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Monumentality and the materialization of ideology in Central Eastern Polynesia.


In ranked societies ideology is used strategically by elites to institutionalize social hierarchies and political status. We investigate how the materialization of religion served to promote elite power in the late prehistoric Society Islands. Field explorations focused on the largest aggregate marae (temple) complex in the 'Opunohu Valley, ScMo-124-125 and included detailed architectural mapping and excavations at nineteen structures, with a total of 230 [m.sup.2] excavated. Multiple lines of data indicate that the complex had a ritual rather than a domestic function. Temples and the large terraces fronting them were remarkably clean, likely the result of seasonal rejuvenation rituals carried out to maintain ritual spaces. The only house site with evidence for cooking activities and permanent habitation is interpreted as a likely priest's house. The suite of 39 radiocarbon and U-series coral dates demonstrates four phases of site development. The chronology of the 124/125 complex strongly supports the hypothesis that materialization of religious rituals and ideology was rapidly elaborated in the Society Islands as elites vied for political control in late prehistory. Isolated and formalized concentrations of ceremonial sites such as 124/125 served not only as elite centers, but created avenues for the development of social difference by promoting a dominant ideology.

Keywords: marae, Society Islands, evolution of social complexity, ideology, ritual landscapes


In ranked societies, sources of sacred and secular power contribute to the political power of ruling elites. While control over the economy can stabilize and restrict long term access to other media of power (Earle 1997), ideology allows for these patterns of control to be constructed and legitimized (Svenson 2008). Ideology is used strategically through materialization in the form of monuments, ceremonial rituals, and symbols. In these public spaces, ideology becomes a critical source of social power that can be owned and utilized to support and institutionalize social hierarchies and political status (Demarrais et al. 1996).

The choice of particular power strategies by ruling elites has significant impacts on social evolution. Here, we investigate how the materialization of religion served to promote elite power and hegemony in the late prehistoric Society Islands (Central Eastern Polynesia). The Ma'ohi of the Society Islands were among the most complex and highly stratified of the Polynesian chiefdoms (Goldman 1970; Kirch 1984; Sahlins 1958). Ma'ohi chiefly lineages competed in ritual ceremonies, building large temples associated with tribute, rituals, and feasting, to demonstrate their social power. We hypothesize that through time these processes intensified as a source of political power. Our holistic analysis of a Ma'ohi monumental ritual complex, integrating data from surface architecture, construction sequences, and activities tests this hypothesis with an examination of the material context of ritual symbolism (Fogelin 2007, 2008). We examine the implications of our findings for the evolution of Ma'ohi chiefdoms, and for the materialization of ideology within complex societies in general.

Since 2000 we have carried out a research program in the 'Opunohu Valley of Mo'orea, second largest island in the Society Islands (Kahn 2005, 2006, 2007; Kahn and Kirch 2004). At initial contact with Europeans in the late 18th century, Mo'orea (133 k[m.sup.2] in area) supported a dense population (Hamilton and Kahn 2007). The island's chiefly elite challenged those of nearby Tahiti for hegemony over the windward part of the archipelago. Large coastal temples on Mo'orea with megalithic cut stone architecture rivaled similar elite ceremonial architecture on Tahiti, suggestive of the role that ideology and ritual played in the power strategies of the chiefly elite (Emory 1933; Sharp et al. 2010). Ethnohistoric sources (Adams 1976 [1901]; Henry 1928) describe the complex mix of alliances and warfare that linked Mo'orea and Tahiti in the protohistoric period.

Our research program focuses on the 'Opunohu Valley dominating the interior of Mo'orea, and offering the largest expanse of arable land (Fig. 1). The valley's archaeological landscape includes more than 550 agricultural, residential, and ritual features (Green 1961; Green and Descantes 1989; Kahn and Kirch, unpublished data). The 'Opunohu Valley was divided into two main sociopolitical sectors, Amehiti in the north-west and Tupauruuru in the south-east, the latter having more residential and ceremonial sites. Tupauruuru is believed to have been the seat of the war chief Mahine, whom Captain James Cook regarded as the principal chief of Mo'orea (Beaglehole 1967: 226; Oliver 1974: 1204-1205).

Distributed throughout the 'Opunohu Valley are stone structures called marae, the temples or cult centres of the Ma'ohi ritual system (Emory 1933; Kahn 2011; Wallin 1993). The essential elements of a marae are a formal court (a pavement, platform, or walled enclosure), upright slabs or stones representing deities or ancestors, and in many cases, an elevated altar platform (ahu) at one end of the court. Marae are sometimes clustered together in groups, along with associated structures including residential platforms, terraces, council platforms, and shrines; we call such collective groupings aggregate site complexes (Kahn 2011). Marae varied in size and complexity depending upon the rank and power of the associated chiefs and priests who built and officiated at them. Chiefs gained their power through links with important named marae, which carried with them the rights to use certain hereditary titles.




The most extensive aggregate marae complex (ScMo124 and -125) in the 'Opunohu Valley lies high in the Tupauruuru sector, literally in the shadow of the 1207-metre high peak of Tohive'a (Fig. 2). We carried out archaeological investigations at the 124/125 complex over three months in 2008. The entire -124 cluster was mapped with plane table and alidade at 1:500, and individual marae were separately mapped at 1:100 to capture architectural details (Fig. 3). Excavations were carried out in and around 19 structures. We used both radiocarbon and [sup.230]Th/U dating, combined with architectural seriation, to develop a chronology for the site.


