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Modeling universal design for learning techniques to support multicultural education for pre-service secondary educators.

Introduction

As with all levels of education, secondary level classrooms, typically from grades fifth or sixth to grade twelve, are increasingly becoming more diverse as the population of students changes in the Unites States (Lopes-Murphy, 2012; McGuire-Schwartz & Arndt, 2007; Strobel, Arthanat, Bauer, Flagg, & Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer, 2007). Pre-service midlevel or secondary level educators need increased training on how they can best teach in a multicultural setting to assist all their future students to succeed in learning (Lopes-Murphy, 2012; Spooner, Baker, Harris, Ahlgrim-Delzell, & Browder, 2007).

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) has been found to be a beneficial framework and planning process for educators of all grades to learn and utilize in order to increase educational gains for all students, (Benton-Borghi, 2013; Lopes-Murphy, 2012; McGuire-Schwartz & Arndt, 2007; Spooner et al., 2007; Strobel et al., 2007). Harac (2004) states: "Its researchers claim that with the right materials, technology, and training, teachers can make all lessons flexible enough to benefit every student--including those considered 'disabled'" (p.1).

Studies have shown that, even with limited exposure to training in UDL, especially related to lesson plan creation, secondary and other educators can display an increased ability to incorporate UDL related teaching techniques that can benefit all learners in today's diverse classrooms (Lopes-Murphy, 2012; McGuire-Schwartz & Arndt, 2007; Spooner et al., 2007; Strobel et al., 2007).

According to the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), UDL "is a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn" (2013a). UDL incorporates multiple means of engagement, action and expression, and representation to assist educators in creating curriculum that is accessible to all learners (CAST, 2013a). Thus it is argued that all teachers need to know how to utilize UDL for their classrooms--especially secondary level teachers (Lopes-Murphy, 2012; Casper & Leuchovius, 2005; Kortering, McClannon, & Braziel, 2005; Jimenez, Graf, & Rose, 2007).

While all teachers should know how to create UDL classrooms and lessons, many future secondary teachers are not well prepared in their teacher education to understand and successfully implement UDL (Lopes-Murphy, 2012; Spooner et al., 2007; Strobel et al., 2007). As Gay stated (2002): "Teachers' knowledge about and attitudes toward cultural diversity are powerful determinants of learning opportunities and outcomes for ... different students" (p. 613).

The purpose of this article is to review a process of introducing future secondary educators to UDL in a teacher education course in a southern university in the United States. The article will review how the higher education instructor modeled UDL techniques to future secondary educators in a course they took which focuses on teaching future educators to work with diverse students, including students with disabilities, English Language Learners (ELL), and other diverse learners.

The university students were introduced to UDL via "flipping the classroom techniques" and active learning techniques, and were then assessed by creating UDL lesson plans in their content areas and modeling part of their lesson plans to each other.

Flipping the Classroom

Utilizing technology in all areas of education is important, especially when modeling teaching techniques to future educators that can include all learners (Dinmore, 2013). Utilizing flipped learning techniques can be a good way to incorporate technology into learning and make learning more Universally Designed. As the Flip Learning Network (2014) describes:

   Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach
   in which direct instruction moves
   from the group learning space to the
   individual learning space, and the resulting
   group space is transformed into a dynamic,
   interactive learning environment
   where the educator guides students as
   they apply concepts and engage creatively
   in the subject matter, (p. 1)


Typically, flipped learning incorporates video lectures, readings, online modules, online quizzes, and other online activities to engage individual students so they can come to class with background knowledge about the topic intact, and be more involved in active learning techniques during the face to face or online classes (Educause, 2012). Flipped learning teaching methods and techniques correlate well with Universal Design for Learning (UDL) because these methods incorporate technology, individualized and group teaching techniques, and promote flexible learning.

As Dinmore (2013) describes, both pedagogical techniques--flipped learning and UDL--have these characteristics:

1. Have the concept of flexibility at their core.

2. Rely on a technology rich environment with groups of networked learners.

3. Encourage self-paced learning through the provision of Internet based materials.

4. Rely on a high level of explicit communication with students facilitated by ICT [Information and communications technology] (p. 233).

