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More Interesting Statistical Combinations.

In Baseball Research Journal 33 Fred Worth presented an intriguing article titled "Interesting Statistical Combinations," analyzing combinations like high batting average and low walks or lots of losses but a low ERA. He concluded the article, "Obviously there are many more comparisons that could be considered." I took this as a challenge and investigated a number of other statistical combinations I consider interesting. All data is taken from Sean Lahman's database (www. baseball1.com) and includes results from the 2004 season.

The Walking Men

Inspired by Barry Bond's historic 2004 season, we'll look at the individual seasons for which a player had more walks than hits (minimum 100 at-bats). The top of the list ordered by maximum difference of (walks minus hits) looks like this:
Player           Year   AB    BB     H    BB-H   Age

Barry Bonds      2004   373   232   135     97    40
Barry Bonds      2002   403   198   149     49    38
Jack Crooks      1892   445   136    95     41    27
Jimmy Wynn       1976   449   127    93     34    34
Roy Cullenbine   1947   464   137   104     33    34
Eddie Yost       1956   515   151   119     32    30
Yank Robinson    1890   306   101    70     31    31
Ferris Fain      1955   258    94    67     27    34
Wes Westrum      1951   361   104    79     25    29
Yank Robinson    1889   452   118    94     24    30
Gene Tenace      1977   437   125   102     23    31
Denis Menke      1973   241    69    46     23    33
Jack Clark       1989   455   132   110     22    34
Gene Tenace      1980   316    92    70     22    34
Willie McGi11    1891   107    37    16     21    18
Barry Bonds      2001   476   177   156     21    37


As expected, the list is headed by Barry Bonds, circa 2004. He had almost 100 more walks than hits, by far the highest margin in history. Next up is also Bonds with his impressive 2002 season, which at that point broke the MLB record for walks in a season. Of course, we're looking here at results only, not discussing whether they were achieved in a natural way or not. The above list shows all seasons with a (walks/hits) differential of 20 or more. There are four pre-1900 seasons in there as well as three third-millenium entries, all by Bonds. Note the absence of any entries for almost the entire first half of the 20th century. Roy Cullenbine's 1947 season is the first in the 20th century. Also quite as expected is that most players on the list are veterans, the majority being in their thirties while gaining entry. The obvious exception is Willie McGill in 1891 at just 18 years old, his second year in the league. He is the only pitcher on the list

Looking at totals, the following number of seasons is listed in which a player accumulated a positive differential (BBH), showing all players who achieved the feat at least twice: first season indicates the first season of more walks than hits for the player, not his debut season in the majors. We see two players with an impressive six seasons of more walks than hits, followed by five players with four seasons each, including modern sluggers Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, and Jack Clark. Of course, Barry Bonds may climb up the ladder before his career is finished. Noteworthy is the relative absence of pre-1900 players on this list with only three entries, although this includes Yank Robinson with four seasons. Half of the players (14 out of 28) had their first (BB>H) season after 1960.

Primary Targets

After looking at players with exceptionally high walk totals, let's now look at another kind of feat involving walks: having been hit by pitches more than having walked in a season. What follows is a table of player seasons (100 at-bats minimum) achieving this with a differential of at least three: The list is dominated by players of the 1800s and the early years of the 20th century, led by Hughie Jennings in 1896 with a mind-blowing differential of 32 more HBP than walks. Of course, most seasons are ones with very low walk totals for the player in question. An exception is Hughie Jennings' 1897 season with 42 walks but even more hit-by-pitches. Jennings makes the list three times. These guys sure had a painful way of making up for their meager walk totals!

