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Monopelopia caraguata (Chironomidae: Tanypodinae: Pentaneurini) and Phytotelmatoladius delarosai (Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae): two phytotelmatous chironomids distributed from Florida to Argentina.

Phytotelmata are structures present in terrestrial plants such as modified leaves, leafaxils, flowers, stem holes or depressions, open fruits and fallen leaves. These structures allow water to impound and are more common in tropical areas where plant diversity and rainfall are higher (Fish 1983). The phytotelmata provide a suitable habitat where immature chironomids are common inhabitants.

In this contribution, the occurrence of the chironomid species Monopelopia caraguata Mendes et al. (Chironomidae: Tanypodinae: Pentaneurini) and Phytotelmatocladius delarosai Epler (Chironomidae: orthocladiinae) are reported in Argentina for the first time. A list of the American phytotelmatous chironomids (except for species inhabiting tree holes and bamboo internodes) with the host plant and references is presented in Table 1.

Immatures stages of Monopelopia Fittkau (Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) have been found living in small bodies of water such as ponds, marshes and streams or phytotelmata. of the phytotelmatous species, M. tillandsia Beck et Beck, M. mikeschwartzi Epler, M. gesta (Roback), M. caraguata Mendez et al. and an undescribed Monopelopia species were reported living in the impounded water of bromeliads (Poales: Bromeliaceae) (Cranston 2007; Cranston & Epler 2013). Monopelopia tillandsia was reported living in tillandsia, Oatopsis and Hohenbergia in Florida and Cuba (Beck & Beck 1966; Roback 1987; Bello et al. 2011). Monopelopia mikeschwartzi and M. gesta were reported living in Aechmeapaniculigera (Swartz) Grisebach (Bromeliaceae) in Jamaica (Epler & Janetzky 1999; Cranston & Epler 2013), whereas the undescribed species of Cranston (2007) was reported living in Guzmania in Puerto Rico. Monopelopia caraguata was reported developing in species of Vriesea, Nidularium, Hohenbergia and Aechmea in southern Brazil (Mendez et al. 2003) and in solution holes in the Everglades National Park, Florida, USA (Jacobsen 2008). Up to present, this species was not found developing in bromeliads in Florida (R. Jacobsen, J. H. Epler and J. H. Frank, personal communication).

The cosmopolitan Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae) includes more than 200 species distributed in temperate and tropical areas, but these species develop phytotelmata only in southern Brazil and Argentina (Campos 2010). Plants of this genus grow on the ground and have a simple structure and are annuals, differing from bromeliads, which comprise mainly perennial epiphytic plants with a complex structure.

Larvae of Monopelopia caraguata were collected from Eryngium plants and reared in the laboratory. This is the first report of this chironomid species associated with the terrestrial Eryngium plants in a temperate region. Monopelopia caraguata co-occurred in some Eryngium plants with Polypedilum parthenogeneticum Donato et Paggi (Chironomidae: Chironominae) and Metriocnemus eryngiotelmatus Donato et Paggi (Chironomidae: orthocladiinae), which are common inhabitants of Eryngium in Argentina.

Phytotelmatocladius (Chironomidae: orthocladiinae) is a monospecific genus described from bromeliad phytotelmata in southern Florida and Brazil (Epler 2010). Because only female adults and pupae have been collected or reared, this author postulated that this taxon could be parthenogenetic. Immatures of P delarosai were recently collected from the impounded water of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae) in a botanical garden at FCAyFUNLP (Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales-Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina). This bromeliad species is exotic to this region, being native to Paraguay, Brazil and the northeast of Argentina (Zuloaga et al. 2008). of the reared P delarosai, only female adults emerged, which were maintained in separate vials containing little water. The females laid their eggs which hatched 7 days later; therefore, we confirm the assumption of Epler (2010) that P. delarosai could be parthenogenetic.

