Morphological characterization and analysis of genetic variability among pepper accessions/Caracterizacao morfologica e analise da variabilidade genetica entre acessos de pimenta.
The genus Capsicum includes the peppers and chilies, has a great nutritional and economic value, and is widely grown in the whole world (HILL et al., 2013). Brazil is a diversity center for the genus, housing domesticated, semi-domesticated and wild species (MOSCONE et al., 2007).
The species of the Capsicum genus have great variability in its main morphological characters, such as form, size, color and position of flowers and fruits. Pepper plants are preferably autogamous, diploid with 2n = 2x = 24 or 2n = 2x = 26 chromosomes and have pungency as a marking characteristic, which is attributed to the alkaloid substances, more specifically the capsaicinoids (MOSCONE et al., 2007).
Pepper fruits are present in the cuisine of most countries and the wide diversity of the genus results in multiple uses, as dry fruits for consumption in natura, or dried for the processing in powder or extracts (ALBRECHT et al., 2012). Growth of pepper is important both for profitability, mainly when the producer adds value to the product and for its social importance in high labor employment (REGO et al., 2011). Knowledge of the genetic diversity present among the accessions has great importance for the management and use of the germplasm in the genetic improvement of species. Variability presented by the individuals constitutes the genetic resources, whose characterization and evaluation are essential for plant breeding projects (SUDRE et al., 2005). According to NEITZKE et al. (2010) the increase of these activities must be a priority among the strategies of approach to and management of the genetic resources in Brazil.
For the peppers there is little availability of scientific information on its morphology and other characters that give quality to produce, evidencing the lack of improved varieties. Many species of the Capsicum genus, are still poorly worked, from genetic improvement point of view (RODRIGUES et al., 2012).
GONCALVES et al. (2008) decribed that the characterization can be morphological, phenotipical reproductive, biochemical, cytogenetic or molecular. In this context, studies with morphological markers make significant contributions to the understanding of the genetic diversity. There is a need to study the agrobiodiversity and best use of the genotype's potential, so this research had the objective of characterizing, by means of morphological descriptors, 30 accessions of the active germplasm bank of Capsicum of the Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Campus de Alegre.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fruits of pepper were collected in rural properties, markets and fairs located in the south regions of the Espirito Santo State, in the municipalities of Alegre, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim and Venda Nova do Imigrante, totaling 30 accessions. Seeds of the collected fruit were planted in 5L pots and later, after 90 days of plantation, the morphological characterization of the accessions was carried out. The plants were conducted under field conditions following the recommendations of FILGUEIRA (2008) for pepper culture.
Accessions were characterized by the following morpho-agronomical descriptors: form of fruits (FRF), plant height (PH), diameter of the cup (DC), fruit length (FRL), fruit diameter (FRD), number of seeds per fruit (NS), number of locules per fruit (NL), stem width (SW), leaf width (LW) and leaf length (LL).
For the morphological characterization, six repetitions of each accession were used; totaling 180 plants grown in the nursery of the Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Campus Alegre. The experimental design for the analysis of the variances of each character was completely randomized. For the comparison among the averages of the accessions the SCOTT-KNOTT (1974) grouping criteria at 1% probability was used.
In the multivariate analysis, the genetic divergence among the accessions was determined by the Tocher (RAO, 1952) method. The identification of the importance of the characters was done based on the Singh (SINGH, 1981) method.
The statistical-genetic analyses were carried out with the aid of the Genes program (CRUZ, 2008). Grouping of accessions was obtained by the Unweighted Paired Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A great phenotypic variability for the ten characters studied was evidenced. Taking into account the format standards (Table 1) and the morphological characteristics assessed (number of seeds, stem width, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of locules, height of the plant, diameter of the cup, width of the leaf and length of the leaf) it was observed that the pepper accessions present great variation. Measurements that presented significant differences among them were obtained in all the characters (Table 2), being these grouped by the Scott e Knott test (SCOTT & KNOTT, 1974) at a level of significance of 1% probability. Other studies on the variability and genetic parameters in Capsicum, using morphological markers are described in the literature (BENTO et al., 2007; FINGER et al., 2010; NEITZKE et al., 2010; REGO et al., 2011; DOMENICO et al., 2012; SILVA NETO et al., 2014).