The ScMo-124/-125 ritual complex

The complex lies at the base of a steep boulder talus directly under the sheer cliffs tinging the valley. The site commands sweeping views to the island's twin northern bays which are bounded by three sacred peaks, Mou'a Roa, Mou'a Puta, and Mou'a Rotui; in oral traditions the last is the place where spirits go to rest. In Polynesia generally and among the Ma'ohi in particular, elevation or height is associated with sacredness, hence the location of the 124/125 complex on the highest habitable slopes under the impressive peak of Tohive'a would have been significant. The several marae and other structures that make up the complex are densely clustered together in a shallow swale formed between two massive boulder ridges. Human skeletal remains are visible in places under the large boulders or in crevices, indicating use of the ridges as burial grounds. The eastern ridge is surmounted by a huge banyan tree (Ficus prolixa), and a second large banyan stands next to a terrace near the lower edge of the complex. Banyan trees were sacred to the Ma'ohi and ancestral skulls were also sometimes cached in their aerial roots.

The upper sector (ScMo-125)

The uppermost part of the complex (125) occupies a shelf just below the steep talus; a slope of about 30-40m elevation difference separates this upper area from the main cluster (124). The highest structure in the complex is a marae (125A) with a low (ca. 25cm high) ahu faced with a veneer of Acropora coral slabs (Fig. 4). On the west a second marae (125B) was added, abutting 125A and therefore built later. Another partial enclosure with a row of uprights abuts 125A on the east, and a fourth terrace joins 125B on the west, making this a compound structure with four distinct courts.

Three other marae lie slightly downslope of the compound structure built around 125A. Structure 125E is a marae with an indistinct ahu incorporating several uprights and Acropora coral slabs (possibly offerings); a small shrine is attached to this marae on the east. Structures 125F and 125G are marae with platform ahu (about 80 cm high) incorporating cut-and-dressed Porites coral slabs.

The main sector (ScMo-124)

The main group of structures includes eight formal marae with ahu, four smaller marae or shrines lacking ahu but with uptight stones, two substantial raised stone platforms (probable council platforms), and numerous stone-faced terraces and retaining walls, some with associated pavements or house outlines (Fig. 3). The formal marae with ahu have enclosures ranging in size from 231[m.sup.2] to 378[m.sup.2]. The enclosure walls are well constructed of basalt cobbles and boulders, often capped with double rows of prismatic basalt slabs (Fig. 4). Most of the ahu consist of platforms about 1 m high. Several ahu incorporate cut-and-dressed blocks of Porites coral as well as prismatic basalt dikestones in their facades. Marae -124J, however, has an ahu of stepped form (Fig. 5). Stepped ahu are rare in the 'Opunohu Valley (only one other example is recorded, ScMo-129A; Green et al. 1967), but occur on the large "royal" marae found along the coast (Emory 1933). This architectural feature is associated with the highest-ranked lineages. One temple, -124T, incorporates pecked basalt cobbles in its enclosing wall (Fig 6). This feature, shared by only four other marae in the valley, is a late architectural style associated with the 'Oro war cult (Kahn 2010; Sharp et al. 2010). Two broken ti'i (sculpted god figures) were recovered by Green in the 124T enclosure, suggesting post-contact mutilation similar to that described for temple altars (see below). Another intact figure was found in the shrine attached to the south side of 124T, situated amongst the rows of uprights. Such god figures were addressed with prayers by priests in order to access the spirit realm.

Features typical of platform ahu-type marae in the 124 complex are well illustrated by marae 124S (Fig. 7). The marae is defined by a rectangular enclosure, with walls of stacked basalt cobbles and boulders, capped with rows of prismatic basalt. The court defined by this enclosure is level, made by cutting and filling a terrace into the sloping hillside. At the south-western end of the court sits the platform ahu, 7m long and originally ca. 80cm high. As with some other ahu in the complex, the altar facade was probably torn down in a missionary-inspired frenzy of temple destruction in the early 19th century (Newbury 1961: 193). Originally, the ahu facade consisted of alternating rows of prismatic basalt slabs and cut-and-dressed Porites coral blocks. Several dikestone columns now lying on the ahu would have been originally set in upright position. About 1m in front of the ahu, three dikestone uprights still stand in situ, signifying positions of honor for departed ancestors, their descendants officiating at the marae, and the gods (Emory 1933; Henry 1928). At the other, north-eastern end of the marae court a large backrest slab of basalt is set in the ground, indicating the position where a priest would have sat while chanting prayers invoking the lineage deities. As with many other marae in the complex, 124S has a small shrine attached on the downslope side. This consists of a small terrace faced with basalt boulders, with three dikestone uprights in a row. A separate, detached shrine also bearing a row of three uprights is situated on the upslope side of 124S.