To model how flipped learning can work for higher education and secondary level students, flipped learning techniques were utilized throughout the university course discussed in this article. Most of the flipped learning sessions involved use of modules that could teach students prior knowledge about the concepts the class would then learn more about face to face, such as Universal Design for Learning (UDL), Cooperative Learning, Response to Intervention (RTI), Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT), and laws that affect public education in the United States (CAST, 2013c; Kagan, 2013; National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., 2014; Kea, C., Campbell-Whatley, G., Richards, H., & National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems [NCCREST)], 2006).

The flipped learning also involved video and video models, online readings, use of Live Binders (http://www.livebinders.com/welcome/home) designed to encourage student exploration and learning about the course topics, and graphic organizers. Initially, the flipped learning was utilized mainly as basic homework assignments, which evolved over time to now utilize the class Blackboard Learning program to outline specific flipped learning sessions, and discussions were held in class about how secondary level educators could create more UDL classrooms by utilizing flipped learning methods (Blackboard, 2014). Appendix A provides a list of some of the online modules utilized for the flipped learning components of this university course.

Active Learning Techniques

As defined by Stanford University, active learning "means students engage with the material, participate in the class, and collaborate with each other" (2014). There are many different types of active learning, ranging from cooperative learning techniques to brainstorming, using case studies in class, and having students utilize technology to engage in the classroom concepts (Brigham Young University Center for Teaching & Learning & Halverson, T., 2014; Office of Instructional Consulting, School of Education, Indiana University Bloomington, n.d.; O' Neal, Pinder-Grover & Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, University of Michigan, 2014; Paulson, D. & Faust, J., 1998; Stanford University, 2014).

It is important for future educators to learn about active learning techniques and understand how to successfully include multicultural students when utilizing these techniques (Gay 2002). There are many parts of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 and other education laws that affect educator's daily lives and teaching techniques, including making accommodations and modifications to curriculum and teaching to ensure that a class incorporates UDL so all students can learn successfully in that classroom (CAST, 2013b).

Active learning techniques that used technology were incorporated into the university class to model active learning with the use of technology to the university students, while helping them gain a better understanding how to work with students with a range of abilities in their future classrooms, and what accommodations and modifications may assist with the universality of their teaching. Students learned these skills by creating graphic organizers, online posters, and conducting research individually and within groups which was then presented via online posters to the whole class, so the students could teach and learn from each other in cooperative ways.

For this course, to assist in modeling Universal Design for Learning (UDL) modalities of multiple means of engagement, action and expression, and representation (CAST, 2013a), students were to create a graphic organizer about strategies, accommodations, and modifications appropriate for students with specific kinds of disabilities (see sample in Appendix B). Students were then also to create an online poster utilizing technology such as Glogster (http://edu.glogster.com/?ref=com), Weebly (http://www.weebly.com/), or Newhive (http://newhive.com/) focused on specific disabilities. Further, students also participated with in-class modeling of group work and utilizing cooperative learning and teaching techniques (Kagen, 2012).

Finally, students also engaged in student led instruction, when they were to present their online posters and graphic organizers to their peers in the class. These activities were all conducted earlier in the course, to build collaboration, use of technology, and modeling of active teaching and learning techniques so that students would be more prepared to work with each other to create and present group lesson plans that had been re-designed to be Universally Designed for their potential future classrooms. Appendix C presents a sample of the explanation for the online poster assignment.

Group Universally Designed for Learning (UDL) Lesson Plans

As a final comprehensive assessment of the incorporation of UDL components into this course and to further model UDL for the future teachers taking the course, the university students were required to complete group and individual components of a UDL lesson plan in their content area, related to specifically assigned disability classifications from the IDEA. Students had to display comprehensive understanding of the concepts they learned about during the flipped learning components, while participating in further active learning techniques such as collaboration with their peers, student-led presentations and modeling to the class, and displaying their comprehensive understanding of all they had previously learned in class by taking a lesson plan in their content area and utilizing all they had learned to create a UDL lesson plan that could be appropriate for a multicultural classroom.