Greater number of classes was observed for the plant height characteristic, totaling eight, followed by the diameter of the fruit character for which seven classes were reported (Table 2). The number of classes evidenced a good genetic variety for those characteristics. For the number of seeds, leaf diameter, and leaf length characters, a smaller number of classes were observed, only three for each characteristic. Studies carried out by SUDRE et al. (2005) confirmed that the characteristics with greater number of classes were: length and diameter of the fruit. Diverging results were obtained by NEITZKE et al. (2010) who described a greater number of classes for the length of the fruit character and smaller for plant height. SILVA NETO et al. (2014) confirmed that the characteristics that present greater variability were diameter of the stem and diameter of the cup with thirteen and eight groups respectively.
As for the variation coefficient (CV) a maximum value of 44,25 was obtained for the number of seeds character and a minimum value of 11,22 for diameter of the stem, being these considered rather satisfactory for the descriptors used. Results obtained in this for the CV were more favorable than those obtained in other studies with pepper (BENTO et al., 2007; NEITZKE et al., 2010; DOMENICO et al., 2012), which evidences a great genetic variability of the genotypes studied.
For the number of seeds (NS), the maximum and minimum of the averages were 51 seeds for the IFES 6 accession and six for the IFES 21 accession respectively, being the general average 25.02 (Table 2). REGO et al. (2011) obtained higher average values for the number of seeds per fruit, varying between 8 and 144 seeds; however, authors characterized accessions previously selected in higher numbers than those of this study totaling 69 which may explain said higher variation obtained.
The characteristic width of the stem (SW) had a maximum average of 0.76mm for the IFES 27 accession and a minimum of 0.36mm the IFES 11, with a general average of 0.62mm. SILVA NETO et al. (2014) observed similar values when characterizing C. annuum plants of ornamental potential of a [F.sub.2] generation. According to the same authors, thicker stems are of interest to the improvement since plants with very thin stems tend to bed and lose their commercial value.
With respect to the length of the fruit (FRL), an average of 2.34cm was obtained with a maximum value of 5.5cm for the IFES 13 accession and a minimum of 0.71 for the IFES 4 accession. JARRET & BERKE (2008) observed a variation of 0.8cm to 11.4cm. DOMENICO et al. (2012) reported values of 2.1cm to 7.7cm. For the diameter of the fruit (FRD) a greater variability was detected, having seven classes been identified, with a maximum average of 3.75cm for the IFES 8 accession, and minimum of 0.3cm for the IFES 21 and general average for the character of 1.60cm. FONSECA et al. (2008) obtained averages that vary between 0.7cm and 2.5cm, while, DOMENICO et al. (2012) observed a smaller variation of 1.1cm to 2.5cm for this characteristic.
With respect to the variable number of locules (NL) a general average of 2.72 was confirmed and as expected there was low variability for this character, the fruits had between two and four locules, obtaining a maximum average of four locules for the IFES 7, IFES 8 and IFES 10 accessions. Similarly, REGO et al. (2011) when characterizing 69 accessions of Capsicum reported a variation between two and four locules.
In the determination of the plant height (PH), it was observed that the maximum and minimum values were between 18.00cm and 88.50cm, with an average of 54.29cm. The IFES 23 accession presented the highest average and the IFES 11 accession the lowest. NEITZKE et al. (2010) obtained values similar to those observed in this research, varying between 15.03cm and 78.40cm in plant height. The diameter of the cup (DC) presented a general average of 64.84cm, with the lowest average for the IFES 11 accession (33.66cm) and the for the highest IFES 17 accession (92.33cm). In the management of germplasm banks, especially in the regeneration and multiplication of the accessions stages, this character aids in the choosing of more adequate spacing with respect to the diameter of the cup of each accession (BENTO et al., 2007).
