) and 2.06 cm on the Left side (Range 1.4cm-2.5cm) The Standard deviation on the Right side was 0. 310 and on the Left side was 0.300.
DISCUSSION: The present study has been undertaken on a series of 60 adult scapulae (R: L=30:30) obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Jammu. The shape of the glenoid cavity and its various morphometric parameters were taken and statistical indices worked out. The shape of the glenoid cavity was due to presence of a notch on the upper and anterior wall of glenoid cavity. This notch is consequently a common finding and not a rare anatomical variant. When the notch is present, the shape of the glenoid cavity can be described as pear shaped or inverted comma, when absent the cavity is round or oval shaped. Glenoid labrum in the area of the notch is not fixed to the bony margins of the glenoid cavity but bridges the notch itself. Such an attachment of the labrum could make the shoulder joint less resistant to the dislocating forces. Earlier Prescher. (4) had studied this parameter and classified shape of glenoid cavity into pear and round shaped as one with and without a distinct notch. Coskun et al. (5) classified the shapes of glenoid cavity as pear and round shape. Mamatha et al. (6) observed the presence of glenoid notch, i.e. both distinct and indistinct as 80% on right side and 76% on left side. Moreover, occurrence of oval on right side was 20% and left side was 24%. Results of present study are in accordance with those of Mamatha et al, (6) as in present study glenoid cavity was categorised as inverted comma, pear and round shaped (Table-4). The dimensions of the glenoid fossa provide important information for designing and fitting of glenoid component for shoulder arthroplasty. The mean superior-inferior diameter of scapula was found to be 3.40 [+ or -] 0.38cm, (Range=2.6-4.3), with mean of 3.49 [+ or -] 0.432cm (Range=2.6-4.3) on right side; and 3.30 [+ or -] 0.33 as mean (Range=2.6-4cm) on left side. (Table-5) Ozer et al, (7) measured the superior-inferior diameter of male and female glenoid cavities separately. The Mean and Standard Deviation of male glenoid was 3.87 [+ or -] 0.27cm while that of female glenoid was 3.37 [+ or -] 0.30cm respectively. Mamatha et al. (6) also measured the superior-inferior diameter. The results on right side varied from 2.5cm to 4.2cm with an average of 3.36cm and Standard Deviation of 0.28. On the left side the superior-inferior diameter varied from 2.6 to 4cm with a Mean and Standard Deviation of 3.39cm and 0.28cm respectively. Results of present study are similar to Cho et al. (8) and Mallon et al. (9)
The Mean antero-posterior glenoid diameter of scapula was found to be 2.19 [+ or -] 0.29 cm (Range=1.4-3cm) with Mean of 2.31 [+ or -] 0.3 cm (Range=1.8-3 cm) on right side; and 2.06 [+ or -] 0.295 cm as Mean (Range=1.4-2.5cm) on left side (Table-6). Earlier Von Schroeder et al. (10) Piyawinijwong et al. (11) Coskun et al. (5) and Burke, (12) also measured antero-posterior diameter of glenoid cavity of scapula. Results of present study are more in accordance with those of Coskun et al, (5) and results of other studies are slightly higher than the present study.
SUMMARY: Anatomical considerations of variations of glenoid cavity are crucial for understanding specific abnormalities of shoulder joint like glenohumeral instability, shoulder dislocation, rotator cuff injuries, Bankart, s lesion, osteochondral defects etc. The dimensions of the glenoid fossa provide important information for designing and fitting of glenoid component for shoulder arthroplasty. The present study was undertaken to furnish morphological and morphometric data providing an Anatomical baseline, during surgical and arthroscopic procedures on shoulder joint. After compilation of the morphometric parameters of the glenoid fossa of scapulae we were of the conclusion that all our values were slightly less than those of the work done by other authors.
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Sangeeta Gupta , Rachna Magotra , Manmeet Kour 
[1.] Sangeeta Gupta
[2.] Rachna Magotra
[3.] Manmeet Kour
PARTICULARS OF CONTRIBUTORS:
[1.] Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Jammu.
[2.] Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Jammu.
[3.] Assistant Surgeon, Department of Anatomy, J & K Health Services.
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None
NAME ADDRESS EMAIL ID OF THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Dr. Rachna Magotra, 242/7, Channi, Himmat-180015, Jammu.
Date of Submission: 13/05/2015. Date of Peer Review: 14/05/2015. Date of Acceptance: 27/05/2015. Date of Publishing: 02/06/2015.
Table 1: Shape of Glenoid Cavity Sl. No. Shape Right Left Percentage Glenoid Glenoid 1 Inverted Comma 12 11 38 2 Pear 13 12 42 3 Ovoid 5 7 20 Table 2: Statistical Measurement of Superior-Inferior Diameter of Glenoid Cavity (in cms.) Sl. No. Parameters Right Left Total Avg. 1 Mean 3.49 3.30 3.40 2 Range 2.6-4.3 2.6-4 2.6-4.3 3 Std. Dev. 0.440 0.330 0.385 Table - 3 Statistical Measurement of Anterio-posterior Diameter of Glenoid Cavity (in cms.) Sl. No. Parameters Right Left Total Avg. 1 Mean 2.31 2.06 2.19 2 Range 1.8-3 1.4-2.5 1.4-3 3 Std. Dev. 0.310 0.300 0.305 Table 4: Showing comparison of Shape of Glenoid Cavity Inverted Pear Ovoid/Round Comma/Distinct Notch Authors Right Left Right Left Right Left Prescher 55% 45% Coskun et al - 28% 72% Mamatha 34% 33% 46% 43% 20% 24% Present 40% 37% 43% 40% 17% 23% Table 5: Showing Comparison of Superior-Inferior Diameter of Glenoid Cavity Authors Race Mean(cm) Range(cm) SD Mallon et al 3.5 0.4 Von Schoreder et al Canadian 3.6 -- 0.4 Piyawinijwong et al Thai 3.36 2.7-4.3 -- Cho et al Korean 3.52 -- -- Burke -- 3.9 3.2-4.8 0.35 Coskum Turkish 3.36 -- 0.3 Present study North Indian 3.40 2.6-4.3 0.38 Table 6: Showing comparison of Antero- posterior diameter of Glenoid Cavity Authors Race Mean(cm) Range(cm) SD Von Schroeder et al Canadian 2.9 2.5-3.4 0.3 Coskum et al Turkish 2.4 -- 0.25 Piyawinijwong et al Thai 2.7 2.1-3.3 0.31 Burke -- 2.81 2.1-4.6 0.31 Present Study North Indian 2.19 1.4-3.0 0.29
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|Title Annotation:||ORIGINAL ARTICLE|
|Author:||Gupta, Sangeeta; Magotra, Rachna; Kour, Manmeet|
|Publication:||Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences|
|Date:||Jun 4, 2015|
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