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Model of the scientific and technical creation processes.

Abstract: The chapter presents, describes and exemplifies a systemic graphic model as well as a diagram or a graph of the scientific and technical creation processes, respectively. The inputs are represented by the inspiration sources while the outputs are represented by the new solutions, variants and ideas. The creation processes themselves consist in the application of the creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures. Also is presented an example for application of the model of the creation processes for presentation "the standard specialized fund of creation ideas" --"the standard specialized individual fund of creation ideas for the subfield of the simple bearers from the structure of the technological device".

Key words: process; idea; creation; creation process; model; graph; graphic model; systemic model

1. Introduction

The creation and creativity, in general, and the scientific and technical ones, in particular, present multiple and various aspects and forms. Hence, the amplitude and diversity of the studies in the field. Hence, the amplitude and diversity of the studies in the field (Albach, 1993; Belous, 1992; Belous, 2003; Christensen, 2000; Fey & Rivin, 1997; Gherghel, 1995; Gherghel, 2002; Gherghel, 2006; Gieskes & Hyland, 2003; Savransky, 2000; Seliger, 2001; von Braun, 1994; von Hippel, 1986).

In spite of the progresses registered in the study of creation and creativity, there still remain some difficulties in understanding and expressing the nature of the creation processes and, especially, of their modelling.

On taking into account as well the generality of today concept of progress, the integration of the problems of the creation processes in the general problems of the processes, systems and the systems theory is imposed.

That is why it is perfectly justified the elaboration of some graphic representations, diagrams, graphic models of the creation process, of some modalities for the synthetic and suggestive presentation of the creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures used to achieve a certain performance, objective, aim, result, effect, for the drafting of new solutions, variants, ideas as well as of some modalities for the synthetic and suggestive presentation of the creation ideas, respectively.

This is the reason why this paper suggests, describes and exemplifies a "graphic, systemic model of the creation processes" based on the general definition of the processes according to the present international regulations, by standards, and also based on the graphic representation, graphic model, systemic graphic model of the processes, model of the system suggested by the author. The model also renders profitable the concept of "systemic vision on processes", a concept suggested as well by the author. At the same time, the model takes into account the general definition of graphs, according to the specialized literature.

2. Systemic Graphic Model of the Scientific and Technical Creation Processes

2.1. The model genesis

The systemic graphic model of the scientific and technical creation processes, suggested in the paper, has its origin in the author researches on the systemic/ global approach of the erosion processes, especially those of the electrochemical-abrasive erosion (Gherghel, 1979; Gherghel, 1982; Gherghel, 1984; Gherghel, 1989c; Gherghel, 1989d; Gherghel, 1997) and of the technological devices (Gherghel, 1988; Gherghel, 1989a; Gherghel, 1989b; Gherghel, 1990; Gherghel, 1994a; Gherghel, 1994b).

Within these researches, the general structure of the electrochemical-abrasive erosion system, of the technological devices and of the components of the technological devices has been worked out. The concept of "device/ device component as a system" has also been introduced (Gherghel, 1998). On generalizing, the concepts "general structure of the system (product/ process)" and "product/ process as a system" have been formulated.

These researches also have as results the introduction and substantiation of the following concepts: "systemic vision on the erosion processes", "systemic vision on the electrochemical-abrasive erosion processes", "systemic vision on the technological devices", "systemic vision on the components of the technological devices" (Gherghel, 1990).

On generalizing, the concept "systemic vision on the objects, products, processes, technologies" or, shortly, "systemic vision on the products and processes" has been formulated.

The next and decisive step in the elaboration of the systemic model of the scientific and technical creation processes suggested in the paper has been the author study which has as a main aim both the applicability of the creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures (Belous, 1992) in the field of technology and technological equipments, especially of the technological devices and the identification of the methods, techniques, approaches and procedures with relatively high potential, frequently used in the mentioned domain, respectively. The results of the study have been partially published between 1994 --1995 in papers (Gherghel, 1994), (Gherghel, 1995). Within this study we have worked out a base of creation processes in the field of technology and technological equipments, especially of the technological devices, of usage examples of the creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures in the domain, and the specific fund of creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures with high creative potential, frequently used in the mentioned domain.

In this continuously updated base, the creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures have been integrated in specific creation processes (usage examples) under the form of diagrams.

At the same time, the author has introduced a series of diagrams to present the specific creation processes/ ideas in establishing some criteria of analysis and evaluation of the solutions, variants and ideas in technical creation (Gherghel, 2003a) and in establishing of the schematizations and symbols of some variants of extensible aligning and clamping mechanisms.

These diagrams have been called by the author "diagrams of the creation process" (Gherghel, 2002). The most representative "diagrams of the creation process" characteristic of the technological devices bearers and of the creation of some new types, solutions, variants of bearers, respectively, are included as well in (Gherghel, 2002).