The main sector of site 124 includes a number of other features. Two elevated stone platforms, 124P and 124Z, may have served as council platforms. Long upraised stone platforms, council platforms (tahua-umu-pua'a, glossed as "pig oven platform") are rare in the valley, numbering only five (Green et al. 1967). Used for political deliberations or "national councils" by varied elites (high chiefs, priests, and landowners), such platforms are found near aggregate site complexes with multiple marae and other elite structures such as archery platforms. Structure 124Z is especially well constructed, standing 1m high, its facings topped with prismatic basalt slab capstones. This structure has several pits in the interior, possibly for storing breadfruit paste. Several of the marae are fronted by broad earthen terraces with boulder retaining walls. Such terraces are rare on windward marae in the Society Islands (Wallin 1993: 53); their high incidence at 124/125 requires explanation. One terrace, 124N, showed traces of the curbstone outline of a round-ended house on top of the terrace (see Excavations), while the others lack curbstone outlines. Other structures represent probable habitation sites; structure 124Y is a rectangular house outline fronted by a stone pavement, while structure 124M is a well paved rectangular area associated with a habitation flat.

There are also a number of smaller shrines, distinguished from marae by the absence of enclosing walls and ahu, but marked by the presence of basalt uprights. Structure 124BM is such a shrine, a roughly constructed stone terrace built up against a huge boulder outcrop, with a row of three uprights and one upright backrest slab.


Eight marae and shrines were excavated using a test pit and trench methodology to reveal construction sequences and to retrieve charcoal for dating (Table 1). Four probable house terraces, and seven terraces with unknown function fronting temple sites or specialized structures (the council platform) were also excavated. In the case of the terraces, broader skip trenches (excavation of alternate squares), block excavations, and decapage (areal stripping of overburden) were used to reveal the spatial patterning of sub-surface features and to retrieve artefact assemblages. Overall, a total of 230 [m.sup.2] was excavated.

The marae excavations delineated episodes of site construction and aspects of site use. In all of the temples, cultural deposits were thin and remarkably devoid of artefacts other than rare isolated charcoal fragments and a limited number of stone tools. This evidence indicates that these inland marae were only used during ceremonies (see Garanger 1980:94 for a Tahitian example), and/or were ritually cleaned during seasonal rejuvenation rituals (pa'i atua; Henry 1928: 157; Kahn 2005). At 124S, excavating through the ahu defined two episodes of site construction, an earlier one linked to the enclosure construction, and a later one linked to ahu construction.

Our excavations also reveal that some of the house sites and most of the terrace sites at -124 entirely lack evidence for cooking activities. Excavations at 124N exposed the outline of a substantial round-ended house with postholes features and interior deposits devoid of artefact concentrations or charcoal. Its surface architecture and lack of cooking or storage features suggest that it had a specialized use, perhaps serving as a sacred house for storing god images (fare i'a manaha) or as a performance area (Kahn 2005; Orliac 2000). The 124Y excavations revealed posthole outlines confirming the presence of a rectangular house with a sliding door along the south-west wall. The adjacent habitation flat and paving, 124M, had a series of sub-surface postholes, pits, ash dumps, and oven rake-out, suggesting it served in part as a cooking area. Overall, the 124Y and M remains are indicative of a permanent residence, perhaps for the priest responsible for the ritual complex as a whole and/or his retainers (see Kahn 2005: 168-171).

None of the terraces directly fronting temple sites had any sub-surface features indicative of their use as habitation or cooking areas. They may have served as presentation areas for the offerings which were brought to the chiefs, priests, and gods during marae rituals (Hamilton and Kahn 2007). Terrace 124G-AR was the sole terrace fronting a marae that had an activity area, a small artifact concentration associated with adze resharpening. However, at 124BX, a small terrace with an L-shaped alignment downslope of Marae 124D and Q, we uncovered two adjacent sub-surface earth ovens. The abundant fire-cracked rock and charcoal in these deposits indicated repeated cooking events, in stark contrast to the surrounding marae and terraces. Excavations in the terrace in front of 124Z, the council platform, also had evidence for cooking activities. The unique nature of the 124BX and 124Z deposits and their location indicates that these were feasting locales.

With few exceptions, most of the auxiliary structures at 124 (terraces fronting marae, house sites, etc.) were nearly devoid of charcoal or artefacts, indicative of well-maintained spaces that were kept clean. We interpret this evidence as demonstrating that most areas within the 124 complex were of a sacred rather than domestic nature. Furthermore, most areas within the 124 complex were intentionally isolated from cooking activities which were viewed by the Ma'ohi as having polluting properties (Kahn 2005).

Chronology of site development

We used both radiocarbon and U-series dating to develop a chronology for the 124/125 complex (Tables 2, 3, Fig. 8). Eighteen individual structures were dated with 29 samples using AMS [sup.14]C (Table 3). This constitutes the most extensive [sup.14]C sequence for any locale thus far studied in the Society Islands. We also applied 230Th dating of coral architectural elements incorporated into several of the marae at the -124/-125 complex. Sharp et al. (2010) provide details on the U-series coral dating of marae both in the 'Opunohu Valley and at other marae on the island. Table 2 summarizes 230Th dates from the marae at the site -124/-125 complex.

