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Modern South African literature in English: a reader's guide to some recent critical and bibliographic resources.

The beginning of modern South African literature in English may be dated through the combination of four specific publications: Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country in 1948, which inaugurated a tradition of protest in white English-speaking South African writing; Herman Charles Bosman's Mafeking Road (1947), with its use of Afrikaans storytelling traditions and its sharp, home-grown humour; Nadine Gordimer's Face to Face (1949), which marked the start of her lifelong focus on white consciousness (her later work would measure itself against Paton's liberal protest); and then, before all this, H. I. E. Dhlomo's essay "African Attitudes to the European" (1945), which not only heralded a transition to modern themes and settings in his own plays and short stories but also defined "the new African" as a modern, urban figure opposed to European versions of the African past.

Sustained critical attention was turned on South African writing only during the late 1950s and 1960s, largely through the intervention of Guy Butler, university professor, playwright, and poet. Although Butler was still able to complain in 1969 (at the country's first conference on English South African writing held by the English Academy of Southern Africa) that not a single local academic was devoting his (or her) career to the study of South African writing in English, much had happened in the last decade. Butler himself had produced the comprehensive anthology A New Book of South African Verse in 1959. The State Library in Pretoria launched the South African National Bibliography in 1964, and a retrospective bibliography for the years 1964 to 1968 was published in the Journal of Commonwealth Literature (London), which included, from 1970, South African literature and literary criticism in its annual bibliographies. Local and overseas journals had started publishing introductory essays on South African literature in the 1960s - e.g., Peter Abrahams, Dan Jacobson, Nadine Gordimer, Ruth Miller, Dennis Brutus, and Can Themba - and the Twayne World Authors series had picked its first South African writers for book-length study: Uys Krige (1966) and Alan Paton (1968). A few more anthologies appeared: for instance, the South African branch of PEN presented the "best original writing of the day" in a short-lived series called New South African Writing (1965-68), and Nadine Gordimer and Lionel Abrahams edited an anthology for Penguin, South African Writing Today (1967). English South African writing was starting to be placed in a wider national context; for example, in Uys Krige and Jack Cope's Penguin Book of South African Verse (1968) African and Afrikaans sections, in translation, accompanied the English one, marking a break from Butler's earlier collection.

But even as a local literary tradition started formulating itself, so was it being suppressed. Ezekiel (later, Es'kia) Mphahlele had already published his pathbreaking book The African Image in 1962, but publication had to come from outside the country: Mphahlele's licence to teach in the South African school system was withdrawn in 1952, and he left the country in 1957, spending most of the rest of his life in exile. In 1955 and then again in 1966 a set of literary figures were banned under the Suppression of Communism Act (communism was ludicrously widely defined), which meant that virtually none of the black writers who had emerged in the 1950s and 1960s could speak in public or write for publication; even their already-published works could no longer be owned or read. The Publications and Entertainments Act of 1963 institutionalized a practice of censorship which continued until 1990 (the Act having been revamped in 1974 in order to put the decisions of the Publications Control Board beyond the jurisdiction of the courts). Many writers and critics left the country: some, like Lewis Nkosi in 1960 and Bessie Head in 1963, on "exit permits" which denied their right to return. English South African literature had split apart: a severely curtailed local production, on the one hand, and a literature of exile on the other hand.

Despite Butler's commitment to "the European-African encounter" as a way out of the "crisis of identity" of white English-speaking South Africans, and his insistence, radical for the 1960s, that English was an African language - see his Essays and Lectures 1949-1991, ed. Stephen Watson, Cape Town, David Philip, 1993 - a new generation of critics took issue with what was defined, at a volatile conference in 1974, as Butlerism: a romantic, nostalgic identification with a colonial past, and a vision of racial harmony based on individual merit rather than on radical structural changes to class and culture. Conscious of their uneasy place in the land of their birth, but refusing the "crisis of identity" as a mark of guilt-ridden liberal whites, these young - mostly white - critics began to confront the relation between culture and politics. Along with some black writers and critics remaining in the country - Mongane Wally Serote and Richard Rive, most notably - this younger generation initiated a local literary. criticism which questioned the aesthetic criteria imported from Britain and saw writing as part of a material context. The papers from the 1974 conference were collected in what still stands as an important publication - Poetry South Africa: Selected Papers from Poetry '74, edited by Peter Wilhelm and James Polley (Johannesburg, Donker, 1976). The National Union of South African Students hosted an Art and Liberation Week in the late 1970s, followed by a conference on "The State of Art in South Africa" whose papers were gathered as conference proceedings and stapled together under the title Dead in One's Own Lifetime: Art in Apartheid Society (Cape Town, NUSAS, 1979). Most of the pioneering publications of these years have remained in conference proceedings and journals: essays by figures such as Tim Couzens, N. W. Visser, Kelwyn Sole, Isabel Hofmeyr, Stephen Watson, Peter Horn, and Cherry Clayton. There are unfortunately no historical anthologies of South African criticism.