The UDL Lesson plan assignment involved both individual and group components as a way to ensure student accountability (Dotson, 2001). Appendix D displays some components of the outline students used to design their UDL lesson plans. Using all the information and modeling the students learned and observed, they were required to do the following:

1. Individually investigate accessibility components legally required for content area text books and curriculum.

2. Individually create and reflect on two forms of hands-on learning that could be incorporated into the student's specific content area, increasing student expertise in multiple means of engagement.

3. Research individually, and as a group, assistive technology that could benefit students with specific classifications of disabilities and could be incorporated into future classrooms.

After investigating and creating the components listed above, the university students were further instructed on expanded theories and concepts in general and special education to assist them in understanding how to expand classroom Universal Design for all learners, or, as the class called it, the full spectrum of potential learners (Benton-Borghi, 2013). These concepts and theories added to what the university students had already learned about UDL, including differentiation based on future student's range of mastery levels (Gregory & Chapman, 2012). In other words, differentiation means utilizing concrete, representational, and abstract (CRA) teaching processes (The Access Center: American Institutes for Research (AIR), 2004).

The university students had to display their understanding from what they learned from the flipped learning and active learning parts of the course in areas such as CRT methods, RTI concepts, and finally, understanding how to modify curriculum for all learners using modifications such as adaptations to curriculum, parallel curriculum outcomes, and overlapping curriculum approaches (Koga, Hall, & National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum, 2004).

Students were expected in the group parts of the UDL lesson plan to take a pre-written lesson plan from their content area or cross-content areas and construct a new lesson plan based on the core concepts of the old plan. They had to utilize the methods and concepts discussed above by incorporating accommodations, modifying curriculum, involve assistive technology, utilize more hands-on teaching approaches, increase use of technology, incorporate more active learning techniques, and so forth to ensure that their new lesson plans would cover the needs of all learners in a potential future classroom, including a group-designed hypothetical student with a pre-determined disability.

In particular, the students display a comprehensive understanding of the concepts already covered in the course by incorporating increased and appropriate differentiation for their hypothetical classroom, potential multicultural students, and a range of content area teaching and lesson ideas to create the UDL lesson plan.

Data were gathered from the initial four course sections that were involved in the flipped learning, active learning techniques, and comprehensive individual and group UDL lesson plan to observe if the university student's work displayed appropriate plans of differentiation. Out of 67 students throughout one academic year, 65/67 displayed at least three to five appropriate plans of differentiation in the UDL lesson plan. Table 1 displays a variety of CRT, hands on, and UDL ideas students incorporated into their UDL lesson plans.

Some of these results included ideas students introduced in their group UDL lesson plans within different content areas, to increase differentiation, hands-on learning, and the UDL multiple means of action and expression, representation, and engagement (CAST, 2013a). Their ideas are divided by content areas, non-technological ideas and technological ideas.

Students completed the comprehensive assessment of their understanding of UDL and the concepts that support it by choosing part of their group UDL lesson plan and, as a group, deciding a way to present it to the class. Students discussed how their UDL lesson plan had been designed, modeled an actual learning activity from the lesson plan, and could determine as a group how to present their ideas to the class. Thus, students' understanding was assessed in a more Universally Designed manner than would occur in most typical university courses by incorporating multiple means of representation within the assessment of the university student's learning.

Summary

The CAST website discusses how UDL has been increasingly incorporated into more and more learning environments, including postsecondary level education: "Postsecondary, alternative, and workplace environments have become more prominent in CAST's work, indicating a commitment to improve learning for everyone and at all stages of life" (CAST, 2013c). As future secondary teachers will need to be able to successfully teach a wide range of learners in their future classrooms, they must be prepared to teach utilizing UDL.

To help students understand how to reach and teach a full spectrum of learners, the instructor of the course described in this article, introduced many components and concepts by modeling components of UDL (Benton-Borghi, 2013). The modeling was completed by introducing students to flipped learning which increases the use of technology and assists in making instruction more Universally Designed for all learners who could potentially be in a secondary classroom.