Hit Spectrum Inversions

Typically, the number of the different types of hits a player has in a season goes in the sequence singles-doubles-home runs-triples in descending order of frequency. Let's call this the "hit spectrum." Of course, as is often the case for one-dimensional sluggers, the order of doubles and home runs may be inversed. Here, we'll look at player seasons for which the order mentioned above doesn't hold. We start with players having more home runs than singles in a season (50 at-bats minimum):
Player            Year   AB     H    1B   HR   HR-1B

Barry Bonds       2001   476   156   49   73      24
Mark McGwire      1998   509   152   61   70       9
Mark McGwire      1999   521   145   58   65       7
Mark McGwire      2001   299    56   23   29       6
Mark McGwire      1995   317    87   35   39       4
Milt Pappas       1962    69     6    1    4       3
J.R. Phillips     1996   104    17    5    7       2
Ben Wade          1952    60     7    1    3       2
Roric Harrison    1973    54     3    0    2       2
Rob Deer          1996    50     9    2    4       2
Richie Sexson     2004    90    21    8    9       1
Greg Pirkl        1994    53    14    5    6       1
Dick Williams     1964    69    11    4    5       1
Shane Spencer     1998    67    25    9   10       1
Jack Harshman     1956    71    12    5    6       1
Bobby Estalella   2002   112    23    7    8       1
Don Drysdale      1958    66    15    6    7       1
Neil Chrisley     1959   106    14    5    6       1


Once again, we have Barry Bonds heading the list. In 2001, on his way to breaking the single-season home run record, almost 47% of his hits were home runs while only 31% were singles. The differential (HR1B) of 24 is by far the biggest in history. Next up is Mark McGwire with four (!) seasons of his own with a differential of between four and nine. Obviously, all seasons are post-1950 with a predominance of the 1990s/2000s era. This indicates an increasing trend of all or nothing swings at the plate, at least for sluggers like McGwire. But even then, hitting more home runs than singles is very hard to achieve over a full season. Bonds and McGwire are the only ones who did it in what amounts to the equivalent of at least half a season. Some list entries with low at-bat totals are pitcher seasons like Don Drysdale's 1958 and Milt Pappas' 1962 campaigns.

Another example of an anomalous hit spectrum is players who hit more triples than doubles. This happened about 750 times in MLB history (100 at-bats minimum). Following is a table of all player seasons with a differential (triples/doubles) of at least seven:
Player            Year   AB     H    2B   3B   3B-2B   SB

Harry Davis       1897   429   131   10   28      18   21
Chief Wilson      1912   583   175   19   36      17   16
Duff Cooley       1895   563   191    9   20      11   27
Bill Kuehne       1885   411    93    9   19      10    0
Hughie Jennings   1899   224    67    3   12       9   18
Heinie Reitz      1894   446   135   22   31       9   18
Deion Sanders     1992   303    92    6   14       8   26
Edd Roush         1916   341    91    7   15       8   19
Tommy Leach       1902   514   143   14   22       8   25
Dale Mitchell     1949   640   203   16   23       7   10
Jake Daubert      1922   610   205   15   22       7   14
Les Mann          1915   470   144   12   19       7   18
8raggo Roth       1915   384   103   10   17       7   26
Joe Cassidy       1904   581   140   12   19       7   17
Dave Brain        1903   464   107    8   15       7   21
Perry Werden      1893   500   138   22   29       7   11
Scott Stratton    1892   219    56    2    9       7    9
Joe Visner        1890   521   139   15   22       7   18
Dick Johnston     1887   507   131   13   20       7   52
John Kerins       1885   456   111    9   16       7    0


The list is dominated by seasons from the early stages of professional ball up to and including the Deadball Era. Deion Sanders' 1992 season is the only one in the last half-century. Noticeable is the rather high number of at-bats, i.e., these players achieved the feat of tripling more often than doubling typically in a full season's worth of plate appearances. I suspect a number of reasons being responsible for the predominance of the Deadball Era on this list, including bigger parks, worse field conditions than today, smaller fielder's gloves, and various others. Possibly one would expect players with more triples than doubles to be very fast and therefore to also steal a lot of bases, too. However, as the number of stolen bases is also displayed in the table, this seems not to be the case. SB totals are moderate for most player seasons, Dick Johnston's 1887 campaign with 52 SB being the exception. The two entries with zero stolen bases (Kuehne and Kerins) are due to the fact that no stolen base records were kept for the league at that time.

Looking at total seasons with more triples than doubles for each player (not shown as a table), we have Sam Crawford and Tommy Leach with five seasons each and Bill Kuehne, George Van Haltren, Silver King, John Hummel, and Adonis Terry with four each as well as 16 players with three each. Therefore, hitting more triples than doubles in a season is not a total fluke but, at least to some extent, a persistent skill of a few dozen players, mainly from the 19th century.