Four phases of site development are indicated. Phase 1 begins with the construction of house sites (124Y, 124M) and an adjacent terrace (124AE) in the middle portion of the lower complex. These structures date to the 15th to 17th centuries. At the upslope complex, an enclosure at 125B was built during the 15th to 16th centuries. The 124S date on the temple construction fill (Beta-257357) probably dates activities prior to temple construction.


In Phase 2 the U-series and [sup.14]C dates indicate a major episode of site expansion and elaboration in the western zone of the complex during the latter haft of the 17th century. Several marae enclosures (124H, 124J) with large fronting terraces were constructed during the end of the 17th century and start of the 18th century, while other marae (124S) were elaborated with the construction of an altar. The U-series dates refine the sequence, indicating that all temples with coral-beating ahu in site-124 other than 124J were elaborated in a short period of construction in AD 1686-1694. Just a decade later temples within site-125 were elaborated with coral altars as well. Phase 2 demonstrates how monumental architecture at the ScMo-124/-125 complexes evolved within a remarkably short period, spanning a single generation.

Another period of site elaboration took place in the 18th century (Phase 3), when marae with large fronting terraces and a shrine were constructed and elaborated in the eastern zone of the complex. These include 124A, 1240 and -124T, the latter considered a "late period" style dedicated to the 'Oro war cult (Kahn 2010; Sharp et al. 2010). U-series dates on cut and dressed blocks in the stepped altar of 124J show that this ahu was elaborated a short time later at c. AD 1723; this marae is one of two stepped ahu with cut and faced blocks in the valley that, while substantially smaller in size, mimic the architectural style of "national" coastal marae. These large temples were used by the paramount chiefs and high priests for rituals including human sacrifice (Kahn 2010). We interpret marae 124J as the likely ritual seat of the highest-ranking chief, head of the elite community whose ancestry was linked to the -124/-125 complex. 124N, a specialized round-ended house with an elaborate entryway and fronting marae 124J was built at the same time that the 124J altar was elaborated. In Phase 3, then, we see both an extension of and growth in the number of temples and specialized house sites at the complex, as well as the construction of new temples linked to the 'Oro war cult. These processes provided avenues for creating socially modified landscapes legitimating hierarchical roles (Kahn 2005).

A final episode of site elaboration, Phase 4, took place in the late 18th to early 19th centuries, when terrace ScMo-124BX and council platform ScMo-124Z were constructed. Council platforms signify an elite presence, functioning as locales for "national councils" of high chiefs, priests, and landowners and as feasting areas. Sites 124BX and 124Z are the only terraces not directly associated with house sites with evidence for cooking. These two structures served as feasting areas in conjunction with community ceremonies and elite political activities. Our Phase 4 results indicate that feasting activities increased in the proto-historic period before European contact, an interpretation supported by excavation and dating at ScMo-103, a second elite centre in the 'Opunohu Valley with numerous temples, house sites, and platforms (Green et al. 1967; Kahn 2011).


The chronology of the 124/125 complex strongly supports the hypothesis that materialization of religious rituals and ideology rapidly elaborated in the Society Islands as elites vied for political control in late prehistory. Complex ritual site aggregations such as that at 124/125 represent tangible symbols of the increasing control of the elites over surplus production and the ritual calendar.

In the Society Islands, concentrations of temple sites, as are found in aggregate site complexes, are the material reflections of kin-congregations whose lineages proliferated and segmented through time (Kahn 2011). Kin-congregations are corporate groups related mainly by genealogy who hold common ownership in the lands and territories where they resided, farmed, and fished (Oliver 1974: 625). The foundation for these social networks was linkage to named marae, underscoring their significance in precontact Ma'ohi social organization. Isolated and formalized concentrations of ceremonial sites such as 124/125 served not only as elite centers, but created avenues for the development of social difference within the neighborhood and the community by promoting a dominant ideology. Ethnographic examples demonstrate how specialist labor and ritual knowledge is a form of nonmaterial wealth in "house society" social formations, as in the precontact Society Islands (Kahn 2007; Kahn and Kirch 2004). The rights to perform particular rituals offered "houses" avenues to differentiate themselves from others. The precincts of elaborate marae such as at 124/125 were places where the ritual leaders of certain "houses" engaged in prayer, offerings, and sacrifice. Being associated with the gods and spirits, these rites and the persons executing them were considered tapu (sacred, restricted), something to be kept separate from commoners and women (Henry 1928; Oliver 1974).

At site 124/125, a clear separation between areas for religious rites (marae) and secular rites (terraces fronting marae, residences, and specialized structures) is found in the built architecture and in the sub-surface remains. While terraces fronting marae are rare in the windward Society Islands, many marae within the 124/125 complex have such a configuration, with most terraces representing spaces devoid of sub-surface features or artefacts. Ethnohistoric accounts note that cleared areas or "pavements" in front of temples could have various secular functions, used for public display and non-sacred ceremonial events such as feasting, dancing, and oratory (Ellis 1972). Many of the these rituals, including the annual first fruits festivals, involved significant contributions of food, produced by commoners and funneled up the social hierarchy via tribute. For these festivals, sub-chiefs brought the foodstuffs to the kin-congregation assembly grounds, where they were laid out in heaps and divided into shares, with a large part appropriated for the gods and the highest ranking elites (Henry 1928: 177). The substantial terraces fronting the marae at 124/125 likely served as presentation areas for such food offerings. The presentation of tribute literally at or in front of the community level marae, as well as the feasting that followed, underscored the integrated role of ritual, ideology, production, and hierarchy in these chiefdoms. Annual rituals and rites of passage would have provided areas for community engagement, in sharp contrast to the adjacent temple enclosures, which were reserved strictly for elite ritual use. In this way, the material remains of these structures and activities allow us to glimpse how ideology was materialized in the creation of landscapes legitimating hierarchical roles. Sacred power was reserved for the use of a few (the elite), underscoring the asymmetry of power relations in Ma'ohi chiefdoms.