Local and overseas books continued to be censored and literary and other figures banned, imprisoned, placed under house arrest, and forced into exile. Yet in certain respects, the 1970s were a vibrant, even optimistic era, although an increasing amount of cultural activity was "underground." For instance, Athol Fugard's protest theatre, gradually evolving during the 1960s and strengthened when he was joined by John Kani and Winston Ntshona in the early 1970s, was being seen on university campuses, in "township" halls, even in garages, while the government-sponsored provincial performing-arts councils staged apolitical plays for whites only. Nevertheless, the combination of international boycotts and local prohibitions meant an increasing paucity in cultural and academic life. Books banned for possession (a provision of the new censorship legislation of 1974) were no longer imported into the country, so that not only the academic study of South African literature but also intellectual life more generally was profoundly affected: the prohibition on the importation of books ranged from Lawrence Stone's History of the Family to Frantz Fanon's Wretched of the Earth to Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow. One of the first collections of essays on South African writing to come from overseas, Aspects of South African Literature (ed. Christopher Heywood, London/New York, Heinemann/Africana, 1976), was banned as soon as it appeared. Censorship continued through the 1980s, along with an increasingly vicious political repression, although a set of deft manoeuvres on the part of the censorship authorities made it appear as if South Africans were in fact gaining access to greater intellectual freedom: the censors continued to ban "populist" writing said to be designed to provoke racial hatred or to lead to social unrest, but permitted oppositional texts unlikely to have mass appeal. Moreover, academics could read banned books in the various libraries' "banned book rooms," apply for permission to own them, and even request that their students be allowed to read them.

Nevertheless, the academic study of South African literature began to flourish, encouraged by two academics in particular, Stephen Gray and Tim Couzens, who, through their critical essays, editions, and interventions at conferences and in the local press, pointed the way to context-based work and an expansion of the literary canon. The first major monograph on South African writing appeared in 1979: Gray's Southern African Literature: An Introduction (see the listing that follows for bibliographic data on this and subsequently mentioned texts). Academic research was also greatly facilitated by the establishment first of the Institute for the Study of English in Africa at Rhodes University in 1974, then of the National English Literary Museum, which developed out of it, in 1979; moreover, the Human Sciences Research Council began to devote research funding to academics working on South African material. Over the years the NELM has made an increasingly significant contribution to the study of English South African writing: collecting books, journals, manuscripts, and other archival material; publishing bibliographies, introductory surveys of authors' work, and interviews with writers and critics; and providing research services for scholars of English South African writing. Its major project, due for completion in 1996, is a comprehensive listing of all creative and critical writing published in monograph or pamphlet form and in periodicals up to 1990: A Bibliography of South African Literature in English.

Still, the field remains patchily developed. Readers of this Guide would expect to find comprehensive literary histories and anthologies. Neither of these exist (though some of the groundwork has been laid), partly because the local market is too slight in an increasingly struggling economy, and perhaps partly because South Africans tend to have either an antagonistic or a nervous attitude toward the past. Although colonial diaries and letters and other forgotten literary texts are sometimes published or reprinted (largely through the efforts of Karel Schoeman and the South African Library in Cape Town, the Van Riebeeck Society in Cape Town, and the Killie Campbell Africana Library in Durban), much early South African writing is consigned to oblivion, and while some recent Afrikaans writers are being translated into English, those who have published in one of the African languages are not. Only three Collected Works have appeared: Roy Campbell's, Herman Charles Bosman's, and H. I. E. Dhlomo's.

South Africa has traditionally offered minimal state funds to support the arts. Hence the near absence of the little magazine: in the list provided at the end of this Guide, New Coin and New Contrast are the only periodical publications to give substantial space to new writers. Numerous literary magazines have been launched - Classic and then New Classic, The Bloody Horse, Bolt, Sesame, and others - but have not received enough financial support to survive. Local publishers continually struggle to make ends meet. Apart from juvenile literature, whose annual output has in the past few years far outstripped the category of adult fiction, most South African fiction is published in Britain and then distributed in South Africa; thus neither the best sellers (Wilbur Smith, most notably) nor the slower but dependable sellers (J. M. Coetzee, Nadine Gordimer, and Andre Brink) are in fact local commodities. The absence of such sales means, for instance, that even well-established publishing houses cannot include poetry as part of their regular output: during the last five years, poetry publishing in this country has been kept alive largely by small independent companies - Snailpress in Cape Town, most notably - which do not survive long.

Although the first democratic elections in South Africa, in April 1994, cleared the way for this country to join a world community once again and to usher in a range of new economic contacts, the country's extreme financial difficulties are increasing. Funds for the arts have been and will continue to be cut, given the massive expense of the election and the extensive social reforms (largely in primary- and secondary-school education, in adult literacy, and in housing) that the country still needs to undergo. Whereas cultural organizations were starting to respond to popular demands for change during the late 1980s and early 1990s, the shortage of funding has closed most doors. For instance, the Congress of South African Writers has had to put an end to its programs designed for new and aspirant writers. Dramatic production is also being hampered. Among little magazines, the most recent loss is Staffrider, famous for its promotion of young black writers.