2.2. Suggested Model

By generalizing these type of diagrams and on also taking into account the general definition of the processes, according to the present day international regulations, by standards (STAS ISO 9.001:1991; SR ISO 8.402:1995; SR ISO 3.534-2:1996; SR ISO 9.004-4 + A1: 1998) as well as the "graphic representation of processes", the "representation of the processes as system", the "graphic model of processes", the "model of the system", the "systemic graphic model of processes" suggested by the author, we have worked out a diagram (Gherghel, 2002;, Gherghel, 2003a; Gherghel, 2003b), a graphic model of the creation process, a graphic representation of the creation process as system, a "systemic graphic model of the creation process" (Gherghel, 2003b; Gherghel, 2003c) shown in Fig. 1. This has been published in a first form in (Gherghel, 2003a). One can say that this model also constitutes a "systemic vision on the creation process".

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The model can take as well the variants shown in a simple way in Fig. 2. An example for aplication of variants for systemic graphic model of the creation process, from fig. 2, is presented in fig. 3. We have also taken into account the possibility of using the name of "graph of the creation process".

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

According to the Theory of graphs (Mihu & Danet, 1982; Tomescu, 1981 et al.) one can justly consider that the multitude of the known solutions, variants, ideas and of those possible but not known (in a very large sense, including the adjacent domains and even the remote ones) form the multitude of possible solutions, variants, ideas, and, consequently, these solutions, variants, ideas constitute the elements, nodals, nodes of the graph. These form pairs of elements/ nodals. An element/ a nodal of the graph can constitute the source--the source of inspiration, another the address--the new solution, variant, idea. The edges, sides, lines, arcs, orientated segments, arrows, arrow elements--connections--are represented by the multitude/ submultitude of the possible creation methods, techniques, approaches, procedures. Therefore, the couple, ensemble, "global multitude" is made up of the multitude of the possible solutions, variants, ideas and the multitude/ submultitude of the possible creation methods, techniques, approaches, procedures. Just on the line, one can consider that the graph contains two elements. The singular creation processes can be considered either graphs (with two elements) or subgraphs derived from the graph of the totality of the creation processes. The graphs of the creation processes are, generally speaking, multigraphs or multisubgraphs (with more arrows / connections between a pair/ pair ordinated by nodals) be they antisymmetrical (between a pair/ between a pair of elements/ arrows between nodals/ connections in a sense) or symmetrical (between a pair/ between the pair of elements when arrows are in both senses).

3. The Example for application of the model of the creation processes for presentation the standard specialized fund of creation ideas

3.1. The general presentation of the fund

The standard specialized fund of creation ideas for the subfield of the simple bearers from the structure of the technological devices--GHERNI/ GN (Gherghel, 2004c; Gherghel, 2006)--has been drafted by the author between 1993--2004 on the basis of his own methodology presented in the paper (Gherghel, 2004a).

This fund in which the creation ideas are presented as "systemic graphic models (graphs) of the creation processes" has been published, as a first variant, in the paper (Gherghel, 2002). This fund had been subsequently reconsidered. The diagrams of the creation processes specific to the simple bearers from the structure of the technological devices characteristic of the creation of some new types, solutions, variants of bearers, diagrams included in the paper (Gherghel, 2002), have been reconsidered. The symmetrical diagrams (graphs) in the asymmetrical diagrams (graphs) have been deducted and they have been rearranged both for coherence and for the easy finding of the ideas in a given situation. On taking into account both the fact that this fund is meant for the specialists and for space as well as economic considerations, the author has given up the description/ interpretation of the diagrams of the creation processes. Also for the ease in finding the ideas in a given situation or in a given case, the shortened/ simplified names for the creation ideas and for the notes (symbols, codifications) of the ideas have been established and the output elements from the creation process have been rendered evident by thickenning the borders.

On taking into account the reasons given in the paper (Gherghel, 2004a), the presentation of the creation ideas has been done as a systemic graphic model of the creation process. All the variants of "the systemic graphic model (graph) of the creation process" synthesised in the paper (Gherghel, 2004a) have been used in the drafting, making up and establishing of the fund. On considering the fact that this fund is meant for the specialists and on considering the space and economic reasons, the author has also chosen for this work the variant presented in figure 1 in the paper (Gherghel, 2004a). This has been applied by presenting, as a first form, of the creation processes/ ideas drafted by the author in the subfield of the bearers for the technological devices (Gherghel, 2002).

According to the paper (Gherghel, 2004a), this fund also represents the standard specialized fund of creation ideas for the subfield of the simple bearers from the structure of the technological devices. This fund also contains a part of the specialized individual fund of creation ideas for the considered subfield. The systematization, arranging and hierarchization of the specific creation ideas have been done according to the output elements from the creation process, namely:

--the new solution, variant, idea;

--the theme of scientifical and technical creation (drafting--designing);

--the objective of the scientifical and technical creation;

--the description of the technical system to be drafted/ created;

--the characterization, the features, the attributes of the technical system to be drafted/ created.

At the same time, the criteria to classify the bearers and the types, solutions, variants designated by them, respectively, have been taken into account (Gherghel, 2002a). This facilitates the rapid identification of the creation ideas for a given situation and for a certain case.