For the foliar characteristics, width (LW) and length (LL), averages of 3.73cm and 6.45cm respectively were detected. The width varied between 2.23cm and 6.71cm and the length between 3.00cm and 10.26cm. The IFES 27 accession presented the greatest width and length, while the IFES 2 accession presented the lower averages for both plant characteristics. SILVA NETO et al. (2014) detected a variation of 1.36cm to 2.33 cm for the width of the leaf, and of 2.9cm to 5.27cm for the length of the leaf. In the classification of the fruits with respect to shape (FRF), the predominant shape was the Elongated (43,33%), in addition to the occurrence of other shapes of lower proportions, triangular (23.34%), round (16.66%), square (10.00%) and campanulate (6.67%). In agreement with the results obtained, JARRET & BERKE (2008), when evaluating the accessions of C. annuum also reported predominance of the Elongated shape.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Most distant genotypes are the IFES 11 and IFES 23 accessions, with a distance of 162.48, while the IFES 22 and IFES 26 accessions were considered the closest with a distance of 3.60. The grouping of the genotypes by means of the Tocher method resulted in the formation of eight groups (Figure 1). Group I holds eleven accessions, being that the largest group (characterized for having a high number of seeds, diameter of the stem and diameter of the cup). Group II, formed by one accession, IFES 2 (was differentiated for having a smaller foliar width and length). Group III was formed by two accessions (characterized by low caliber stems, average length and diameter of the fruit and average diameter of the cup). Group IV was represented by six accessions (lower number of seeds, low values for length and diameter of the fruit and two locules were observed). In this group were placed the accessions with ornamental characteristics, small fruit with different colors.
In group V two accessions were placed (that have small dark red fruit with leaves large in length as common characteristics). Group VI, composed by four accessions (largest fruit lengths and high average height of the pepper plants). Groups VII and VIII, composed of two accessions each, grouped the fruits of greater diameter in one and plants with lower average height in the other.
In this investigation it was not possible to confirm the correlation between genetic diversity, based on the study of morphological attributes, and place of origin of the accessions given that in the same group were arranged genotypes collected in rural properties and markets of different municipalities, Alegre, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim and Venda Nova do Imigrante, in the Espirito Santo state. In agreement with this study, other studies with different oleraceous plants also described not having correlation (GONCALVES et al., 2008; REGO et al., 2011; MOULIN et al., 2012).
The estimate of the relative contribution of each character in the expression of the genetic divergence, based on the Singh method (1981), indicated that the diameter of the fruit (20.19 %), followed by height of the plant (19.46%), cup diameter, (14.91%) and length of the fruit (14.57%) were the characters that most contributed to the total divergence (69.13%) among the 30 pepper accessions (Table 3).
Width and length of the leaf were the ones which least contributed, representing a percentage of 3.65% and 2.68% respectively. DOMENICO et al. (2012), working with nine accessions of C. chinense, verified that length of the fruit (24.2%) and productivity (23.8%) were the characters that most contributed to the genetic divergence. SILVA NETO et al. (2014), when characterizing a population of C. annuum, observed that diameter of the stem (68.97%) and diameter of the cup (9.22%) were the characteristics that contributed most.
The morpho-agronomic characterization was efficient in estimating the genetic diversity of accessions, evidencing great divergence and being this an important tool for improvement, providing the best knowledge and use of the accessions. All the accessions were considered different which allowed disregarding a hypothesis of duplicates.
Correlation between the genetic distance and the origin of accessions was not observed, which can be a reflection of the common practice of exchanging peppers among rural producer.
To Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa e Estudo na Area de Saude (FAPES), for the grant of aid and scholarship for the development of this research and to Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES) for the financial support destined to the article translation.