There are no signs that the financial situation is improving, but culturally the country stands at a threshold. Exiles have returned, and international cultural and academic exchange is increasing. The borders between South Africa and the rest of the Southern African region are becoming more permeable, and internal borders are also being crossed. Because of large-scale literacy programs, South African publishers can look forward to a gradual increase in the size of the reading population. Some critics are suggesting that the most recent writing reflects a new spirit of liberation, more celebratory of writing per se, freed from the need merely to provide political documentation - to "bear witness" - and also more open to the private spaces of the mind than was possible previously. Others suggest that what is changing is not the writing as such but public taste: readers' and critics' horizons are widening. Whatever the case, South African writing and criticism is entering a new stage.

This Guide starts with recent bibliographies and research aids, then adds a small selection of specialized listings. In the section on general critical works, the list includes both pioneering works and useful surveys, taking 1974 - the revision of Mphahlele's African Image - as its starting point. The list of research resources relating to individual writers refers only to those in the modern period whose writing has generated critical books of various kinds - literary biographies, literary criticism, volumes of letters, bibliographies - or who have written literary autobiographies. (Andre Brink and Dennis Brutus are two of the particularly scandalous omissions.) Bibliographies of a particular writer are included in this section only when they are fairly up-to-date or in the absence of detailed bibliographic information provided in the recent critical work. If there are numerous literary critical treatments to select from, only the most recent are listed, though there has also been an eye to range of approach. A separate section of interviews with writers follows, selecting only from interviews gathered in book form.

The list of anthologies starts with a general section and then divides generically, the selection focusing on the major works during the course of the last fifteen years. The list omits anthologies which have been superseded, as well as some which seem to have only an ephemeral interest, but nevertheless aims to give some sense of a literature in the making and to represent a range of writing. Beyond this, creative work has not been listed, space being an obvious constraint.

After the list of current literary critical periodicals and of special South African issues of periodicals published outside the country, the Guide ends with what will be for many readers a useful starting point: a selection of general cultural and comparative criticism. Of the more focused critical texts, readers would particularly benefit from starting with J. M. Coetzee's White Writing, Njabulo Ndebele's Essays on South African Literature and Culture, and Margaret Daymond's South African Feminisms.

Because bibliographic work on contemporary South African writing is reasonably well advanced, any omissions in this scant Guide can be remedied by going to the annual indexes and bibliographies listed at the start. In compiling the Guide, I have only to a very small extent taken availability into account, so that the full list of readings suggested here would be available outside South Africa only from the larger research libraries with an orientation toward Africa. On balance, it seemed preferable to include landmark texts even when they are no longer in print rather than to present only an international list.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND RESEARCH AIDS

Companion to South African English Literature. David Adey, Ridley Beeton, Michael Chapman, and Ernest Pereira, comps. Johannesburg. Donker. 1986.

Contains biographical and critical entries on writers and on various literary topics.

National Register of Manuscripts. Pretoria. Government Archives Service. Paperback series; also computerized.

A Select Index to South African Literature in English. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. Annual, 1990-present.

Lists creative and critical work published in book form and periodicals, including essays, reviews, and letters. Separate section on juvenile literature. Subject and author indexes. Published annually.

"South Africa." Annual Bibliography of English South African Literature and Literary Criticism. Dorothy Driver. comp. Journal of Commonwealth Literature. December issue each year.

Lists creative work published in book form, and critical work published in book form and periodicals. Includes autobiographies, memoirs, letters, and nonfiction relevant to cultural background. Preceded by a survey of the year's work.

South African National Bibliography. Pretoria. State Library. Annual, 1964-present; with retrospective listing.

Lists all books and journals published in South Africa each year; items arranged under Dewey classification scheme. Published quarterly and accumulated annually; available as weekly card service and by computer.

Southern African Books in Print. Cape Town. Books in Print Information Services. Annual, 1993-present.

Available in book form only.

SPECIALIZED BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Black African Literature in English, 1987-1991. Bernth Lindfors, comp. London. Hans Zell. 1995.

Reflecting Apartheid: South African Short Stories in English with Socio-Political Themes, 1960-1987: A Select and Annotated Bibliography. Catherine Dubbeld, comp. Johannesburg. South African Institute of International Affairs. 1990.

Southern African Children's Books in Print. Jay Heale, comp. Grabouw, S.A. Bookchat. 1995. Supplemented annually.

Afrikaans Literature in Translation: A Bibliography. Barend J. Toerien, comp. Cape Town. Carrefour. 1993.

African Literature: Pilot Bibliography of Research in Southern Africa, 1908-1991. G. M. M. Grobler and E. M. Briers. Pretoria. University of South Africa. 1993.

CRITICISM ON ENGLISH SOUTH AFRICAN WRITING

Alvarez-Pereyre, Jacques. The Poetry of Commitment in South Africa. 1979. Clive Wake, tr. London. Heinemann. 1984.

Boehmer, Elleke, Laura Chrisman, and Kenneth Parker, eds. Altered State? Writing and South Africa. Sydney. Dangaroo. 1994.