So far, we've looked at a reverse differential of hit types two positions apart in the hit spectrum 1B-2B-HR-3B, i.e., more home runs than singles (positions 3 and 1) and more triples than doubles (positions 4 and 2). Of course, reverse differentials for adjacent positions, e.g., more home runs than doubles, are typically more common than for greater positional differences. So what has yet to be considered is the only possible reverse differential of three positions, i.e., hitting more triples than singles. This never happened in 100+ at-bats, but it happened once in MLB history in 50+ at-bats. In 1991, pitcher Charlie Leibrand posted this line:
Year   AB   H   1B   3B   3B-1B

1991   70   3    0    1     1


Of course, this is just a fluctuation because of the extremely small numbers involved (no singles, one triple). So basically hitting more triples than singles in any meaningful number of at-bats has never happened so far. If we lower our minimum requirement for at-bats even more (to 25 AB minimum), we have two players who hit at least two more triples than singles in a season. Obviously, these small numbers of at-bats render the accomplishments statistically completely meaningless; there's no persistent capability involved.
               Year    AB     H      1B     3B    3B-1B

Ron Fairly     1960    37     4      0      3       3
Mike O'Neill   1907    29     2      0      2       2


Before leaving the topic of hit spectrums, we will look at totals for relationships between the different types of hits. In the analyzed data set, there are 32,661 player seasons with at least 100 at-bats. The following table shows for the six possible combinations of hit types (single vs. double, single vs. triple, double vs. home run...) and the three possible relationships (hit type i greater than hit type 2, ... smaller than ..., ... equal to ...) the counts and percentages of the total 32,661 seasons (see Table X1).

Table [X1] tells us, in addition to the eight seasons of more home runs than doubles and the fact that a season with more triples than singles never happened, several interesting facts. First of all, a reverse differential between positions 1 and 2 in the hit spectrum (singles vs. doubles) is very rare; it happened only four times in history. Another four times the totals for the two types of hits matched exactly:
Table X2. Needs title

Player            Year    AB     H      18     2B    2B-1B

John Kroner       1938   117     29     12     16      4
Adam Piatt        2003   132     30     11     13      2
Bobby Estalella   2002   112     23      7      8      1
Bill Duggleby     1905   101     11      4      5      1
J.R. Phillips     1996   104     17      5      5      0
Brian Hunter      1998   112     23      9      9      0
Lefty Grove       1933   105      9      4      4      0
Joe Bush          1925   102     26     12     12      0


Besides four seasons from the last ten years we have another four seasons from the first half of the 20th century. All seasons have relatively low at-bats totals, just making the cut of too at-bats. The results shown above regarding the counts/ fractions of the hit spectrum relationships also indicate that the sequence triples/home runs is quite often reversed: more than one in three seasons is finished with more triples than home runs. However, this number drops to 22% if we consider only seasons after 1920, i.e., in the Lively ball era.

And now to something completely different.

Masters of the Three True Outcomes

The Three True Outcomes (TTO) as usual are defined as the three results from a batter's plate appearance which are (almost) solely in the responsibility of the pitcher: the walk, strikeout, and home run. Sometimes players whose plate appearances often result in one of the TTO are referred to as Three True Outcome Players, e.g., second baseman Mark Bellhorn in Boston's 2004 championship season. These types of players are considered valuable in a performance analysis, sabermetrics point of view, e.g., the Moneyball approach. Traditional scouting and evaluation often rate these players rather lower because of typically high strikeout totals. Table 3 shows the top TTO percentages in history (100 at-bats minimum). Column TTO is the sum of columns BB, SO, and HR. TTO percentage is TTO divided by the sum of at-bats plus walks (ignoring HBP, sac flies, and sac hits).