In all respects, site 124/125 appears to be a highly ritualized zone, with a use pattern that varies significantly both from smaller ritual complexes and residential complexes found in the 'Opunohu Valley. We believe this particular aggregate complex served as one of three ideological centres in the valley where elites linked to high status "houses" and occupational specialists (priests), often drawn from junior chiefly lineages, presided over ritual ceremonies in contexts quite removed from commoner interaction. The site chronology demonstrates that this process of ritual landscape creation was accelerated in the 'Opunohu Valley during the period AD 1620-1760. This period was one of increasing competition between warring district level chiefs on Mo'orea, where the construction of elaborate temples, some dedicated to the 'Oro war cult with human sacrifice, augmented the role that ideology played in developing and maintaining political power (Kahn 2011).

Our Society Island data resemble those from other highly complex Polynesian chiefdoms in the degree of ideological control that elites and specialists had, and in the manner in which ritual control was intertwined with economic control, allowing goods to be channeled to the elites to support the chiefly hierarchy. In Hawai'i, Tonga, and the Society Islands, the construction of ever larger monumental temples and lavish annual rites solidified chiefs' control over the labor pool, served as visible symbols of elite wealth, and restricted commoners' access to goods and labor (Clark et al. 2008; Earle 1997; Kirch 2010). In these societies, the onset of large monumental ritual construction correlates with the intensification of chiefly power and authority and with a rapid increase in the sacred status of chiefs.

Our case study supports models of developing social complexity in chiefdoms and other ranked societies emphasizing how elite power is strongly intermeshed with control over ideology and economic production (Demarrais et al. 1996; Earle 1997; Fogelin 2007). As with other complex societies and urban states (Joyce and Winter 1996), the Ma'ohi elite promoted the idea that they were descended from the gods (Babadzan 1993). They served as intermediaries between the greater populace and the gods in a religious sense, in part by aligning themselves with ritual specialists. They also served as intermediaries between the greater populace and the gods in an economic sense, through their ability to command tribute and corvte for major ceremonies. These processes can be seen as part of a universal trend in which political leaders utilize religious ceremonies both to reify social distinctions and ideological worldviews in a material sense, and to control the relations of production (Kolata 1992), especially social production (Brookfield 1984). Ideology is a major theater of political authority, and can serve as a potent strategy to solidify economic control and to mobilize goods for political competitions founded in the social status hierarchy. The varied and numerous examples of ancient societies where tribute and the economy were intertwined with the annual ritual calendar suggests that ideology and economic power are mutually supportive, affording a substantative power base for rising political control of ruling elites.


We dedicate this article to the memory of Roger Green, who first inspired us to work on Mo'orea. Funding was provided by National Science Foundation Grant BCS-0749385. We thank Gre Tahiata, Teddy Tehei, Priscille Frogier, Marimari Kellum, Neil Davies, and Belona Mou for their aid in securing permissions and organizing field logistics.


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JGK: Department of Anthropology, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, HI 96817. Jennifer.Kahn@bishop; PVK: Departments of Anthropology and Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
Table 1. Summary of excavated structures at the
-124/-125 complex.

Structure   Surface                         Area
No.         Architecture                    Excavated

124N        House terrace, round-ended      14.20[m.sup.2]
            house curbstone outline

124Y        House terrace, rectangular      24.9[m.sup.2]
            house curbstone outline

124M        Probable house terrace with     19[m.sup.2]
            pavement                        36[m.sup.2] *

124G-AR     Probable house terrace          8[m.sup.2]

124AE       Terrace                         17[m.sup.2]

124AF       Terrace                         11.6[m.sup.2]
                                            4[m.sup.2] *

124BX       Terrace                         5[m.sup.2]

124AH       Terrace with paving fronting    10[m.sup.2]
            marae                           12[m.sup.2 *

124AI       Terrace fronting marae          2[m.sup.2]

124AV       Terrace with paving fronting    2[m.sup.2]

124Z        Terrace fronting council        11.8m,

124T        Marae                           4[m.sup.2]

1240        Marae                           2.45[m.sup.2]

124S        Marae                           5[m.sup.2]

124H        Marae                           2.9[m.sup.2]

125B        Marae                           3[m.sup.2]

124A        Shrine                          1[m.sup.2]

                                            18[m.sup.2] *

124C        Shrine                          12.5[m.sup.2] *

124AB       Shrine                          4[m.sup.2] *

Structure   Evidence
No.         for
            Cooking (C)
            Feasting (F)



124M        (C)= pits, ash
            dumps, oven
            rake out




124BX       (F)= adjacent
            earth ovens,
            ash dump,
            oven rake out



124Z        (F)= hearth,
            earth oven,
            ash dump,
            oven rake out








Table 2. Summary of 230Th dates for marae at the
124/125 complex.

