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Modality--a framework for conveying judgments.

1. Introduction

There are many purposes for which we may be interested in the text, in what people actually do and mean and say, in real situations. But in order to make sense of the text, what the speaker actually says, we have to interpret it against the background of what he 'can say'. In other words, we see the text as actualized potential. [his italics]

M.A.K. Halliday, Language as Social Semiotic 1978: 40

M.A.K. Halliday's idea above directs our attention to the co-existence of 'the actual' and 'the potential' in the language. The latter offers infinite variations on expressing a single (i.e. an actual) context-dependent communicative need. The only guide to making selections from the potential of the language is the speaker's awareness of the norms of linguistic behavior in specific communicative situations. The situation-shaped verbal conduct also provides the information on the speaker's attitude towards what is being communicated. One's choice of lexis, preference for certain syntactic structures, or favoring a particular intonation pattern lays bare the intentions 'lurking' on a speaker's part. It is through modality how the essential information about the utterance meaning can be arrived at. The concept of modality, due to its truly multifaceted character, is often approached from a particular perspective only; the verbal mood--a grammatical marker of modality--is the most frequently tackled area. A sentence carries a particular modal meaning also thanks to other means, lexical units or suprasegmental features.

The studies on modality (and/or modal meaning) have formed part of research by local linguists since the middle of the last century. Their focus, however, has for most part been syntactic constructions and the expression of verbal mood. In a search for a comprehensive taxonomy of the phenomenon of modality I observed a gap in this kind of information. This prompted me to do desk research and in doing so explore the nature, typology and inventory of modality with special focus on modality markers other than the category of mood. In the survey, I draw on local and foreign past achievements rather than current trends. A truly thorough study carried out locally is that by Durovic (1956). In 1968 he felt forced to emigrate, which is why his brilliant contributions to language research could not be disseminated any more; it was even forbidden to quote him (Bosak 2005). Since there has been no local publication that would outweigh its significance to date, I believe that his achievements and findings are still valid, fifty five years later. Other Czech and Slovak authors with contributions relevant for the intent of the paper are Erhart (1984) and Niznikova (1994); foreign authors providing ideas relevant for the intended taxonomy are Huddleston (1988), Palmer (1986), Siewierska (1991) or Coates (1983).

Matthews (2005: 228) defines modality as "[c] ategory covering either a kind of speech act or the degree of certainty with which something is said." The semantic trait of confidence in the truth value of the proposition is an illustration of subjective character of an utterance; it can be present in sentence structuring, vocabulary choice, or stylistic differentiation. Based on anecdotal evidence, the speech of a speaker of English, at least in comparison with a Slovak, exhibits more involvement, and is much richer in subjectiveness markers. The inference that English is a language with a fascinating incidence of modality adverbs and evaluative words is supported by a comparative study carried out to examine the expression of epistemic modality (Panocova 2008). Panocova came to conclusion that the total number of modality markers was remarkably higher in the production of native speakers of English (as opposed to non-native speakers' production). The wealth of modality adverbs in English makes it possible for research into modality markers to take place. Paradis carried out a study (1994) on the lexical forms quite, rather, fairly and pretty in contemporary spoken British English and she claims that they form a notional paradigm. My aim is to study the usage of modal adverbs in conversational English and propose a notional paradigm of modal adverbs.

In Part 1, it is my aim to ponder over the definition of modality in terms of a category (1.1) and deal with the scope of modality (1.2). Within the scope of modality I provide its overview and typology (1.2.1), discuss modality in narrow and broad senses (1.2.2) and explore the inventory of broadly defined modality (1.2.3). Instead of summary, additional remarks and implications are provided (1.3). Part 2 presents research into modal adverbials communicating the meaning of confidence in the truth value of the proposition expressed. It provides information on the background of the research--target modal meaning, markers, research aims, corpus, data collecting and processing (2.1). Separate sections are devoted to research findings (2.2) and the summary of the results (2.3).