The list is headed by a few players with over 60% of their plate appearances resulting in one of the three true outcomes, Up front is a pitcher, Vida Blue, without a home run. He's solely on the list because of his impressive strikeout total (63 in 102 at-bats). The players on this list with a number of plate appearances equivalent to at least half a season are Mark McGwire in 1998, 2000 and 2001, Jack Clark in 1987, and Dave Nicholson in 1964. Again, almost all seasons in the table are from the second half of the last century. When these guys are at bat, there's not much to do for the fielders most of the time! Of course, we're not so much interested in players who are on the list solely because of their high strikeout totals, like Vida Blue in 1971 or Dave McNally in 197o, but in players who also achieve significant totals in the other legs of TTO, walks and especially home runs. Table 4 gives the top TTO percentages for player seasons with at least 20 home runs.

Here we have the usual suspects: modern sluggers like Bonds, McCwire, and Jim Thome as well as strikeout kings like Rob Deer. Mark McCwire has six seasons of at least a 50% TTO percentage.

The other end of the Three True Outcome spectrum are players who rarely walk or strike out and have little power. For these, the opposite defenders are involved in most of their at-bats. As expected, this was most often the case in the 19th century. In the list of lowest TTO percentages in history over at least 100 at-bats, the first modern entry (post 1900) is at position 166, Doc Powers in 1905. Restricting ourselves to the post-1900 era, Table 5 contains the top of the list.

Please note the extremely low TTO percentages here. These are guys that had absolutely no power, very rarely walked, and almost never struck out. When they were at bat, a good defense behind him was surely the pitcher's best friend (besides the double play). But even in the last few decades, there have been players with very low TTO percentages, as Table 6 shows, which has only seasons after 1970.

Three True Outcome Pitchers

So far we've looked at the Three True Outcomes for batters. But of course, this is also an interesting statistic to analyze for pitchers. I include hit-by-pitch as one of the true outcomes for pitchers because it's also solely in the control of the pitchers (never mind that now we should correctly call it four true outcomes). We define pitchers' TTO as:

(BB+HBP+SO+HR)/(BB+HBP+HR+Outs)

Outs is innings pitched times three. Table 7 is a list of highest TTO percentages for pitchers with at least 50 innings pitched in a season.

This list, which shows all TTO percentages above .570, exclusively comprises modern relief pitchers, especially closers. There are only two entries more than 10 years old, Bryan Harvey in 1989 and Rob Dibble in 1992, and even those are not really from ancient baseball times. Note that for the top TTO guys, more than 60% of their batters faced result in one of the Three True Outcomes, including the hit-by-pitch. If we elevate our minimum requirement for innings pitched to 150, eliminating modern relievers, we arrive at the list of top TTO percentages for starting pitchers. Now, this should be called the Randy Johnson memorial list; the Big Unit has eight of the top 13 TTO percentages in history among starting pitchers. Kerry Wood makes the list three times, including the top spot in 1998, his rookie year. Johnson also has the highest total on the list for one of the Three True Outcomes in 2001 with 372 strikeouts (one of the highest SO totals in history), 85 walks, 11 hit-by-pitches and 14 home runs for a sum of 480. However, even these numbers pale in comparism to Nolan Ryan's 1974 season with 367 SO, 202 BB, 9 HBP, and 18 HR for a total of 596. Ryan also has totals of 570 and 566 in 1973 and 1977, respectively. Pitchers with a high TTO percentage don't depend heavily on the defenses behind them because the defense often isn't involved in the result from a batter's plate appearance. On the other end of the spectrum there are pitchers with very low TTO percentages who rely heavily on their defenses. In the post-1900 era, the table on the next page shows the lowest TTO percentages with at least 50 innings pitched:
Player             Year     IP     H      BB    HBP

Kerry Wood         1998   166.2   117      85    11
Randy Johnson      2001   249.2   181      71    18
Randy Johnson      1997   213.0   147      77    10
Randy Johnson      2000   248.2   202      76     6
Bobby Witt         1986   157.2   130     143     3
Pedro Martinez     1999   213.1   160      37     9
Kerry Wood         2003   211.0   152     100    21
Randy Johnson      1998   244.1   203      86    14
Kerry Wood         2001   174.1   127      92    10
Randy Johnson      1991   201.1   151     152    12
Randy Johnson      1995   214.1   159      65     6
Randy Johnson      1992   210.1   154     144    18
Randy Johnson      1999   271.2   207      70     9
Slim Sallee        1919   227.2   221      20     1
Eppa Rixey         1933    94.1   118      12     0
Bob Harmon         1918    82.1    76      12     0
Slim Sallee        1920   133.0   145      16     2
Benny Frey         1933   132.0   144      21     0
Nick Altrock       1908   136.0   127      18     2
Eppa Rixey         1932   111.2   108      16     4
Red Lucas          1933   219.2   248      18     2
Arnie Stone        1924    64.0    57      15     0
Huck Betts         1932   221.2   229      35     0