Papers delivered at the Literature in a New South Africa Conference, 1990.

Chapman, Michael, Colin Gardner, and Es'kia Mphahlele, eds. Perspectives on South African English Literature. Johannesburg. Donker. 1992.

Chapman, Michael. South African English Poetry: A Modern Perspective. Johannesburg. Donker. 1984.

Chapman, Michael, ed. Soweto Poetry. Johannesburg. McGraw-Hill. 1982.

Essays, reviews, interviews; biographical and bibliographic data.

Clayton, Cherry, ed. Women and Writing in South Africa: A Critical Anthology. Johannesburg. Heinemann. 1989.

Coetzee, J. M. White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa. New Haven, Ct. Yale University Press. 1988.

Daymond, M. J., ed. South African Feminisms. New York. Garland. 1996.

Daymond, M. J., J. U. Jacobs, and Margaret Lenta, eds. Momentum: On Recent South African Writing. Pietermaritzburg. University of Natal Press. 1984.

Fletcher, Pauline, ed. Black/White Writing: Essays on South African Literature. Lewisburg, Pa./London. Bucknell Review Press/Associated University Presses. 1993.

Special issue of the Bucknell Review.

Gray, Stephen. Southern African Literature: An Introduction. Cape Town / London / New York. David Philip / Rex Collings / Barnes & Noble. 1979.

Gunner, Liz. Politics and Performance: Theatre, Poetry and Song in Southern Africa. Johannesburg. Witwatersrand University Press. 1994.

Jenkins, Elwyn. Children of the Sun: Selected Writers and Themes in South African Children's Literature. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1993.

Jolly, Rosemary. Colonization, Violence, and Narration in White South African Writing: Andre Brink, Breyten Breytenbach, and J. M. Coetzee. Athens, Ohio / Johannesburg. Ohio University Press / Witwatersrand University Press. 1995.

Kavanagh, Robert Mshengu. Theatre and Cultural Struggle in South Africa: A Study in Cultural Hegemony and Social Conflict. London. Zed Books. 1984.

Malan, Charles, ed. Race and Literature / Ras en Literatuur. Pinetown, S.A. Owen Burgess. 1987.

Six of the twenty-two essays are in Afrikaans.

Mphahlele, Ezekiel. The African Image. 1966. Revised edition: London, Faber & Faber, 1974.

Ndebele, Njabulo. Essays on South African Literature and Culture: Rediscovery of the Ordinary. 1991. Revised edition: Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1994.

First edition appeared under the title Rediscovery of the Ordinary. Revised edition adds one essay.

Nkosi, Lewis. Home and Exile and Other Selections. 1965. Expanded edition: London, Longman, 1983.

Orkin, Martin. Drama and the South African State. Manchester/Johannesburg. Manchester University Press / Witwatersrand University Press. 1991.

Shava, Piniel Viriri. A People's Voice: Black South African Writing in the Twentieth Century. London/Athens, Ohio. Zed Books / Ohio University Press. 1989.

Trump, Martin. Rendering Things Visible: Essays on South African Literary Culture. Johannesburg/Athens, Ohio. Ravan / Ohio University Press. 1990/1991.

Van Wyk Smith, Malvern. Grounds of Contest: A Survey of South African English Literature. Cape Town. Juta. 1990.

White, Landeg, and Tim Couzens, eds. Literature and Society in South Africa. Cape Town. Maskew Miller Longman. 1984.

Proceedings of a conference at the University of York, 1981.

RESEARCH RESOURCES RELATING TO INDIVIDUAL WRITERS

ABRAHAMS, PETER

Abrahams, Peter. Tell Freedom. London. Faber & Faber. 1954.

Ogungbesan, Kolawole. The Writings of Peter Abrahams. New York / London. Holmes & Meier / Hodder & Stoughton. 1979.

Ensor, Robert. The Novels of Peter Abrahams and the Rise of Nationalism in Africa. Essen, Ger. Blaue Eule. 1993.

BOSMAN, HERMAN CHARLES

Rosenberg, Valerie. The Life of Herman Charles Bosman. Cape Town. Human & Rousseau. 1991.

First published in 1976 under the title Sunflower to the Sun.

Gray, Stephen, ed. Herman Charles Bosman. Johannesburg. McGraw-Hill. 1986.

Selection of critical essays; chronology; bibliography.

BREYTENBACH, BREYTEN

Breytenbach, Breyten. A Season in Paradise. Rike Vaughan, tr. London. Cape. 1982.

Breytenbach, Breyten. The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist. London/Johannesburg. Faber/Taurus. 1984.

Breytenbach, Breyten. Return to Paradise. Cape Town. David Philip. 1993.

BUTLER, GUY

Butler, Guy. Karoo Morning: An Autobiography (1918-1935). Cape Town. David Philip. 1977.

Butler, Guy. Bursting World: An Autobiography, 1936-1945. Cape Town. David Philip. 1983.

Read, John, comp. Guy Butler: A Bibliography. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1993.