1. Theorizing about Modality

1.1 The Definition of Modality in Terms of a Category

Exploring the nature of modality inevitably presupposes a discussion on its formal realization and semantics. In the effort to define modality Erhart (1984: 116) tags it as a category, an odd though. This is partly supported by Palmer (1986: 1) who assumes, "it is possible to recognize a grammatical category of modality (which is similar to aspect, tense, number, gender, etc.)." Durovic (1956: 9) considers modality a main constitutional factor of a sentence. For the most part, linguists explain modality in relation to a grammatical category of mood, endorsing its semantic properties. Huddleston (1988: 79), for example, maintains, "[j] ust as we distinguish between tense, a category of grammatical form, and time, a category of meaning, so it is important to distinguish grammatical mood from semantic modality" [his small caps] ; distinctions between number and enumeration, gender and sex may well be of similar nature (Palmer 1986: 7). The views on defining modality, those above being just a few out of many, illustrate at once complexity and vagueness of modality. What may serve as a good vantage point is a bilateral language sign theory proposed by Ferdinand de Saussure and interpreting the concept of modality in categorial terms.

A grammatical category represents a closed inventory of grammatical morphemes. The closeness implies a finite number of units grouped together by virtue of an identical semantic constituent. A semantic constituent, a grameme, i.e. the signifie of a grammatical morpheme, serves as a criterion for the purposes of the classification within particular grammatical categories. A grameme is usually referred to as a realization of a particular semantic notion, for example the dichotomy single--plural number operates as a criterion for perceiving lexical morphemes as either in terms of 'one' or 'more than one'. Sememe 'quantity', i.e. a semantic constituent of a lexeme, provides the 'pole' that the grammatical category of number can be anchored to. Each of the grammatical categories, whether nominal or verbal, can be accounted for as a once-formed set of grammatical morphemes defined as either 'X' or 'non-X', i.e. 'Y', owing to certain semantic characteristics inherent in the grameme concerned, which are, as it were, imposed by the sememe in question; see Fig 1. The diagram and table in Figure 1 interpret the nature of grammatical categories with respect to the semantic components peculiar to particular categories. My diagram and table sum up the information claimed by Erhart (1984: 78-100).


As demonstrated above, grammatical categories, except that of mood, might as well have a realization in a single lexeme. The absence of such a possibility in mood sets it apart from other grammatical categories and places it on common grounds with modality. Erhart's (1984: 116) definition of modality rests upon non-alignment of gramemes with a single sememe and advocates their making an integral constituent of the whole utterance. A parallel between mood and modality allows for favoring the verbal mood in the discussion on the means of expressing modality, however, it is not a sole indicator of modality. The complexity and vagueness of modality applies to the mere nature of modality as much as to the language means deployed to transmit modal meaning. Mood and modality share certain properties (actualized sememes on a sentence level) that are integral elements of the utterance. In addition to these sememes, the utterance might convey a modal meaning that is indefinable in terms of category of mood, since it is overtly present in the form of lexical modality markers.

1.2 The Scope of Modality

1.2.1 An Overview and Typology

Modality is commonly referred to as modal meaning present in the deep sentence structure. Its omnipresence derives from a natural drive to assign the speaker's subjective perception of the reality to the sentence and/or utterance. (1) Since long ago the issues of modality have tempted many linguists to get familiarized with this area, and consequently to advance its classification or typology. In the course of time, different readings have appeared and have striven to delineate the notoriously vague concept. In the following account, after discussing objective and subjective aspects of modality I remark on these notions: attitudinal persuasive--volitional modality; inherent--objective--epistemological modality; epistemic deontic modalities; and subjective modality--evidentials.

One of the ways of treating the modal meaning is considering objective and subjective modalities (the innermost facets of modality). As the terms suggest, objective modality is inherent to the predication and reflects the relationship between the proposition of the utterance and the extra-linguistic reality; subjective modality, reveals the involvement of a speaker, hence the relationship concerned is that between the speaker and the proposition of the utterance (Encyklopedia jazykovedy 1993: 278-279). Such treatment, however, pushes the dividing line too hard in that objective modality excludes speakers. A more appropriate approach, as it were, seems to be that of treating modality as a subjective-objective category (Durovic 1956: 22). This term does not imply that the utterance is a subjective reflection of the objective reality (this belongs into the field of cognition); the proposed twofold nature of modality aptly describes the even distribution of the elements of subjectivity and objectivity a modal subject, i.e. a speaker, expresses a subjective stance not by individual means but by those objectively existing in the language (Durovic 1956: 20, 22-23).