In the sampling of Eryngium plants in FCAyFUNLP close to B. balansae plants, P delarosai was not collected. Besides, Monopelopia caraguata, Metriocnemus eryngiotelmatus and Polypedilum parthenogeneticum were not collected from B. balansae, suggesting a possible specificity or preference of those chironomids for each plant species.

Material Examined

Monopelopia caraguata: ARGENTINA, Buenos Aires Province, Punta Lara, ex Eryngium sp. S 34[degrees] 51' 10" W 57[degrees] 57' 33", 7 m asl, adult male reared from larva, 4-VIII-2004, Donato col.; Adult female reared from larva, same data except for Jan 2008; Argentina, Buenos Aires province, Punta Lara, ex Eryngium sp. S 34[degrees] 54' 37'' W 57[degrees] 55' 34'', 14 m asl, adult male reared from larva, 10-IX-2013, Donato & Siri cols.

Phytotelmatocladius delarosai: ARGENTINA, Buenos Aires province, La Plata, ex Bromelia balansae Mez at the Jardin Botanico y Arboretum, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales (FCAyF) (UNLP), S 34.912881[degrees] W 57.9332227[degrees], adult female reared from larva, collected 9-VIII-2012, emerged 18-VIII-2012, laid their eggs which hatched on 25/26-VIII-2012, Donato & Siri cols.

The authors thank Monica Caviglia for the proof reading. The paper is Scientific Contribution No 943 of the ILPLA.


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ILPLA (Instituto de Limnologia "Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet") CoNICET-CCT-La Plata / UNLP (Universidad Nacional de La Plata). Bv. 120 y 62, La Plata (1900), Buenos Aires, Argentina

* Corresponding author; E-mail:

                 Taxa                     Host plant

Orthocladiinae   Antilocladius            Nidularium innocentii
                 Cricotopus sp            Eryngium elegans
                                          Nidularium innocentii
                 Limnophyes sp            Nidularium innocentii
                                          Tillandsia guatemalensis
                 Mesosmittia              Nidularium innocentii
                 Metriocnemus             Tillandsia, Billbergia,
                   abdominoflavatus         Catopsis
                                          Tillandsia utriculata
                 Metriocnemus edwarsi     Darlingtonia
                 Metriocnemus             Eryngium horridum; E.
                   eryngiotelmatus          stenophyllum, E. aff.
                                            serra, E. elegans,
                                            E. cabrerae,
                                            Dipsacus fullonum
                 Metriocnemus knabi       Sarracenia purpurea
                 Metriocnemus sp          Tillandsia tumeri
                                          Tillandsia guatemalensis
                                          Bromeliads, Dipsacus
                                          Heliamphora spp
                 Orthocladius sp          Bromeliads
                 Orthocladiinae sp        Aechmea nudicaulis,
                                            Neoregelia concentrica
                 Phytotelmatocladius      Bromelia balansae
Tanypodinae      Ablabesmyia              Aechmea, Vriesea,
                   costaricensis            Billbergia
                 Larsia sp                Eryngium aff. serra, E.
                                            elegans, Aechmea
                                          Vriesea splitgerberi
                 Monopelopia              Eryngium spp
                                          Aechmea nudicaulis,
                                            Hohenbergia augusta,
                                          Nidularium innocentii,
                                            Vriesea gigantea, V.
                                            V. vagans
                                          Solution holes
                 Monopelopia gesta        Aeehmea paniculigera
                 Monopelopia              Aeehmea paniculigera
                 Monopelopia              Tillandsia, Catopsis,
                   tillandsia               Hohenbergia
                                          Tillandsia utriculata,
                                            Tillandsia spp
                 Monopelopia sp           Bromeliads, Aeehmea
                                            nudicaulis, Neoregelia
                                          Catopsis nitida
                 Pentaneura sp            Bromeliads
                 Tanypodinae spp          Aeehmea fendleri,
                                            Hohenbergia stellata
Chironominae     Chironominae sp          Aeehmea fendleri,
                                            Hohenbergia stellata
                 Chironomus anonymus      Aeehmea paniculigera
                 Chironomus sp            Bromeliads
                 Corynoneura sp           Vriesea splitgerberi
                 Ciyptochironomus sp      Bromeliads
                 Polypedilum kaingangi    Aeehmea lindeni,
                                            Canistrum lindenii,
                                            Neoregelia laevis,
                                            Nidularium innocentii,
                                            Vriesea philippocoburgii,
                                            V. vagans
                 Polypedilum marcondesi   Nidularium innocentii,
                                            Vriesea vagans
                 Polypedilum panacu       Tillandsia guatemalensis
                 Polypedilum              Eryngium pandanifolium
                 Polypedilum              Bromeliads
                   pedipalpus **
                 Polypedilum solimoes     Aeehmea lindeni, Canistrum
                                            lindenii, Neoregelia
                                            laevis, Nidularium
                                            innocentii, Vriesea
                                            V. vagans
                 Polypedilum cf tritum    Aeehmea paniculigera
                 Polypedilum spp          Eryngium horridum; E.
                                            stenophyllum, E. aff.
                                            serra, E. elegans,
                                            E. cabrerae
                                          Nidularium innocentii,
                                            Vriesea vagans, V.
                                            splitgerberi, Aechmea
                                            nudicaulis, Neoregelia
                 Rheocricotopus sp        Tillandsia turneri
                 Stenochironomus          Canistrum lindenii,
                   atlanticus               Neoregelia laevis,
                                            Nidularium innocentii,
                                            Vriesea philippo-coburgii,
                                            V. vagans
                 Tanytarsini sp           Nidularium innocentii
                                          Tillandsia utriculata
                 Tanytarsus bromelicola   Guzmania berteroniana
                 Tanytarsus sp.           Bromeliads
                   nr confusa
                 Tanytarsus sp            Vriesea splitgerberi