CLOUTS, SYDNEY

"Sydney Clouts Memorial Issue." Special issue of English in Africa (Grahamstown), 11:2 (1984).

Includes essays and talks on and by the poet, and a chronology.

COETZEE, J. M.

Coetzee, J. M. Doubling the Point: Essays and Interviews. David Attwell, ed. Cambridge, Ma. Harvard University Press. 1992.

Dovey, Teresa. The Novels of J. M. Coetzee: Lacanian Allegories. Johannesburg. Donker. 1988.

Penner, Dick. Countries of the Mind: The Fiction of J. M. Coetzee. New York. Greenwood. 1989.

Gallagher, Susan Van Zanten. A Story of South Africa: J. M. Coetzee's Fiction in Context. Cambridge, Ma. Harvard University Press. 1991.

Attwell, David. J. M. Coetzee: South Africa and the Politics of Writing. Cape Town / Berkeley. David Philip / University of California Press. 1993.

Watson, Stephen, and Graham Huggan, eds. Critical Perspectives on J. M. Coetzee. New York / London. St. Martin's / Macmillan. 1995.

Goddard, Kevin, and John Read, comps. J. M. Coetzee: A Bibliography. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1990.

DHLOMO, H. I. E.

Couzens, Tim. The New African: A Study of the Life and Work of H. I. E. Dhlomo. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1985.

FUGARD, ATHOL

Fugard, Athol. Notebooks 1960-1977. Mary Benson, ed. London/New York / Johannesburg. Faber & Faber / Knopf / Donker. 1983/1984/1982.

Fugard, Athol. Cousins: A Memoir. Johannesburg. Witwatersrand University Press. 1994.

"Athol Fugard." Special issue of Twentieth-Century Literature (Hempstead, N.Y.), 39:4 (1993).

Gray, Stephen, ed. Athol Fugard. Johannesburg. McGraw-Hill. 1982.

Critical essays, reviews, interviews; biographical and bibliographic data.

Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. London. Macmillan. 1984.

Vandenbroucke, Russell. Truths the Hand Can Touch: The Theatre of Athol Fugard. Johannesburg. Donker. 1986.

GORDIMER, NADINE

Gordimer, Nadine. Conversations with Nadine Gordimer. Nancy Topping Bazin and Marilyn Dallman Seymour, eds. Jackson. University of Mississippi Press. 1990.

Newman, Judie. Nadine Gordimer. London. Routledge. 1988.

Clingman, Stephen R. The Novels of Nadine Gordimer: History from the Inside. 1986. Second edition: Amherst / London, University of Massachusetts Press / Bloomsbury, 1992/1993.

Ettin, Andrew Vogel. Betrayals of the Body Politic: The Literary Commitments of Nadine Gordimer. Charlottesville. University Press of Virginia. 1993.

King, Bruce, ed. The Later Fiction of Nadine Gordimer. London. Macmillan. 1993.

Head, Dominic. Nadine Gordimer. Cambridge, Eng. Cambridge University Press. 1994.

Wagner, Kathrin. Rereading Nadine Gordimer: Text and Subtext in the Novels. Bloomington / Cape Town / Johannesburg. Indiana University Press / Maskew Miller Longman / Witwatersrand University Press. 1994.

Driver, Dorothy, Ann Dry, Craig MacKenzie, and John Read, comps. Nadine Gordimer: A Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources, 1937-1992. London / Grahamstown, S.A. Hans Zell/National English Literary Museum. 1993.

GRAY, STEPHEN

Gray, Stephen. Accident of Birth. Johannesburg. COSAW. 1993.

HEAD, BESSIE

Head, Bessie. A Woman Alone: Autobiographical Writings. Craig MacKenzie, ed. Oxford, Eng./Portsmouth, N.H. Heinemann International / Heinemann Educational. 1990.

Head, Bessie. A Gesture of Belonging: Letters from Bessie Head, 1965-1979. Randolph Vigne, ed. London / Portsmouth, N.H. SA Writers / Heinemann. 1991.

MacKenzie, Craig. Bessie Head: An Introduction. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1989.

Eilersen, Gillian Stead. Bessie Head - Thunder Behind Her Ears: Her Life and Writing. Cape Town / London. David Philip / James Currey. 1995/1996.

Abrahams, Cecil, ed. The Tragic Life: Bessie Head and Literature in Southern Africa. Trenton, N.J. Africa World Press. 1990.

MacKenzie, Craig, and Catherine Woeber, comps. Bessie Head: A Bibliography. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1993.

JACOBSON, DAN

Jacobson, Dan. Time and Time Again: Autobiographies. London. Deutsch. 1985.

Roberts, Sheila. Dan Jacobson. New York. Twayne. 1984.

LA GUMA, ALEX

Abrahams, Cecil A. Alex la Guma. Boston. Twayne. 1985.

Asein, Samuel O. Alex la Guma: The Man and His Work. Ibadan, Nigeria. New Horn/Heinemann Educational. 1987.

Balutansky, Kathleen M. The Novels of Alex la Guma: The Representation of a Political Conflict. Washington, D.C. Three Continents. 1990.