The instructor also utilized different types of active learning techniques to further model for these future teachers how to engage students, increase action and expression in class, and the ways learning concepts were represented. Finally, students were comprehensively evaluated by creating a UDL lesson plan with both individual and group components, ensuring that they understood the many concepts and theories covered in the course. Finally, the university students were required to present and model some of their UDL lesson plan ideas to their fellow classmates.

All of these methods were utilized to assist these future educators to expand their understanding and skills so they can be successful multicultural educators who can capably cover the full spectrum of learners they will encounter in future classrooms (Benton-Borghi, 2013).

Appendix A

Online Modules Utilized for Flipped Learning

1. Provider: The Iris Center at Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

Module: Teaching English Language Learners: Effective Instructional Practices

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/

2. Provider: CAST UDL Online Modules

Module: Introduction to UDL

http://udlonline.cast.org/page/module1/13/

3. Provider: The Iris Center at Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

Module: Cultural and Linguistic Differences: What Teachers Should Know

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/dde/

4. Provider: The Iris Center at Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

Module: Universal Design for Learning: Creating a Learning Environment that Challenges and Engages All Students

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/udl/

5. Provider: The Iris Center at Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

Module: RTI (Part I): An Overview

http://ris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti01-overview/

Appendix B
Strategies, Accommodations, and Modifications T-Chart Graphic Organizer

Accommodation   Modification   Strategy


Appendix C

Sample Explanation of Online Poster Assignment

Glogster on Disability Classification Area:

1. Complete a T-Chart for each IDEA Disability Classification Area your group is assigned.

2. With your chapter, the Power-points, and up to date (well researched) information from the web, please create a summary about each disability your group was assigned. Make sure the information is pertinent to educators, is non-stigmatizing, uses person-first language, and is accurate.

3. Research and find at least I video related to the disability classification areas your groups were assigned AND inclusion, and at least I picture example of an accommodation/modification/strategy that can be utilized in secondary classrooms to assist students with that specific area of disability to be more successfully included in general education classrooms.

4. Create your Glogster including your T-Chart, information summary, and visual examples. Add any other pertinent information as you see fit. Make sure that the Glogster's area well designed, have accurate up-todate information, provide non-stigmatizing information, and uses person first language only.

5. Create a I page hand-out (and make enough copies for each person in the class including Dr. Pearson) that can be handed out when you present your Glogsters.

6. You will be presenting your Glogsters to the class on the dates announced in class.

APPENDIX D

Sample of UDL Lesson Plan Outline University Students Used

Lesson Objective:

IEP required accommodations:

IEP required modifications:

What related service personnel, special education personnel, etc. are involved in the lesson?

What Assistive Technology is involved in the lesson/student?

Break down State/National Standard into the following:

Concrete component of standard:

Representational component of standard:

Abstract component of standard:

Response to Intervention

What Universal Design for Learning "means of" components will be built into your lesson?

How will these "means of" be designed to engage all learners?

How are you utilizing differentiation for all level of learners in your class? What will that look like?

How is differentiation be embedded into the lesson?

References:

Benton-Borghi, B. (2013). A Universally Designed for Learning (UDL) infused technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) practitioners' model essential for teacher preparation in the 21st century. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 48(2), 245-265.

Blackboard, Inc. (2014). Blackboard. Retrieved http://www.blackboard.com/.

Brigham Young University Center for Teaching & Learning & Halverson, T. (2014). Active learning techniques. Retrieved http://ctl. byu.edu/teaching-tips/active-learning-techniques

Casper, B., & Leuchovius, D. (2005). Universal design for learning and the transition to a more challenging academic curriculum: Making it in middle school and beyond. Parent brief. National Center on Secondary Education and Transition. Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota, 6 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Retrieved from http://ezproxy. msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest. com/docview/61986371?accountid=12598 Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2013a). About UDL. Retrieved http://www. cast.org/udl/index.html

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2013b). Research & development. Retrieved http://www.cast.org/research/index.html

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2013c). UDL online modules. Retrieved http://www.cast.org/pd/OnlineModules/index.html

Dinmore, S. (2013). Flexibility and function: Universal Design for technology enhanced active classrooms. In H. Carter, M. Gosper, & J. Hedberg (Eds.), Electric dreams (pp. 231-235). Sydney, Australia.