Structure no.   Number of dates   Age A.D. (t 2a)

124D                   4          1690 [+ or -] 12
124H                   2          1691 [+ or -] 3.1
1241                   2          1690 [+ or -] 11
124J                   3          1723 [+ or -] 16
124Q                   1          1686 [+ or -] 5.7
1245                   2          1694 [+ or -] 27
125A                   1          1637 [+ or -] 19
125B                   7          1708 [+ or -] 4.2
125E                   1          1708 [+ or -] 10
125F                   3          1706 [+ or -] 30

Table 3. Radiocarbon age determinations.

         Site     Site           Provenience

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer C1, N104.84 E100.52,
257356   124S                    178 cmbd. Dates ahu

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer D1, N105.89 E100.70,
257357   1245                    207 cmbd. Dates
                                 construction fill of marae

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer B1, obj. 4, N99.66
257358   124H                    E89.14,175.5 cmbd. From
                                 base of stone at bottom of
                                 marae enclosure wall. Dates
                                 construction fill of marae

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer C4, obj. 1, N103.45
263460   124J                    13120.00. Dates construction
                                 fill of marae enclosure.

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B2/C1 (interface),
263461   124T-G   fronting a     N113.2 E90.52,210 cmbd.
                  marae          Dates cultural deposit.

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer C1, N99 13108. Dates
263462   124T                    construction fill of marae

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B2, N99.69 13105.18,
263463   124T-    underneath a   dates AT wall. Charcoal
         AT       marae          taken below the base of wall
                                 stone. Dates the terrace that
                                 124T marae enclosure is
                                 constructed on.

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer C5, TP-C, obj. 1,
278686   125                     N0.10130.32, 116 cmbd.
                                 Dates construction fill of the
                                 marae enclosure.

Beta-    ScMo-    Rectangular    Layer B2, obj. 2, N97.55
278688   124Y     house with     13101.23, 153.5 cmbd. At
                  pavement       interface with construction
                                 fill, just above C1. Dates
                                 cultural deposit.

Beta-    ScMo-    Rectangular    Layer B2, obj. 6, N97.72
278689   124Y     house with     13101.38 154.5 cmbd, Ftr.
                  pavement       11, posthole. Dates cultural

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B3, obj. 2, N100.99
278690   124AF    fronting a     13106.22, 167.5 cmbd, Ftr. 1,
                  marae          posthole. Dates cultural

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer C1, obj. 3, N99 E97,
278691   124AE    fronting a     Ftr. 3, posthole. Dates
                  marae          cultural occupation.

Beta-    ScMo-    House          Layer B1, obj. 5, N97 E99,
278692   124N     terrace,       Ftr 1, and posthole. Dates
                  disturbed      cultural occupation.

Beta-    ScMo-    Paepae/        Layer C1, obj. 3, N107.46
258315   124Z     Council        E100.44,147.5 cmbd. Top
                  platform       of construction fill. Dates
                                 construction of paepae.

Beta-    ScMo-    Paepae/        Layer B3, obj. 2, N103
258320   124Z     Council        EI01, Ftr. 2, earth oven.
                  platform       Dates cultural deposit.

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer C1, obj. 5. N102.39
258316   124AF    fronting       E105.68,185 cmbd. Base of
                  marae,         large prismatic basalt paving
                  partially      stone. Dates construction fill
                  paved          of the terrace.

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer C3, obj. 1, N99 E97.
258324   124AE    fronting       Dates construction fill of the
                  marae          terrace.

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B3/C1, obj. 6, N94
258326   124BX    fronting       E90, Ftr. 8, earth oven.
                  marae          Dates cultural occupation.

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B1, obj. 5, N94.85
258325   124BX    fronting       E91.01, 271 cmbd, Ftr. 7,
                  marae          earth oven. Dates cultural

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B3, obj. 5, N112 E92.
258317   124T-    fronting       Ftr. 5, cleaned out earth
         G-AR     marae,         oven. Dates cultural
                  partially      occupation.

Beta-    ScMo-    House          obj. 3, N102.52 E99.22, c.
258318   124N     terrace,       27cm E of base of house
                  disturbed      curbstones. Dates cultural
                  round-ended    deposit.
                  Layer B1,

Beta-    ScMo-    House          Layer C3, obj. 2, N103.33
258319   124N     terrace,       E99.15, 112 cmbd. Under
                  disturbed      stone in N. retaining wall.
                  round-ended    Dates house terrace
                  house          construction.

Beta-    ScMo-    Paepae with    Layer C1, obj. 4, N93.00
258323   124M     pavement,      E99.02,150 cmbd. Shallow
                  residential    dark soil stain. Dates
                                 construction fill just above
                                 sterile deposit for terrace
                                 that house 124Y is
                                 constructed upon.

Beta-    SCMO-    Paepae with    Layer B3, obj. 8, N91.58
258322   124M     pavement,      E100.90, Ftr. 11, posthole.
                  residential    Dates cultural occupation.

