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Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) established in North America, with a key to the genera of Tingidae in Canada.

Abstract--Monosteira unicostata is reported as established in British Columbia, and thus is a new alien species in North America. It has also been intercepted in Ontario on imported grapes. A description of M. unicostata anda key to the genera of Tingidae in Canada are provided to help distinguish this adventive species from other Canadian Tingidae. This brings the total adventitive Tingidae in this country to six.

Key words: Hemiptera, Tingidae, Monosteira unicostata, Canada.


The genus Monosteira Costa is an Old World taxon (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965; Pericart, 1983) with M. unicornis Mulsant & Rey as the type species. The genus contains 11 described species, 10 of which are so far recorded from the Palaearctic Region and one from the Afrotropical Region; identification of the six species occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean area is rather difficult (Pericart, 1983).

Recent study has revealed that Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant and Rey) is established in North America, having been collected in the wild in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency also has two records of this species being intercepted in Ontario on imported grapes.

This paper presents a description of M. unicostata, records its capture in British Columbia, and documents the interceptions in Ontario. It also provides a key to the genera of Tingidae in Canada.

Measurements (in millimetres) given in the description below are mean and range (in parentheses) of the specimens collected in British Columbia. Abbreviations are AAFC = Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada; ARS = Agriculture Research Service; CFIA = Canadian Food Inspection Agency; UBC = University of British Columbia; and USDA = Untied States Department of Agriculture.

This paper is dedicated to Dr. Randall T. Schuh in honour of his career accomplishments on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey)

Figure 1

Monanthia unicostata Mulsant & Rey 1852, Ann. Soc. Linneenne Lyon (1850-1852): 134

DESCRIPTION: Macropterous and glabrous; elongate-oval and arboreal; dorsum ferrugino-ochraceous. Head: pale brown with five ochraceous spiniform processes; bucculae contiguous anteriorly; rostral groove enlarged on metasternum; head width [male] 0.40 (0.38-0.43) [female] 0.40 (0.39-0.41); antennae ochraceous with fourth segment more ferruginous; first two antennal segments very short and robust (almost globose), third segment long, thin and parallel-sided, and fourth segment swollen, especially in apical half; antennal measurement [male] 0.08 (0.07-0.10): 0.09 (0.7-0.10): 0.51 (0.47-0.53): 0.19 (0.18-0.20) [male] 0.09 (0.08-0.10): 0.08 (0.07-1.0): 0.53 (0.52-0.54): 0.19 (0.18-0.20). Pronotum: unicarinate, with a single median longitudinal carina; anteriorly without a small hood, but with a narrow collar terminating before lateral areolate margin; laterally pronotum without extensive areolate paranota, but carinate, and with anterior third enlarged, reflexed into notum and with 2-3 areoles; calli dark brown to black; pronotal width [male] 0.80 (0.77-0.82) [female] 0.83 (0.82-0.87). Hemelytra: with corium subdivided by R + M and Cu; apical half of corium with a transverse nerve; costal margin of corium narrow with single row of areoles; disc of corium without elevation; corium appearing rather mottled. Thoraeic sterna: dark brown. Abdominal venter: dark ferruginousbrown. Total length [male] 2.46 (2.33-2.53) [female] 2.46 (2.43-2.50).

DISCUSSION: M. unicostata occurs naturally in the Euro-Mediterranean region as well as North Africa and parts of Asia (Pericart, 1983). A full biography for M. unicostata is provided by Drake and Ruhoff (1965) and Pericart (1983). According to Pericart (1983), M. unicostata is an arboreal species, collected on Betulaceae, Rosaceae and Salicaceae. Gomez-Menor (1950) illustrated the adult and immature stages, and reported on the biology and life history. Adult illustrations and a key to species of Monosteira were given by Pericart (1983).

The genus Monosteim Costa and the species M. unicosmta can be distinguished from other genera of Tingidae in Canada by the following key, adapted from Hurd (1946) and Pericart (1983).

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: B.C., Vancouver, Pacific Spirit Pr. Pk., forest edge, (J. Klimaszewski), 1[male]; id., 3.vii. 1997, 1[female]; id., 17.ix.1997, 2[male]; id., 24.ix.1997, 1[female]; B.C., Vancouver, Pacific Spirit Pr. Pk., interior forest, 31.vii.1997 (J. Lea, B. Klimaszewski), 1[male] 1[female]; B.C., Vancouver, Pacific Spirit Pr. Pk., forest edge, 3.ix.1997 (J. Lea, A. Klimaszewski), 1[male], [Canadian National Collection; Scudder Coll.].

In addition to the above specimens collected in the wild, and thus naturally established, The Canadian National Collection in Ottawa contains the following specimens intercepted in Ontario. ON, Cambridge, on grapes from Italy, 28.ix.2007 (B. Robinson), 3[female] [CFIA 07-8431]; dead in grapes from Italy, 30.x.2008 (Breana Bourbean), 3[male]1[female] [CFIA 08-10505].