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Paola Alvares Bianchi (I) Iris Petronilia Dutra (I) Monique Moreira Moulin (I) * Jardel Oliveira Santos (II) Alexandre Cristiano Santos Junior (I)
(I) Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), 29500-000, Alegre, ES, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com. * Corresponding author.
(II) Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Chapadinha, MA, Brasil.
Received 06.08.15 Approved 09.22.15 Returned by the author 04.19.16 CR-2015-0825.R1
Table 1--List of 30 pepper accessions originating from the active germplasm bank of the Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Campus Alegre, including the place of origin and the fruit form. Number of Origin Form of the accession fruit IFES 01 Rural property in Alegre Elongated IFES 02 Rural property in Alegre Elongated IFES 03 Rural property in Alegre Elongated IFES 04 Rural property in Alegre Round IFES 05 Rural property in Alegre Square IFES 06 Rural property in Alegre Triangular IFES 07 Rural property in Alegre Elongated IFES 08 Rural property in Alegre Round IFES 09 Rural property in Alegre Elongated IFES 10 Rural property in Alegre Elongated IFES 11 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Triangular IFES 12 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Elongated IFES 13 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Elongated IFES 14 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Round IFES 15 Business establishment de Cachoeiro de Campanulate Itapemirim IFES 16 Business establishment in Cachoeiro de Triangular Itapemirim IFES 17 Business establishment in Cachoeiro de Triangular Itapemirim IFES 18 Business establishment in Cachoeiro de Elongated Itapemirim IFES 19 Business establishment in Cachoeiro de Elongated Itapemirim IFES 20 Business establishment in Alegre Triangular IFES 21 Business establishment in Alegre Round IFES 22 Business establishment in Venda Nova do Round Imigrante IFES 23 Business establishment in Venda Nova do Square Imigrante IFES 24 Business establishment in Venda Nova do Campanulate Imigrante IFES 25 Business establishment in Venda Nova do Elongated Imigrante IFES 26 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Elongated IFES 27 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Triangular IFES 28 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Triangular IFES 29 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Elongated IFES 30 Rural property in Venda Nova do Imigrante Square Table 2--Averages (1) of the 30 accessions of pepper with respect to nine morphological characters. Genotype NS (un) WS (mm) LFR (cm) DFR (cm) NL (un) IFES 1 15.5c 5.94b 2.15e 0.58g 2.00d IFES 2 20.5c 6.09b 1.96e 2.30c 3.66a IFES 3 21.1c 7.23a 1.31f 1.21e 2.00d IFES 4 18.33c 6.10b 0.71f 1.41e 3.33b IFES 5 28.16b 4.95c 2.48d 1.50e 2.16d IFES 6 51.00a 6.34b 2.63d 3.28b 3.50b IFES 7 23.33c 3.78d 1.91e 1.86e 4.00a IFES 8 48.00a 6.21b 2.95c 3.75a 4.00a IFES 9 19.00c 7.24a 1.88e 2.46c 3.50b IFES 10 12.50c 5.51b 3.80b 3.05b 4.00a IFES 11 12.16c 3.56d 1.15f 