Player              s0      HR    TTO   TTO%

Kerry Wood          233      14   343   0.562
Randy Johnson       372      19   480   0.560
Randy Johnson       291      20   398   0.534
Randy Johnson       347      23   452   0.531
Bobby Witt          174      18   338   0.531
Pedro Martinez      313       9   368   0.529
Kerry Wood          266      24   411   0.528
Randy Johnson       329      23   452   0.528
Kerry Wood          217      16   335   0.523
Randy Johnson       228      15   407   0.520
Randy Johnson       294      12   377   0.519
Randy Johnson       241      13   416   0.516
Randy Johnson       364      30   473   0.512
Slim Sallee          24       4    49   0.069
Eppa Rixey           10       1    23   0.078
Bob Harmon            7       3    22   0.084
Slim Sallee          15       4    37   0.088
Benny Frey           12       4    37   0.088
Nick Altrock         21       2    43   0.100
Eppa Rixey           14       3    37   0.103
Red Lucas            40      13    73   0.105
Arnie Stone           7       0    22   0.106
Huck Betts           32       9    76   0.107


All entries are from the first 35 years of the 20th century. We see several pitchers whose batters' plate appearances result in one of the Three True Outcomes in less than lo% of the cases, i.e., the defense is involved in more than 9o% of the plate appearances. This obviously puts a huge emphasis on the fielders' capabilities. In addition, following Voros McCracken's insight that pitchers have little or no control over batting average on balls in play, one may conclude that any success these types of pitchers have is largely thanks to the fielders behind them. From the data presented above it seems that Three True Outcomes percentages have risen throughout MLB history. To analyze this in some detail, Table 8 shows the average TTO percentage for pitchers weighted with innings pitched and broken down per decade.

This table tells us several interesting facts. First of all, average TTO percentages started out very low in the 1870s but quickly rose to a level of about 21.23% and stayed there for over 50 years. In the middle of the 20th century they started to rise again and established a new level of about 30% for the 1960s through 1980. From the 1990s on, we have another hike up to about 35%, which still holds on. Reasons for this may probably be found in the increasing trend of almost all players swinging for the fences today, leading to higher strike out totals as well as an increased importance of walks as a tactical weapon for batters as taught by several teams today (as part of the often falsely abbreviated Moneyball approach). Please note that innings-pitched totals per decade reflect the expansions (starting in 1961) as well as the brief existence of the Federal League in the 1910s.

PETER UELKES got a Ph.D. in particle physics from the University of Technology at Aachen, Germany. He is currently working as a senior project manager for the Vodafone group. A SABR member since 2001, this is his second publication in the BRJ.
                   # seasons   First Season

Max Bishop             6           1926
Gene Tenace            6           1974
Jack Clark             4           1987
Yank Robinson          4           1888
Barry Bonds            4           2001
Mark McGwire           4           1994
Eddie Yost             4           1955
Eddie Lake             3           1943
Mickey Tettleton       3           1990
Eddie Joost            3           1947
Don Mincher            3           1961
Jimmy Wynn             3           1969
Frank Fernandez        2           1968
Red Faber              2           1920
Ken Phelps             2           1986
Lee Mazzilli           2           1986
Jim French             2           1969
Marty Hopkins          2           1934
Aaron Robinson         2           1950
Merv Shea              2           1935
Mickey Mantle          2           1962
Jack Crooks            2           1892
Oscar Gamble           2           1984
Eddie Stanky           2           1945
Wes Westrum            2           1951
Charlie Bennett        2           1890
Roy Cullenbine         2           1940
Willie McCovey         2           1973