Dotson, J. (2001). Cooperative learning structures can increase student achievement. Kagan Online Magazine. San Clamente, CA: Kagan Publishing. Retrieved http://www. kaganonline.com/free_articles/research _and_rationale/311/Cooperative-Learning-Structures-Can-Increase-Student-Achievement

Educause. (2012). Flipped classrooms. 7 Things You Should Know About ... Educause, 1-2. Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014). What is Flipped Learning? The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P, 1-2.

Gay, G. (2002). Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: setting the stage. Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(6), 613-629.

Glogster, EDU. (2014). Glogster EDU. Retrieved http://edu.glogster.com/?ref=com

Gregory, G. & Chapman, C. (2012). Differentiated instructional strategies: One size doesn't fit all, Third edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Publishing.

Harac, L. (2004). A level playing field. Teacher Magazine, 16(2), 1-8.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004. Pubic Law No. 108-446. 118 Stat. 2647. (2004). Retrieved http://www.copyright.gov/ legislation/pll08-446.pdf

Jimenez, T., Graf, V., & Rose, E. (2007). Gaining access to general education: The promise of Universal Design for Learning. Issues in Teacher Education, 16(2), 41-54.

Kagan, S., & Kagan, M. (2013). Cooperative learning. Retrieved http://www.kaganonline. com/catalog/cooperative_learning.php

Kea, C., Campbell-Whatley, G., Richards, H., & National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCREST). (2006). Becoming culturally responsive educators: Rethinking teacher education pedagogy. Practitioner Brief: Culturally Responsive Educational Systems: Education For All. Retrieved http://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/ Teacher Ed_Brief.pdf.

Koga, N., Hall, T., & National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. (2004). NCAC Curriculum Modification: Curriculum Enhancement, 1-32.

Kortering, L., McClannon, T., & Braziel, P. (2005). What algebra and biology students have to say about Universal Design for Learning. National Center on Secondary Education and Transition Research to Practice Brief: Improving Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research, 4(2), 1-6.

LiveBinders, Inc. (2014).LiveBinders. Retrieved http://www.livebinders.com/welcome/home

Lopes-Murphy, S. (2012). Universal design for learning: Preparing secondary education teachers in training to increase academic accessibility of high school English learners. The Clearing House, 85, 226-230.

Mcguire-Schwartz, M., & Arndt, J. (2007). Transforming Universal Design for Learning in early childhood teacher education from college classroom to early childhood classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 28, 127-139.

National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc. (2014). What is RTI? RTI Action Network. Retrieved http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/ what/whatisrti

Newhive, Inc. (n.d.). Newhive. Retrieved http://newhive.com/

Office of Instructional Consulting, School of Education, Indiana University Bloomington (n.d.). Active learning techniques. Retrieved http://www.indiana.edu/~icy/document/active_learning_techniques.pdf.

O'Neal, C., Pinder-Grover, T., & Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, University of Michigan. (2014). Active learning continuum. Retrieved http://www.crlt.umich. edu/sites/default/files/resource_files/Active% 20Learning%20Continuum.pdf

Paulson, D., & Faust, J. (1998). Background & definitions. Active Learning for the College Classroom. Retrieved http://web.calstatela. edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/.

Spooner, F., Baker, J., Harris, A., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Browder, D. (2007). Effects of training in Universal Design for Learning on lesson plan development. Remedial and Special Education, 28(2), 108-116.

Stanford University. (2014). Promoting active learning. Stanford Teaching Commons. Retrieved https://teachingcommons.stanford. edu/resources/learning-resources/promoting-active-learning

Strobel, W., Arthanat, S., Bauer, S., Flagg, J., & Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer. (2007). Universal Design for Learning: Critical need areas for people with learning disabilities. Assistive Technology Outcomes and Benefits, 4(1), 81-98.