Chandramohan, Balasubramanyam. A Study in Trans-Ethnicity in Modern South Africa: The Writings of Alex La [sic] Guma. Lewiston, N.Y. Mellen Research University Press. 1992.

LIVINGSTONE, DOUGLAS

Chapman, Michael. Douglas Livingstone: A Critical Study of His Poetry. Johannesburg. Donker. 1981.

MPHAHLELE, ES'KIA

Mphahlele, Es'kia. Down Second Avenue. London. Faber & Faber. 1959.

Mphahlele, Es'kia. Afrika My Music: An Autobiography 1957-1983. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1984.

Manganyi, Noel Chabani. Exiles and Homecomings: A Biography of Es'kia Mphahlele. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1983.

Barnett, Ursula. Ezekiel Mphahlele. Boston. G. K. Hall. 1976.

Thuynsma, Peter, ed. Footprints Along the Way: A Tribute to Es'kia Mphahlele. Johannesburg. Justified Press / Skotaville. 1989.

Woeber, Catherine, and John Read, comps. Es'kia Mphahlele: A Bibliography. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1989.

PATON, ALAN

Paton, Alan. Towards the Mountain: An Autobiography. Cape Town / London / London. David Philip / Scribner's / Penguin. 1980/1980/1986.

Paton, Alan. Journey Continued: An Autobiography. Cape Town. David Philip. 1988.

Callan, Edward. Alan Paton. Revised edition: Boston, Twayne, 1982.

Alexander, Peter. Alan Paton: A Biography. Oxford/New York. Oxford University Press. 1994.

RIVE, RICHARD

Rive, Richard. Writing Black. Cape Town. David Philip. 1982.

Rive, Richard. "Buckingham Palace", District Six. Cape Town. David Philip. 1986.

Raju, Jayarani, and Catherine Dubbeld. "Richard Rive: A Select Bibliography." Current Writing, 1 (1989), pp. 56-65.

VAN DER POST, LAURENS

Van der Post, Laurens. Yet Being Someone Other. London/New York. Hogarth/Morrow. 1982/1983.

Van der Post, Laurens. About Blady: A Pattern Out of Time. London/London/New York. Chatto & Windus / Penguin / Harcourt Brace. 1991/1993/1993.

Carpenter, Frederic I. Laurens van der Post. New York. Twayne. 1969.

COLLECTIONS OF INTERVIEWS WITH WRITERS

Brown, Duncan, and Bruno van Dyk, eds. Exchanges: South African Writing in Transition. Pietermaritzburg. University of Natal Press. 1991.

Interviews with writers and critics about the relation between writing and politics: Lionel Abrahams, Michael Chapman, Gareth Cornwell, Menan du Plessis, Nadine Gordimer, Stephen Gray, Joan Hambidge, Douglas Livingstone, Nise Malange, Dikobe wa Mogale, Njabulo Ndebele, Bheki Ntuli, Gerrit Olivier, Ari Sitas, Douglas Reid Skinner, Kelwyn Sole, Stephen Watson, Hein Willemse.

Duerden, Dennis, and Cosmo Pieterse, eds. African Writers Talking: A Collection of Interviews. London. Heinemann. 1972.

Includes interviews with Dennis Brutus, Mazisi Kunene, Alex la Guma, Ezekiel Mphahlele, Richard Rive.

Granqvist, Raoul, and John Stotesbury. African Voices: Interviews with Thirteen African Writers. Mundelstrap. Dangaroo. 1989.

Includes interviews with Lauretta Ngcobo, Njabulo Ndebele, Sipho Sepamla, Mongane Wally Serote, and Miriam Tlali.

Gardner, Susan. Four South African Poets: Interviews with Robert Berold, Jeremy Cronin, Douglas Reid Skinner and Stephen Watson. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1986.

Herber, Avril. Conversations: Some People, Some Place, Some Time - South Africa. Johannesburg. Bateleur. 1979.

Interviews with Andre Brink, Fatima Dike, Pieter-Dirk Uys, Adam Small, Govender, Barney Simon, Sipho Sepamla, Stephen Gray, J. M. Coetzee.

Hunter, Eva, and Craig MacKenzie, eds. Between the Lines II: Interviews with Menan du Plessis, Nadine Gordimer, Lauretta Ngcobo and Zoe Wicomb. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1993.

Goddard, Kevin, and Charles Wessels, eds. Out of Exile: Interviews with Albie Sachs, Lewis Nkosi, Mbulelo Mzamane, Breyten Breytenbach, Dennis Brutus, Keorapetse Kgositsile. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1992.

MacKenzie, Craig, and Cherry Clayton, eds. Between the Lines: Interviews with Bessie Head, Sheila Roberts, Ellen Kuzwayo, Miriam Tlali. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1989.

Welz, Dieter. Writing Against Apartheid: Interviews with South African Authors. Grahamstown, S.A. National English Literary Museum. 1987.