Player              Year   AB    BB   HBP   HBP-BE

Hughie Jennings     1896   521   19    51       32
Boileryard Clarke   1898   285    4    15       11
John Reilly         1884   448    5    14        9
Jay Faatz           1888   470   12    21        9
Art Fletcher        1915   562    6    14        8
Whitey Alperman     1906   441    6    14        8
Hughie Jennings     1895   529   24    32        8
Dan McGann          1901   423   16    23        7
Sal Fasano          1998   216   10    16        6
John Warner         1901   291    3     8        5
Felix Escalona      2002   157    3     7        4
Whitey Alperman     1909   420    2     6        4
Hughie Jennings     1897   439   42    46        4
Finners Quinlan     1915   114    4     8        4
Jay Faatz           1884   112    1     4        3
Shawon Dunston      1999   243    2     5        3
Jack O'Neill        1905   172    8    11        3
Ollie O'Mara        1918   450    7    10        3
Mike Kinkade        2003   162   13    16        3
Vance Wilson        2002   163    5     8        3
Deacon Phillippe    1900   105    1     4        3
Barney Pelty        1904   118    0     3        3

Table 1. Counts and Percentages
                                   Relationship
Hit 1   Hit 2         >                =                <

1B       2B     32653    99.98%      4    0.01%       4    0.01%
1B       3B     32661   100.00%      0    0.00%       0    0.00%
1B       HR     32652    99.97%      1    0.00%       8    0.02%
2B       3B     31251    95.68%    659    0.00%     751    2.30%
2B       HR     28722    87.94%    926    2.84%    3013    9.23%
3B       HR     12033    36.84%   3569   10.93%   17059   52.23%

Table 3. All-time Top TTO Percentages (min. 100 AB)

Player           Year   AB    BB    SO    HR    TTO   TTO perc

Vida Blue        1971   102     4    63     0    67      0.632
Dave Nicholson   1960   113    20    55     5    80      0.602
J.R. Phillips    1996   104    11    51     7    69      0.600
Mark McGwire     2000   236    76    78    32   186      0.596
Mark McGwire     1998   509   162   155    70   387      0.577
Dave McNally     1970   105    15    53     1    69      0.575
Mark McGwire     2001   299    56   118    29   203      0.572
Billy Ashley     1996   110    21    44     9    74      0.565
Dave Duncan      1967   101     4    50     5    59      0.562
Dave Nicholson   1962   173    27    76     9   112      0.560
Jack Clark       1987   419   136   139    35   310      0.559
Bob Purkey       1962   107     4    56     2    62      0.559
Russ Branyan     2004   158    20    68    11    99      0.556
Dave Nicholson   1964   294    52   126    13   191      0.552
Earl Moseley     1914   109     7    57     0    64      0.552
Rob Deer         1985   162    23    71     8   102      0.551

Table 4. Top TTO Percentages for Player
Seasons with at least 20 Home Runs

Player             Year     AB    BB      SO    HR    TTO   TTO%

Mark McGwire       2000     236    76      78    32   186   0.596
Mark McGwire       1998     509   162     155    70   387   0.577
Mark McGwire       2001     299    56     118    29   203   0.572
Jack Clark         1987     419   136     139    35   310   0.559
Melvin Nieves      1997     359    39     157    20   216   0.543
Jim Thome          2001     526   111     185    49   345   0.542
Dave Kingman       1973     305    41     122    24   187   0.540
Russ Branyan       2001     315    38     132    20   190   0.538
Rob Deer           1991     448    89     175    25   289   0.538
Rob Deer           1987     474    86     186    28   300   0.536
Jim Thome          1999     494   127     171    33   331   0.533
Ray Lankford       2000     392    70     148    26   244   0.528
Rob Deer           1986     466    72     179    33   284   0.528
Russ Branyan       2002     378    51     151    24   226   0.527
Barry Bonds        2004     373   232      41    45   318   0.526
Barry Bonds        2001     476   177      93    73   343   0.525
Jim Thome          2002     480   122     139    52   313   0.520
Mark McGwire       1996     423   116     112    52   280   0.519
Mark McGwire       1999     521   133     141    65   339   0.518
Fred McGriff       1987     295    60     104    20   184   0.518
Adam Dunn          2004     568   108     195    46   349   0.516
Jack Clark         1989     455   132     145    26   303   0.516
Dave Nicholson     1963     449    63     175    22   260   0.508
Jay Buhner         1997     540   119     175    40   334   0.507
Mark McGwire       1995     317    88      77    39   204   0.504
Jimmy Wynn         1969     495   148     142    33   323   0.502
Jack Clark         1990     334   104      91    25   220   0.502