Beta-    ScMo-    Paepae with    Layer B4, N90 E97, obj. 5,
258321   124M     pavement,      oven rake out. Dates cultural
                  residential    occupation.

Beta-    ScMo-    Marae          Layer C4, obj. 3,
257353   1240                    N102.73 E 109.87 169
                                 cmbd. Dates construction fill
                                 of marae enclosure.

Beta-    ScMo-    Terrace        Layer B2, obj. 5, N99.65
257354   1240-    fronting       E100.94,192 cmbd. Dates
         AH       marae          construction fill of terrace
                                 fronting the marae.

Beta-    ScMo-    Shrine         Layer B4, TP1, obj. 9,N.70
257355   124A                    E.58, 34 cmbd. Dates
                                 construction fill of shrine.

         Taxon         Conventional       [delta]13C
         Dated         [sup.14]C Age      [per thousand]
                       Years B.P.

Beta-    Cocus         170 [+ or ] 40     -21.6
257356   nucifera

Beta-    Aleurites     490 [+ or ] 40     -23.5
257357   moluccana

Beta-    Aleurites     280 [+ or ] 40     -25.4
257358   moluccana

Beta-    Hibiscus      350 [+ or ] 40     -25.0
263460   tiliaceus

Beta-    Cocos         200 [+ or ] 40     -24.2
263461   nucifera

Beta-    Hibiscus      180 [+ or ] 40     -24.4
263462   tiliaceus

Beta-    Hibiscus      170 [+ or ] 40     -25.5
263463   tiliaceus

Beta-    Pandanus      370 [+ or ] 40     -23.9
278686   tectorius
         key (fruit)

Beta-    Cocos         300 [+ or ] 40     -24.9
278688   nucifera

Beta-    Hibiscus      270 [+ or ] 40     -26.7
278689   tiliaceus

Beta-    Hibiscus      200 [+ or ] 40
278690   tiliaceus

Beta-    Cocos         160 [+ or ] 40     -23.8
278691   Nucifera

Beta-    Hibiscus      160 [+ or ] 40     -25.7
278692   tiliaceus

Beta-    Hibiscus      150 [+ or ] 40     -24.6
258315   tiliaceus

Beta-    Aleurites     60 [+ or -] 40     -24.9
258320   moluccana

Beta-    Hibiscus      120 [+ or ] 40     -25.9
258316   tiliaceus

Beta-    Pandanus      250 [+ or ] 40     -25.6
258324   tectorius
         key (fruit)

Beta-    Cocos         30 [+ or ] 40      -23.0
258326   nucifera

Beta-    Artocarpus    30 [+ or ] 40      -23.8
258325   altilis

Beta-    Aleurites     220 [+ or -] 40    -23.8
258317   moluccana

Beta-    Artocarpus    220 [+ or ] 40     -25.3
258318   atilis wood

Beta-    Cf.           290 [+ or -] 40    -24.8
258319   Inocarpus

Beta-    Cf.           360 [+ or ] 40     -25.6
258323   Inocarpus

Beta-    Artocarpus    240 [+ or ] 40     -24.7
258322   altilis

Beta-    Artocarpus    230 [+ or ] 40     -26.0
258321   altilis

Beta-    Hibiscus      160 [+ or ] 40     -26.2
257353   tiliaceus

Beta-    Hibiscus      150 [+ or ] 40     -29.7
257354   tiliaceus

Beta-    Cocus         170 [+ or ] 40     -24.5
257355   nucifera

         Calibrated Age      Calibrated Age
         (CE) at 1 [sigma]   (CE) at 2 [sigma]

Beta-    1728-1784 (31.0%)   1655-1707 (18.4%)
257356   1794-1812 (8.1%)    1719-1826 (46.5%)
         1920-1952 (15.7%)   1832-1886 (12.9%)
                             1912-1954 (17.5%)
Beta-    1410-1444 (68.2%)   1324-1345 (5.1%)
257357                       1392-1464 (90.3%)

Beta-    1521-1575 (36.8%)   1482-1666 (90.3%)
257358   1582-1590 (3.7%)    1780-1798 (4.5%)
         1623-1662 (27.7%)   1946-1952 (0.6%)

Beta-    1475-1524 (29.2%)   1455-1637 (95.4%)
263460   1558-1564 (3.0%)
         1570-1630 (36.0%)

Beta-    1654-1682 (18.3%)   1641-1698 (25.3%)
263461   1738-1756 (9.9%)    1724-1815 (48.0%)
         1762-1802 (29.0%)   1834-1878 (4.7%)
         1937-1952 (11.0%)   1916-1954 (17.4%)

Beta-    1664-1685 (12.1%)   1648-1706 (20.4%)
263462   1732-1808 (42.5%)   1720-1820 (47.6%)
         1928-1952 (13.6%)   1832-1882 (9.6%)
                             1914-1954 (17.8%)

Beta-    1665-1692 (13.5%)   1655-1707 (18.4%)
263463   1728-1784 (31.0%)   1719-1826 (46.5%)
         1794-1812 (8.1%)    1832-1886 (12.9%)
         1920-1952 (15.7%)   1912-1954 (17.5%)