The Access Center: American Institutes for Research (AIR). (2004). Sample material: Conrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) instructional approach summary report. Doing What Works. Retrieved http://dww.ed.gov

Weebly, Inc. (2014). Weebly. Retrieved www.weebly.com/

Mary Pearson, Ph.D., is a professor in the College of Education at the University of Central Arkansas, Conway, Arkansas.

Table 1
Results of University Student's UDL Lesson Plans

Content Area    Non-Technological Ideas     Technological Ideas

Social          * Inflatable globe          * Films
Studies         * Writing own script/       * Virtual field trips
                  acting out                  (on computer and Apps)
                * Puppet shows (sock,
                  brown bag. etc.)
                * "Create a Campaign"
                  slogan project
                  (C. Williams)
                * Teaching map skills
                * 3D Models
                * Raised lines drawings/
                  maps (e.g. Augmented
                  Paper-Based Tactile
                  Map)
                * In-class debates (e.g.
                  utilizing current
                  events)
                * Bartering/trading
                  activity
                * "Columbian Exchange"
                  activity to discuss
                  spread of disease
                * Use of primary and
                  secondary documents
                  and items

Language Arts   * Word Wall                 * "Digital Textbook: A
(English,       * Book Marks (different       Digital Anthology"
Reading,          sizes, shapes, out of       (J. Gadberry)
Foreign           different materials       * Films linked to
Language)         such as Silly Putty,        literature
                  etc)                      * Vine Smartphone App
                * Post-it notes             * Read & Write Gold
                * Writing own scipt/          Software
                  acting out                * Bookshare
                * Puppet shows (sock,       * Rosetta Stone
                  brown bag, etc.)          * Translation devices
                * Hands on sentence
                  diagramming
                * Bring items of
                  significance from
                  novels
                * magnetic words
                * Writing about
                  paintings/pictures
                * "Book Talk T-Shirts"
                  from "Teaching My
                  Friends!" Blog
                  (D. Rogers)
                * Total Physical Response
                * Home-made book
                * Character chart or
                  photo or color code
                  each (e.g. to assist
                  keeping track of
                  characters)
                * Create skits
                * Use of highlighters
                  while reading
                * Literature Circles
                * "Splash" game (with
                  vocabulary words from
                  text, create own story
                  using words)
                  (R. McDaniel)
                * Journaling
                * Create videos
                * Use all senses to
                  describe/write
                  about objects
                * Games using balls/
                  circles of students
                  (adapted Think, Pair,
                  Share, etc.)
                * "Osmosis Oracle"
                  strategy (student
                  finds one line in work
                  that encapsulates work
                  as a whole, and then
                  connect other ideas,
                  information, etc. to
                  literature) (C. Noyes)

FACS            * Staples on measuring      * "MasterCook on Cooking;
                  tape to mark                A Textbook of Culinary
                  measurement numbers         Fundamentals, Second
                * Light signals               Edition" CD Rom (S.
                * Using toothpaste/black      Labensky & A. Hause)
                  construction paper        * How-To videos (e.g.
                  activities                  for using kitchen,
                * Using gingerbread           cooking recipes)
                  houses to teaching        * Interactive websites
                  about housing               (i.e., for budgeting,
                * Using toilet roll to        checkbook registries,
                  test children's toys        such as mint.com) or
                  for safety                  using Excel
                * Baby Think It Over doll
                * Color coding or
                  labeling kitchen,
                  sewing rooms, etc.
                * Use of pre-cut, drawn,
                  or self-cut pictures
                  such as for "Slices of
                  Me" class pizza collage
                  activity (H. Cooper) or
                  vocabulary
                  understanding (H. Hall)
                * Set up resource center
                  in classroom