Table 5. Lowest TTO Percentages, Post-1900

Player             Year    AB     H    BB   SO   HR   TTO    TTO%

Doc Powers         1905   154    24     4    0    0     4   0.025
Sport McAllister   1902   240    49     6    0    1     7   0.028
Fmil Verban        1949   343    99     8    2    0    10   0.028
Tommy Thevenow     1933   253    79     3    5    0     8   0.031
Woody Jensen       1938   125    25     1    3    0     4   0.032
Johnny Sain        1948   115    25     1    3    0     4   0.034
Johnny Sain        1947   107    37     3    1    0     4   0.036
Stuffy McInnis     1924   581   169    15    6    1    22   0.037
Stuffy McInnis     1922   537   164    15    5    1    21   0.038
Walter Schmidt     1922   152    50     1    5    0     6   0.039

Table X6. Lowest TTO Percentages, Post-1970

Player             Year     AB     H    BB   SO   HR   TTO    TTO%

Felix Fermin       1995     200    39    6    6    0    12   0.058
Bob Bailor         1984     131    36    8    1    0     9   0.065
Bob Bailor         1985     118    29    3    5    0     8   0.066
Larry Milbourne    1978     234    53    9    6    2    17   0.070
Jesus Alou         1974     220    59    5    9    2    16   0.071
Jeff Torborg       1971     123    25    3    6    0     9   0.071
Jesus Alou         1971     433   121   13   17    2    32   0.072
Lenny Harris       1999     187    58    6    7    1    14   0.073
Mario Guerrero     1976     268    76    7   12    1    20   0.073
Tim Foli           1983     330    83    5   18    2    25   0.075

Table 7. Top TTO Percentages for Pitchers (min. 50 IP/Season)

Player             Year     IP     H      BB    HBP

ByungHyun Kim      2000    70.2    52      46     9
Armando Benitez    1999    78.0    40      41     0
John Rocker        2000    53.0    42      48     2
Brad Lidge         2004    94.2    57      30     6
Matt Mantei        1999    65.1    44      44     5
Billy Wagner       1997    66.1    49      30     3
Billy Wagner       1998    60.0    46      25     0
Billy Wagner       1999    74.2    35      23     1
Eric Gagne         2003    82.1    37      20     3
Rob Dibble         1992    70.1    48      31     2
Bryan Harvey       1989    55.0    36      41     0
Armando Benitez    1997    73.1    49      43     1

Player              SO      HR    TTO   TTO%

ByungHyun Kim       111       9   175   0.634
Armando Benitez     128       4   173   0.620
John Rocker          77       5   132   0.617
Brad Lidge          157       8   201   0.613
Matt Mantei          99       5   153   0.612
Billy Wagner        106       5   144   0.608
Billy Wagner         97       6   128   0.607
Billy Wagner        124       5   153   0.605
Eric Gagne          137       2   162   0.596
Rob Dibble          110       3   146   0.591
Bryan Harvey         78       6   125   0.590
Armando Benitez     106       7   157   0.579

Table 8. Average TTO Percentage for
Pitchers by Decade, Weighted with IP

Decade        Total IP       TTO%

1876-1880     22,352.0      0.1209
1881-1890    168,591.2      0.2139
1891-1900    139,357.0      0.2041
1901-1910    202,594.2      0.2210
1911-1920    223,708.0      0.2280
1921-1930    207,473.0      0.2116
1931-1940    206,552.2      0.2354
1941-1950    206,353.0      0.2494
1951-1960    205,979.1      0.2850
1961-1970    279,079.2      0.3176
1971-1980    334,712.1      0.2937
1981-1990    331,941.1      0.3089
1991-2000    343,098.0      0.3438
2001-2004    148,752.0      0.3522
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Author:Uelkes, Peter
Publication:The Baseball Research Journal
Article Type:Essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:5149
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