1.51e 2.33c IFES 12 28.00b 6.38b 2.25d 2.10d 3.16b IFES 13 31.83b 6.60b 5.50a 1.06f 2.16d IFES 14 11.33c 7.24a 1.78e 0.71g 2.00d IFES 15 16.33c 6.33b 1.83e 0.61g 2.00d IFES 16 42.66a 6.10b 3.73b 1.38e 2.83b IFES 17 20.83c 6.55b 4.06b 0.98f 2.00d IFES 18 12.00c 6.70a 1.63e 0.58g 2.00d IFES 19 22.50c 6.12b 1.70e 1.18e 2.33c IFES 20 19.83c 6.07b 1.86e 1.70e 2.00d IFES 21 6.00c 7.16a 1.00f 0.30g 2.00d IFES 22 27.83b 6.49b 2.51d 1.45e 2.16d IFES 23 32.5b 5.32c 3.80b 1.00f 2.66c IFES 24 20.16c 7.06a 1.06f 1.36e 3.00b IFES 25 11.16c 6.80a 1.75e 0.46g 2.16d IFES 26 31.5b 6.66b 1.91e 1.26e 2.66c IFES 27 45.33a 7.64a 2.70d 2.43c 3.00d IFES 28 28.50b 6.78a 2.03e 1.95d 2.50d IFES 29 41.00a 3.83d 2.65d 1.78e 3.16b IFES 30 31.66b 7.48a 3.56b 2.75c 3.33b Averages 25.02 6.21 2.34 1.60 2.72 CV % 44.25 11.22 25.55 25.32 15.13 Genotype HP (cm) DC (cm) WL (cm) LL (cm) IFES 1 35.00g 43.66e 3.95b 8.76a IFES 2 37.16g 83.00a 2.23c 3.71c IFES 3 44.00f 53.33d 3.71c 7.03b IFES 4 43.16f 53.33d 3.45c 3.00c IFES 5 60.83d 47.83d 2.55c 4.46c IFES 6 58.50d 71.83b 3.31c 5.53c IFES 7 24.00h 49.66d 2.81c 5.25c IFES 8 52.50e 44.83e 4.71b 8.83a IFES 9 50.16e 54.66d 4.76b 7.03b IFES 10 44.00f 53.16d 4.16b 7.30b IFES 11 18.00h 33.66e 3.21c 4.61c IFES 12 52.66e 67.00c 2.56c 4.18c IFES 13 68.50c 76.83b 3.15c 5.91c IFES 14 52.50e 65.00c 3.11c 5.36c IFES 15 49.50e 53.33d 2.48c 5.51c IFES 16 73.50c 91.5a 4.01b 6.75b IFES 17 70.33c 92.33a 3.05c 5.63c IFES 18 51.00e 43.66e 3.53c 7.78b IFES 19 56.83d 73.66b 2.85c 4.80c IFES 20 62.66d 65.83c 4.35b 4.98c IFES 21 57.50d 45.50e 3.60c 6.56b IFES 22 50.33e 76.66b 4.06b 6.65b IFES 23 88.50a 91.33a 3.90b 6.85b IFES 24 77.66b 88.50a 6.01a 9.48b IFES 25 79.00b 83.33a 4.40b 8.36a IFES 26 50.33e 71.16b 4.06b 6.83b IFES 27 57.16d 66.66c 6.71a 10.26a IFES 28 59.00d 85.50a 2.90c 4.65c IFES 29 43.16f 41.00e 4.18b 6.50b IFES 30 61.33d 77.66b 4.20b 7.90b Averages 54.29 64.84 3.73 6.45 CV % 12.37 13.75 35.52 32.38 (1) Averages followed by the same letter, in each column, belong to a same class, in accordance with the Scott-Knott test (P<0.01). NS = number of seeds; WS = width of the stem; LFR = length of the fruit; DFR = diameter of the fruit; NL = number of locules; HP= height of the plant; DC = diameter of the cup; WL= width of the leaf; LL= length of the leaf. Table 3--Relative contribution of the agronomic characters for the genetic divergence among the 30 pepper accessions by the method proposed b SINGH (1981). Character Value (%) Cummulative Value (%) Diameter of the fruit 20.19 20.19 Plant height 19.46 39.65 Diameter of the cup 14.91 54.56 Length of the fruit 14.57 69.13 Number of locules 10.82 79.95 Width of the stem 9.97 89.92 Number of seeds 3.75 93.67 Width of the leaf 3.65 97.32 Length of the leaf 2.68 100.00
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|Title Annotation:||produccion de cultivos; texto en ingles|
|Author:||Bianchi, Paola Alvares; Dutra, Iris Petronilia; Moulin, Monique Moreira; Santos, Jardel Oliveira; Sa|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2016|
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