Interviews with Andre Brink, Guy Butler, Jeremy Cronin, Nadine Gordimer, Stephen Gray, Elsa Joubert, Ingoapele Madingoane, Es'kia Mphahlele, Mothobi Mutloatse, Richard Rive.

Wilkinson, Jane, ed. Talking with African Writers: Interviews with African Poets, Playwrights and Novelists. London. James Currey. 1992.

Includes interviews with Mazisi Kunene, Njabulo Ndebele, Essop Patel, and Mongane Wally Serote.

ANTHOLOGIES: GENERAL

Brink, Andre, and J. M. Coetzee, eds. A Land Apart: A Contemporary South African Reader. London/New York. Faber & Faber/Viking Penguin. 1986/1987.

Bunn, David, and Jane Taylor, eds. From South Africa: New Writing, Photographs and Art. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. 1988.

COSAW Women's Collective, eds. Like a House on Fire: Contemporary Women's Writing, Art and Photography from South Africa. Johannesburg. Congress of South African Writers. 1994.

Krouse, Matthew, ed. The Invisible Ghetto: Lesbian and Gay Writing from South Africa. Johannesburg. Congress of South African Writers. 1993.

Mabuza, Lindiwe, comp. One Never Knows: An Anthology of Black South African Women Writers in Exile. Johannesburg. Skotaville. 1989.

Mutloatse, Mothobi, ed. Forced Landing: Africa South: Contemporary Writings. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1980. Also published as Africa South: Contemporary Writings, London, Heinemann, 1982.

Mutloatse, Mothobi, ed. Reconstruction: 90 Years of Black Historical Literature. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1981.

Oliphant, Andries Walter, and Ivan Vladislavic eds. Ten Years of Staffrider Magazine: 1978-1988. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1988.

Oosthuizen, Ann, ed. Sometimes When It Rains: Writings by South African Women. London. Pandora. 1987.

Zenani, Masithathu. The World and the Word. Harold Scheub, ed. New York. Oxford University Press. 1994.

ANTHOLOGIES: FICTION

Chapman, Michael, ed. The Drum Decade: Stories from the 1950s. Pietermaritzburg. University of Natal Press. 1989.

Gray, Stephen, ed. The Penguin Book of Contemporary South African Short Stories. Johannesburg. Penguin. 1993.

Hirson, Denis, with Martin Trump, ed. South African Short Stories: From 1945 to the Present. Oxford, Eng. Heinemann (with UNESCO). 1994.

Hodge, Norman, ed. To Kill a Man's Pride and Other Stories from Southern Africa. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1984.

Revised edition due from Ravan Press.

Mzamane, Mbulelo, ed. Hungry Flames and Other Black South African Short Stories. London. Longman. 1986.

Sherman, Joseph, ed. From a Land Far Off: South African Yiddish Stories in English Translation. Cape Town. Jewish Publications. 1987.

Trump, Martin, ed. A Century of South African Short Stories. Johannesburg. Donker. 1993.

A revised version of Jean Marquard's anthology of the same name, published in 1978.

Van Niekerk, Annemarie, ed. Raising the Blinds: A Century of South African Women's Stories. Johannesburg. Donker. 1990.

ANTHOLOGIES: VERSE

Butler, Guy, and Chris Mann, eds. A New Book of South African Verse in English. Cape Town. Oxford University Press. 1979.

Chapman, Michael, ed. A Century of South African Poetry. Johannesburg. Donker. 1982.

Chapman, Michael, ed. The Paperbook of South African English Poetry. Johannesburg. Donker. 1986.

Couzens, Tim, and Essop Patel, eds. The Return of the Amasi Bird: Black South African Poetry 1891-1981. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1982.

Feinberg, Barry, ed. Poets to the People: South African Freedom Poems. 1974. Enlarged edition: London, Heinemann, 1980.

Finn, Stephen, and Rosemary Gray, comps. Broken Strings: The Politics of Poetry in South Africa. Cape Town. Maskew Miller Longman. 1993.

Gray, Stephen, ed. The Penguin Book of Southern African Verse. London. Penguin. 1989.

Lockett, Cecily, ed. Breaking the Silence: A Century of South African Women's Poetry. Johannesburg. Donker. 1990.

Oliphant, Andries Walter, ed. Essential Things: An Anthology of New South African Poetry. Johannesburg. Congress of South African Writers. 1993.

Opland, Jeff, ed. Words that Circle Words: A Choice of South African Oral Poetry. Johannesburg. Donker. 1992.

Pieterse, Cosmo, ed. Seven South African Poets: Poems of Exile. London. Heinemann. 1971.

Royston, Robert, ed. To Whom It May Concern: An Anthology of Black South African Poetry. Johannesburg. Donker. 1973.

Sitas, Ari, ed. Black Mamba Rising: South African Worker Poets in Struggle. Durban, S.A. Worker Resistance and Culture Publications. 1986.

Van Wyk, J., P. Conradie, and N. Constandaras, eds. SA in Poetry. Durban, S.A. Owen Burgess. 1988.

ANTHOLOGIES: DRAMA

Gray, Stephen, ed. South Africa Plays. London/Johannesburg. Nick Hern Books/Heinemann Centaur. 1993.