                 Taxa                     Country

Orthocladiinae   Antilocladius            Brazil
                 Cricotopus sp            Argentina
                 Limnophyes sp            Brazil
                 Mesosmittia              Brazil
                 Metriocnemus             Costa Rica
                 Metriocnemus edwarsi     USA
                 Metriocnemus             Argentina
                 Metriocnemus knabi       USA to Canada
                 Metriocnemus sp          Colombia
                 Orthocladius sp          Costa Rica
                 Orthocladiinae sp        Brazil
                 Phytotelmatocladius      Argentina
Tanypodinae      Ablabesmyia              Costa Rica
                 Larsia sp                Argentina
                 Monopelopia              Argentina
                 Monopelopia gesta        Jamaica
                 Monopelopia              Jamaica
                 Monopelopia              Cuba
                 Monopelopia sp           Brazil
                                          Puerto Rico
                 Pentaneura sp            Brazil
                                          Costa Rica
                                          US Virgin
                 Tanypodinae spp          Venezuela
Chironominae     Chironominae sp          Venezuela
                 Chironomus anonymus      Jamaica
                 Chironomus sp            Costa Rica
                 Corynoneura sp           Brazil
                 Ciyptochironomus sp      Jamaica
                 Polypedilum kaingangi    Brazil
                 Polypedilum marcondesi   Brazil
                 Polypedilum panacu       Honduras
                 Polypedilum              Argentina
                 Polypedilum              Costa Rica
                   pedipalpus **
                 Polypedilum solimoes     Brazil
                 Polypedilum cf tritum    Jamaica
                 Polypedilum spp          Argentina
                                          Costa Rica
                 Rheocricotopus sp        Colombia
                 Stenochironomus          Brazil
                 Tanytarsini sp           Brazil
                 Tanytarsus bromelicola   Puerto Rico
                 Tanytarsus sp.           US Virgin
                   nr confusa               Islands
                 Tanytarsus sp            Brazil