Beta-    1452-1521 (44.5%)   1446-1635 (95.4%)
278686   1575-1582 (3.7%)
         1590-1622 (20.0%)

Beta-    1520-1592 (49.3%)   1474-1662 (95.4%)
278688   1619-1648 (18.9%)

Beta-    1522-1572 (31.7%)   1941-1954 (2.1%)
278689   1630-1666 (31.0%)
         1784-1795 (5.5%)
         1486-1676 (85.4%)
         1777-1800 (7.9%)

Beta-    1654-1682 (18.3%)   1641-1698 (25.3%)
278690   1738-1756 (9.9%)    1724-1815 (48.0%)
         1762-1802 (29.0%)   1834-1878 (4.7%)
         1937-1952 (11.0%)   1916-1954 (17.4%)

Beta-    1668-1694 (12.9%)   1662-1710 (17.0%)
278691   1727-1782 (29.4%    1717-1890 (61.3%)
         1797-1812 (7.6%)    1910-1952 (17.1%)
         1854-1866 (3.1%)
         1918-1950 (15.2%)

Beta-    1668-1694 (12.9%)   1662-1710 (17.0%)
278692   1727-1782 (29.4%    1717-1890 (61.3%)
         1797-1812 (7.6%)    1910-1952 (17.1%)
         1854-1866 (3.1%)

Beta-    1669-1696 (11.6%)   1917-1944 (12.1%)
258315   1726-1780 (24.4%)   1665-1784 (46.0%
         1798-1814 (7.0%)    1784-1893 (32.6%)
         1836-1845 (3.4%)    1906-1952 (16.9%)
         1850-1877 (9.7%)

Beta-    1696-1725 (20.1)    1684-1733 (25.4%)
258320   1814-1835 (14.4%)   1806-1928 (70.0%)
         1877-1917 (33.7%)

Beta-    1684-1733 (20.7%)   1677-1778 (36.0%)
258316   1807-1891 (38.4%)   1790-1960 (59.4%)
         1908-1928 (9.1%)

Beta-    1526-1555 (13.3%)   1512-1600 (24.2%)
258324   1632-1670 (35.7%)   1616-1684 (41.5%)
         1780-1798 (15.1%)   1735-1805 (23.3%)
         1944-1952 (4.1%)    1933-1954 (6.4%)

Beta-    1700-1720 (15.4%)   1690-1730 (22.9%)
258326   1818-1833 (11.3%)   1810-1924 (72.5%)
         1880-1915 (41.5%)

Beta-    1700-1720 (15.4%)   1810-1924 (72.5%)
258325   1818-1833 (11.3%)
         1880-1915 (41.5%)
         1690-1730 (22.9%)

Beta-    1645-1680 (28.6%)   1525-1558 (3.1%)
258317   1764-1800 (29.2%)   1631-1694 (33.1%)
         1938-1952 (10.4%)   1726-1814 (43.6%)
                             1838-1842 (0.2%)
                             1853-1867 (0.6%)
                             1918-1954 (14.9%)

Beta-    1645-1680 (28.6%    1525-1558 (3.1%)
258318   1764-1800 (29.2%)   1631-1694 (33.1%)
         1938-1952 (10.4%)   1726-1814 (43.6%)
                             1838-1842 (0.2%)
                             1853-1867 (0.6%)
                             1918-1954 (14.9%)

Beta-    1520-1592 (46.4%)   1482-1666 (93.5%)
258319   1620-1652 (21.8%)   1784-1795 (1.9%)

Beta-    1464-1522 (36.1%)   1450-1635 (95.4%)
258323   1574-162 (32.1%)

Beta-    1529-1540 (3.8%)    1520-1592 (14.5%)
258322   1634-1678 (35.9%)   1619-1684 (40.1%)
         1766-1800 (21.4%)   1732-1808 (31.3%)
         1940-1953 (7.1%)    1928-1954 (9.5%)

Beta-    1641-1680 (32.3%)   1521-1574 (7.4%)
258321   1764-1800 (26.7%)   15841590 (0.4%)
         1938-1953 (9.2%)    1626-1692 (36.9%)
                             1728-1811 (38.3%)
                             1921-1954 (12.4%)

Beta-    1668-1694 (12.9%)   1662-1710 (17.0%)
257353   1727-1782 (29.4%)   1717-1890 (61.3%)
         1797-1812 (7.6%     1910-1952 (17.1%)
         18541866 (3.1%)

Beta-    1669-1696 (11.6%)   1665-1784 (46.0%)
257354   1726-1780 (24.4%)   1795-1893 (32.6%)
         1798-1814 (7.0%)    1906-1952 (16.9%)
         1836-1845 (3.4%)
         1850-1877 (9.7%)
         1917-1944 (12.1%)

Beta-    1665-1692 (13.5%)   1665-1692 (13.5%)
257355   1728-1784 (31.0%)   1728-1784 (31.0%)
         1794-1812 (8.1%)    1794-1812 (8.1%)
         1920-1952 (15.7%)   1920-1952 (15.7%)
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Article Details
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Author:Kahn, Jennifer G.; Kirch, Patrick V.
Publication:Archaeology in Oceania
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:8FREN
Date:Oct 1, 2011
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