Arts            * Styrofoam plates          * MACGUMUT 6
(Art, Music)      for drawing and wide      * Audio tracks
                  variety of sketching      * Good Reader App
                  methods and tools         * For Score
                  (chalk, charcoal, etc)      (e.g. metronome)
                * Clay                      * Tonal Energy Tuner
                * Assign students           * "Jump Right In: The
                  corresponding jobs          Instrumental Series
                  in classroom                Book; I (R. Grunow,
                * Laminated piano             E. Gordon, C. Azzara)
                  keyboard                  * Band in a Box
                * spoons, rhythm sticks,    * Dancing Dots
                  claves to play rhythms    * "Standard of Excellence
                * Sectionals (music)          Enhanced Comprehensive
                * Emotional project with      Book" (B, Pearson)
                  music and color           * Garage Band App
                * Incorporate locomotion
                  or body percussion
                * Use of Russian Gusli,
                  hand drums, hand bells,
                  Orff instruments,
                  melody harp, keyboard
                  stations
                * Use of variety of media
                  (art) such as Maquette,
                  craft sticks,
                  Styrofoam, Plasticine,
                  etc.
                * Use of easy grips for
                  art/writing utensils,
                  stencils straight
                  edges, rulers, right
                  angles, protractors,
                  compasses, etc.

Math            * "Integer Flash" game      * online graph programs
                  with deck of cards        * online quizzes and
                  (J. Jones)                  test programs
                * Teaching probability,     * Mathpad App
                  ratio, estimating with    * Mathpad Plus App
                  dice, coins, deck of      * Mathtalk App with
                  cards, graphs, tottery,     speech synthesizer
                  etc.                        if needed
                * Use of manipulatives      * MathType App
                  (all varieties, to        * Factor Race App
                  teach all areas of math
                * Hands On Algebra
                * TouchMath
                * Play Dough Geometry
                  (e.g. when teaching
                  cylinders, cones,
                  angles, prisms, etc.)
                * Tangible Proof of
                  Pythagorean Theorem
                  (e.g. with Starburst
                  candy, using yam and
                  classroom)
                * String Art Geometry
                  (e.g. learning about
                  lines)
                * Using individual dry
                  erase boards
                * Math Shoebox project
                  (students design themed
                  shoebox aligned with
                  math concept) (K.
                  Ellis)
                * Angle bisector lines
                  (activity with
                  Powerpoint, butcher
                  paper, large pencils,
                  erasers, and yarn)
                * Polynomial Scavenger
                  Hunt
                * Graphing with candy
                * Use of GeoBoards,
                  Pattern blocks
                  (color coded)
                * Create quilt blocks
                  to tessellate shapes
                * Linking blocks or
                  Base Ten Blocks
                * Graphing linear
                  equations or ordered
                  pairs with tape, floor
                  (full Body Style)
                * Use financial planning
                  to teach math (e.g.
                  classified adds,
                  websites, etc.)

Science         * Inquiry based labs        * Virtual Dissection Apps
                * "Trashketball" game       * polleverywhere.com to
                * Posterboard projects        use cell phones for
                                              polling

All             * "Cafe" Style Teaching     * Pinterest
                  (M. Prince)               * Use of Voki online
                * Bringing real life        * Khan Academy
                  examples (e.g. clothing   * Use of Podcasts
                  from certain time
                  periods, etc.)
                * "TAG" system (T=Tell
                  something you like:
                  A=Ask a question;
                  G=give a positive
                  suggestion) from
                  teacherspayteachers.
                  com (D. Rogers)
                * Teaching students how
                  to organize their
                  notebooks and notes
                * Paper writing guides
                * Use of manipulatives
                  (e.g. Bingo markers
                  or chips)
                * Break up expectations/
                  activities
                * Cooperative Teaching
                  (e.g. Role sheets)
                * Group presentations/
                  projects
                * Inquiry based labs
                * Graphic organizers,
                  Venn Diagrams (on-line,
                  iPad, paper, etc.)
                * Variety of games and
                  puzzles
                * CLOZE notes, Cornell
                  notes, hand-outs,
                  transcripts of lecture
                * Cross-content teaching
                * Using cooking/food/
                  every day utensils
                  or tools
                * Create a poster project

Note: Student names are included if idea is quoted only in their
lesson plan, and is a formal name of a teaching idea. Students
gave permission for their names to be included in this article.
References in Table I were provided by students in their lesson
plans.


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Title Annotation:Research
Author:Pearson, Mary
Publication:Multicultural Education
Date:Mar 22, 2015
Words:4695
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