The shortened/ simplified name of the creation ideas, the notes (symbols, codifications) of the ideas and some other aspects have been approached according to the indications given in the paper (Gherghel, 2004a) referring to the methodology for drafting the standard specialized fund of creation ideas.

As shown in the papers (Gherghel, 2002; Gherghel, 2004a), the creation ideas included in the fund must be considered as general creation ideas because, for getting the same objective, one can start from various actual inspiration sources and one can apply different creation methods, techniques, approaches and procedures.

3.2. The structure and content of the fund

The creation ideas from the standard specialized individual fund of creation ideas for the subfield of the simple bearers from the structure of the technological devices are presented in this subchapter.

We have to specify that this fund cannot be republished without indicating the author and the source.

The standard specialized fund of creation ideas for the subfield of the simple bearers from the structure of the technological devices (GHERNI)

[I.sub.1]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.2]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.3]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.4]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the fixed orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.5]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the fixed orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.6]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the fixed orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.7]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the adjustable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.8]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the adjustable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.9]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the movable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.10]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the movable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) (simple or chamfered milled movable cylindrical/ taper punches and bolts; movable prisms)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.11]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the movable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) for other surfaces

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.12]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the movable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) for outer surfaces

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.13]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the movable orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) for inner surfaces

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.14]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the self-movable ("self-adjustable", oscillating) orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.15]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the self-movable ("self-adjustable", oscillating) orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.16]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the floating (free, unstable, temporary) orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.17]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the multiple orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) (multiple prisms, guides, bushings)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.18]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) for other dimensions or/ and positions of the orientation-positioning surfaces

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.19]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the long orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) (punches, bolts, bushings, prisms, guides)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.20]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the short orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) (punches, bolts, bushings, prisms, guides)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.21]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements with discontinuous (incomplete) active surface (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.22]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements with continuous (complete) active surface (simple bearers)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.23]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) plated (with inserts), with exchangeable elements, with various materials parts (upper plates, magnetic and electromagnetic faceplates, prisms, tips), for heavy mechanics, heavy duties, high accuracy

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[I.sub.24]. Creation of new solutions (variants) of the orientation-positioning elements (simple bearers) for heavy and super-heavy mechanics

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

4. Conclusions

The considerations and the suggested systemic graphic model of the creation processes (graph of the creation processes) contribute to the integration of the problems of the creation processes both in the General theory of systems and in the Theory of processes.

The suggested model makes easier the understanding of the nature of the creation processes.

The suggested model allows the synthetic, compact and suggestive presentation of the following:

--the specific processes of scientific and technical creation, of research and design;

--the creation ideas;

--the creation methods, techniques, approaches, procedures used for attaining a certain performance, objective, aim, result, effect to create new solutions, variants, ideas;

--creation methods, techniques, approaches, procedures with high creative potential, frequently used in a certain domain;

--examples of usage of the creation methods, techniques, approaches, procedures in general and in a certain domain.

Consequently, the suggested model allows the synthetic, compact and suggestive expression of the specific individual bases, collections, funds of the above mentioned elements. The suggested model has proved especially useful for the presentation of the individual base of specific creation ideas in the technology and technological equipment domain and especially of the technological devices among which the most representatives of the respective devices bearers have been published (Gherghel, 2002). These have been included as well in the structure of a data base for designing the technological devices bearers (Gherghel, 2003b), (Gherghel, 2003c); the presentation of the specific creation ideas in establishing some criteria of analysis and evaluation of the known or/ and suggested solutions, variants, ideas in the technical creation (Gherghel, 2003a; Gherghel, 2002); the presentation of the specific creation ideas in establishing the schematizations and symbols of some variants for the extensible aligning and clamping mechanisms; the presentation of the examples of frequent usage of the creation methods, techniques, approaches, procedures with high creative potential in the technical systems conception.

5. References

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Casler, Gh.; Plahteanu, B. & Gherghel, N. (1975). Ricerche sopra l'affilatura elettrochimica-abrasiva degli utensili con placchette di carburi metallici, Ingegneria, Milano, 7-8, pp. 243-247.

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Gherghel, N. (2005). Model of the technical creation processes, Annals of DAAAM for 2005 & Proceedings of the 16 th International DAAAM Symposium, ISSN 1726-9679, ISBN 3-901509-46-1, Editor B. Katalinic, Published by DAAAM International, Vienna, Austria, pp. 143-144.

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This Publication has to be referred as: Gherghel, N. (2006). Model of the Scientific and Technical Creation Processes, Chapter 19 in DAAAM International Scientific Book 2006, B. Katalinic (Ed.), Published by DAAAM International, ISBN 3-901509-47-X, ISSN 1726-9687, Vienna, Austria

DOI: 10.2507/daaam.scibook.2006.19

Authors' data: PhD Gherghel N.[icolae], Tech. U. "Gh. Asachi" Iassy, Romania, ngherghel@athena.mt.tuiasi.ro
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