                 Taxa                     References

Orthocladiinae   Antilocladius            Pinho et al. 2005
                 Cricotopus sp            Campos 2010
                                          Pinho et al. 2005
                 Limnophyes sp            Pinho et al. 2005
                                          Mendez et al. 2011
                 Mesosmittia              Pinho et al. 2005
                 Metriocnemus             Picado 1913
                                          Fish 1976
                 Metriocnemus edwarsi     Jones 1916
                 Metriocnemus             Donato & Paggi
                   eryngiotelmatus          2005, Siri et al.
                                            2008a,b, Campos
                 Metriocnemus knabi       Bradshaw 1983,
                                            Nastase et al.
                 Metriocnemus sp          Ospina et al. 2004
                                          Mendez et al. 2011
                                          Epler 2001, Frank
                                            & Fish 2008,
                                            Miller 1971
                                            Baumgartner 1986
                                          Jaffe et al. 1992
                 Orthocladius sp          Picado 1913
                 Orthocladiinae sp        Sodre et al. 2010
                 Phytotelmatocladius      present study
                                          Epler 2010
                                          Epler 2010
Tanypodinae      Ablabesmyia              Picado 1913
                 Larsia sp                Campos 2010, pers.
                                          Torreias 2008
                 Monopelopia              present study
                                          Mendes et al.
                                            2003, Pinho et al.
                                          Jacobsen 2008,
                                            Frank & Fish 2008,
                                            Cranston & Epler
                 Monopelopia gesta        Epler & Janetzky
                                            1999, Cranston &
                                            Epler 2013
                 Monopelopia              Epler & Janetzky
                   mickeschwartzi           1999
                 Monopelopia              Bello et al. 2011
                                          Beck & Beck 1966,
                                            Fish 1976, Frank &
                                            Fish 2008
                 Monopelopia sp           Winder 1977, Sodre
                                            et al. 2010
                                          Cranston 2007
                 Pentaneura sp            Winder & Silva 1972
                                          Naeem 1990
                                          Laessle 1961 (*)
                                          Miller 1971
                 Tanypodinae spp          Liria 2007
Chironominae     Chironominae sp          Liria 2007
                 Chironomus anonymus      Epler & Janetzky
                 Chironomus sp            Picado 1913
                                          Laessle 1961 (*)
                 Corynoneura sp           Torreias 2008
                 Ciyptochironomus sp      Laessle 1961 (*)
                 Polypedilum kaingangi    Pinho et al. 2013
                 Polypedilum marcondesi   Saether et al. 2010
                 Polypedilum panacu       Mendes et al. 2011
                 Polypedilum              Donato & Paggi 2008
                 Polypedilum              Picado 1913, Spies
                   pedipalpus **            et al. 2009
                 Polypedilum solimoes     Pinho et al. 2013
                 Polypedilum cf tritum    Epler & Janetzky
                 Polypedilum spp          Siri et al. 2008b,
                                          Campos 2010
                                          Pinho et al. 2005,
                                            Torreias 2008,
                                            Sodre et al. 2010
                                          Lichtwardt 1994
                 Rheocricotopus sp        Ospina et al. 2004
                 Stenochironomus          Pinho et al. 2005
                 Tanytarsini sp           Pinho et al. 2005
                                          Fish 1976
                 Tanytarsus bromelicola   Cranston 2007
                                          Cranston 2007
                 Tanytarsus sp.           Miller 1971
                   nr confusa
                 Tanytarsus sp            Torreias 2008

* As reported by Epler & Janetzky (1999); due to taxonomic changes and
the general difficulty involved in identifying C hi ron o mi da e, the
preceding names from Laessle (1961) must be viewed with skepticism
until the material is re-examined. ** Nomina dubia
(Saether et al. 2010).
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Author:Siri, Augusto; Donato, Mariano
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3ARGE
Date:Sep 1, 2014
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