Gray, Stephen, ed. Market Plays. Johannesburg. Donker. 1986.

Gray, Stephen, ed. Theatre One: New South African Drama. Johannesburg. Donker. 1978.

Gray, Stephen, ed. Theatre Two: New South African Drama. Johannesburg. Donker. 1982.

Kani, John, comp. More Market Plays. Johannesburg. Donker. 1994.

Kavanagh, Robert Mshengu, ed. South African People's Plays. London. Heinemann. 1982.

Ndlovu, Duma, ed. Woza Afrika! An Anthology of South African Plays. New York. Braziller. 1986.

MONOGRAPHS AND COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS ON GENERAL SOUTH AFRICAN LITERATURE AND CULTURE, INCLUDING LITERATURE IN OTHER SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGES

Brink, Andre. Mapmakers: Writing in a State of Siege. London. Faber. 1983.

On Afrikaans writers.

Cope, Jack. The Adversary Within: Dissident Writers in Afrikaans. Cape Town. David Philip. 1982.

Coplan, David B. In Township Tonight! South Africa's Black City Music and Theatre. Johannesburg/London. Ravan/Longman. 1985/1986.

Gordimer, Nadine. The Essential Gesture: Writing, Politics and Places. Stephen Clingman, ed. Cape Town/Johannesburg/London/London. David Philip / Taurus / Penguin / Cape. 1988/1988/1988/1989.

Haarhoff, Dorian. The Wild South-West: Frontier Myths and Metaphors in Literature Set in Namibia, 1760-1988. Johannesburg. University of Witwatersrand Press. 1992.

Hofmeyr, Isabel. 'We Spend our Years as a Tale that is Told': Oral Historical Narrative in a South African Chiefdom. Johannesburg/Portsmouth, N.H./London. University of Witwatersrand Press/Heinemann/Currey. 1993/1994/1994.

McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest. New York. Routledge. 1995.

Nixon, Rob. Homelands, Harlem and Hollywood: South African Culture and the World Beyond. New York. Routledge. 1994.

Ntuli, D. B., and C. F. Swanepoel. South African Literature in African Languages: A Concise Historical Perspective. Pretoria. Academia Books. 1993.

Opland, Jeff. Xhosa Oral Poetry: Aspects of a Black South African Tradition. Johannesburg. Ravan. 1985.

Vail, Leroy, and Landeg White. Power and the Praise Poem: Southern African Voices in History. Charlottesville/London. University Press of Virginia/Currey. 1991.

LOCAL LITERARY JOURNALS, LITTLE MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS CURRENTLY BEING PUBLISHED

Alter/Nations (Durban) Current Writing (Durban) The English Academy Review (Johannesburg) English in Africa (Grahamstown) English Studies in Africa (Johannesburg) Imprint (Johannesburg) Journal of Literary Studies (Pretoria) Literator (Potchefstroom) New Coin (Grahamstown) New Contrast (Cape Town) Pretexts (Cape Town) SATJ: South African Theatre Journal (Pretoria) Southern African Review of Books (Cape Town) Theoria (Pietermaritzburg) UNISA English Studies (Pretoria)

SPECIAL ISSUES OF FOREIGN JOURNALS DEVOTED TO SOUTH AFRICAN LITERATURE

Ariel: A Review of International English Literature (Calgary), 19:4 (1988). Issue on Nadine Gordimer.

Bucknell Review (Lewisburg, Pa.), 37:1 (1993). Issue titled "Black/White Writing: Essays on South African Literature." Pauline Fletcher, ed.

Journal of Southern African Studies (Oxford), 16:2 (1990). Issue titled "Performance and Popular Culture."

Kunapipi (Aarhus, Dmk.), 13:1-2 (1991). Issue titled "New Art and Literature from South Africa."

Matatu (Gottingen, Ger.), 1:3-4 (1988). Issue titled "Towards Liberation: Culture and Resistance in South Africa."

Research in African Literatures (Austin, Tx.), 19:1 (1988). Issue titled "Black South African Literature since 1976."

Research in African Literatures (Bloomington, In.), 24:4 (1994). Section titled "Cluster on South African Writing."

Salmagundi (Saratoga Springs, N.Y.), 62 (1984). Issue titled "Nadine Gordimer: Politics and the Order of Art."

The South Atlantic Quarterly (Durham, N.C.), 93:1 (1994). Issue titled "The Writings of J. M. Coetzee."

TriQuarterly (Chicago), 69 (Spring/Summer 1987). Issue titled "From South Africa: New Writing, Photographs and Art."

Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature (Tulsa, Ok.), 11 (1993). Issue titled "South African Women's Writing."

Twentieth-Century Literature, 1993. Special issue on Athol Fugard.
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Title Annotation:South African Literature in Transition
Author:Driver, Dorothy
Publication:World Literature Today
Article Type:Bibliography
Date:Jan 1, 1996
Words:5976
Previous Article:Arts of resistance, acts of construction: thoughts on the contexts of South African art, 1985-1995.
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