1. Bucculae contiguous anteriorly, with labrum not visible from above 2

--Bucculae not contiguous anteriorly, bur with labrum clearly visible from above 14

2. Pronotum with single, median, longitudinal carina 3

--Pronotum with three longitudinal carinae 4

3. Pronotum with small reflexed paranotal lobes anteriorly; rostral canal enlarged on metasternum Monosteira Costa

--Pronotum without paranotal lobes; rostral canal not enlarged on metasternum Leptoypha Stal

4. Anterior part of pronotum elevated into a more or less inflated or bulbous hood; if hood is small, paranota and costal margin of hemelytra expanded and projecting beyond sides of body 5

--Anterior part of pronotum without an inflated hood, although median carina may be slightly elevated to form a small hoodlike prominence; paranota and costal margin of hemelytra not greatly expanded and projecting beyond sides of body 9

5. Pronotal hood large, extending obviously over head; anterior part of median pronotal carina more or less elevated above lateral carinae; corium with tumid elevation 7

--Pronotal hood small, and not obviously extending over head; median carina of pronotum not more elevated than lateral carinae; corium without tumid elevation 6

6. Median groove on thoracic sterna interrupted by a transverse sinuous carina between mesosternum and metasternum Gargaphia Stal

--Median groove on thoracic sterna not interrupted by a transverse sinuous carina between mesosternum and metasternum Leptopharsa Stal

7. Paranota explanate and with basal fold; costal margin of hemelytra upturned; pronotal hood elongate, curved downward over head, with crest, and extending beyond antennal insertion Corythaica Stal

--Paranota if explanate without basal fold; costal margin of hemelytra not upturned; pronotal hood if with crest, not curved downward over head and extending beyond antennal insertion 8

8. At least anterior part of lateral margin of paranota with small spinules; usually entire lateral margins of paranota and basal part of costal margin of hemelytra with fringe of small spinules Corythucha Stal

--Entire lateral margins of paranota and costal margin of hemelytra without spinules Stephanitis Stal

9. Paranota very wide and reflexed against dorsal surface of pronotum 10

--Paranota not wide and reflexed against dorsal surface of pronotum 11

10. Ostiolar peritreme visible laterally Physatocheila Fieber

--Osfiolar peritreme not visible laterally Dictyla Stal

11. Hemelytra strongly convex with shiny surface; antennae very stout with third segment sub-clavate and densely clothed with short, decumbent setae Alveotingis Osborn & Drake

--Hemelytra at most only slightly convex, and with surface dull; antennae not as above 12

12. Third antennal segment enlarged apically, and more than three rimes length of fourth segment 13

--Third antennal segment parallel-sided throughout, and less than twice length of fourth segment Teleonemia Costa

13. Third antennal segment gradually thickened from base to apex and not sexually dimorphic; hemelytra broadly oval and rounded apically Hesperotingis Parshley

--Third antennal segment sexually dimorphic, uniform slender and slightly swollen at tip in male, apically clavate in female; hemelytra subparallel to elongate-oval, apically rounded in macropters, apically acuminate and divergent in brachypters Melanorhopala Stal

14. Pronotum with large, distinct, bulbous hood, cleft posteriorly to receive anterior portion of a compressed elevation formed by two greatly enlarged hemispherical lateral carinae; areoles of hemelytra very large, rectangular, and vitreous Galeatus Curtis

--Pronotum without a large, distinct, bulbous hood as above 15

15. Antennae with setigerous tubercles 16

--Antennae without setigerous tubercles Acalypta Westwood

16. Head with occipital spines Dictyonota Curtis

--Head without occipital spines Kalama Puton

Scudder and Foottit (2006) listed four adventive tingid species in Canada. To these must be added Kalama tricornis (Schrank) which Drake and Ruhoff (1965) cited as introduced into Canada and the United States. The discovery of Monosteira unicostata in Canada now brings the total adventive Tingidae in this country to six, three of which are evidently established only in British Columbia (Table 1).


I am indebted to Dr. T.J. Henry (ARS, USDA, Washington) for the initial identification of this alien tingid. Dr. M.D. Schwartz (AAFC, Ottawa) loaned me Toby Schuh's copy of Pericart (1983), and Dr. O. Lonsdale (AAFC, Ottawa) provided copies of the original Canadian Food Inspection Agency Pest Identification Reports for the Ontario interceptions. The photograph of the female specimen from British Columbia was taken by Don Griffiths (UBC, Vancouver). Launi Lucas (UBC, Vancouver) kindly prepared the manuscript.


Drake, C. J. and F. A. Ruhoff. 1965. Lacebugs of the World. A Catalog (Hemiptera: Tingidae). United States National Museum Bulletin 243: 1-634.

Gomez-Menor, J. 1950. La "Chincheta" del Almendro (Monostira unicostata Mulsant). Boletin de Patologia Vegetal y Entomologia Agricola 17(1949): 97-109.

Hurd, M. P. 1946. Generic classification of North American Tingoidea (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Iowa State College Journal of Science 20(3): 429-489.

Pericart, J. 1983. Hemipteres Tingidae Euro-Mediterraraneens. Faune de France. France et Regions Limitrophos 69: 1-618.

Scudder, G. G. E. and R. G. Foottit. 2006. Alien true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Canada: composition and adaptations. The Canadian Entomologist 138: 24-51.


Beaty Biodiversity Centre and Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4, Canada, email:

Table 1. Adventive Tingidae in Canada. Abbreviations:
BC = British Columbia; NB = New Brunswick; NL = Newfoundland and
Labrador; NS = Nova Scotia; ON = Ontario; PE = Prince Edward
Island; QC = Quebec.

Species                                  Provincial established

Dictyla echii (Schrank)                  ON, QC, NS
Dictyonota fidiginosa Costa              BC
Kalama tricornis (Schrank)               QC, NB, PE, NS
Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey)    BC
Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath          BC, ON, QC, NB, NS, NL
Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa          BC


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Author:Scudder, G.G.E.
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Jan 1, 2012
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