Modality is generally defined as a means of expressing the relationship between a speaker and an utterance, in a stricter sense a speaker and the truth-value of an utterance. This is to say that 'objective modality proper' (i.e. the relationship between the utterance and the extra-linguistic reality) is neglected due to its innate presence in the utterance. In principle, the attitude of the speaker towards the communicated idea can be projected as a stance, subjective (un)certainty, or a will; hence the typology in terms of respectively attitudinal, persuasive and volitional modality (Niznikova, 1994: 18-20). Expressing a stance implies a speaker's reaction to the communicative situation through making a statement (declarative or exclamatory), giving orders, or asking questions. A speaker may sound more persuasive, or less so, by mapping a certain degree of subjectivity onto factual information. By incorporating the element of a will, a speaker allows the idea to be interpreted as possible, necessary, or (un)desirable. Each of the three modalities contributes to communicating a particular degree of the truth-value of the utterance and at the same time is attentive to the actual speaker. It follows that every single predication is a realization of a particular type of modality for it carries the information about the actual speaker and their perception of the extra-linguistic reality (Encyklopedia jazykovedy 1993: 278-279).

The notion of a 'speaker' is of a significant value also in accounting for the inherent objective--epistemological facets of modality. Modality embraces semantic distinctions of different kinds; these form, according to Siewierska (1991: 123), the three groups. Such typology is, in fact, the expansion of objective--subjective modality opposition so that inherent modality can be included. Inherent modality is assumed to belong into the predication center of the utterance, and to be utilized for the purpose of mere presenting the speaker's knowledge of a given situation. Conversely, by means of objective and epistemological modalities, a speaker contributes the assessment of the actual situation (Siewierska 1991: 124). It is for this reason that we might adopt a more 'concise' opposition, namely inherent--non-inherent modality; the latter can possibly function as a blanket term for objective and epistemological modalities; the former has been referred to as 'objective modality proper' (cf above). Moreover, "... for many linguists this difference excludes inherent modality from the proper domain of modality" (Siewierska 1991: 124). Objective and epistemological modalities themselves serve as cover terms inasmuch as they include epistemic and deontic modalities (objective modality), and subjective modality and evidentials (epistemological modality) (Siewierska 1991: 125).

Objective modality has commanded considerable attention in the professional linguist culture. Epistemic and deontic modalities are traditionally linked with the use of modal operators in that epistemic uses "... involve implications concerning the speaker's knowledge of the situation in question;" in deontic uses "... we are concerned with obligation, prohibition, permission and the like" (Huddleston 1998: 78). Palmer's (1986: 51, 96) use of the terms is wider; even so, it is obvious that we are concerned with modalities operating on the level of predication. 'Epistemic', he claims "... is to be interpreted as showing the status of the speaker's understanding or knowledge." In so uttering, he refers to the speaker's own judgments, the speaker's (lack of) commitment to the truth of the proposition expressed. 'Deontic' in a wide sense includes "... those types of modality that are characterized by Jespersen ... as 'containing an element of will'." Palmer (1986: 97) infers that deontic modality suggests performing an action in the future; epistemic modality implies one's commitment to the truth of propositions in the past, present or future. (3) Coates (1983: 18) views epistemic modality as that concerned with the speaker's judgment of circumstances and, and indicating the speaker's belief or (lack of belief) in the truth value of the proposition.

Epistemological modality is taken to be operating on the level of proposition in the utterance. Siewierska (1991: 126) contrasts subjective modality and evidentials, two facets of epistemological modality, by pointing to the fact that "[s] ubjective modalities mark the truthfulness of the proposition from the point of view of the speaker." Evidentials, on the other hand, "...indicate the factuality of the proposition in terms of how the speaker has obtained knowledge of it." The focal point here is the discrimination between respectively the 'secondhand knowledge' and direct knowledge obtained through witnessing the given event. She adds "[i] n most European languages evidentials are marked by adverbs, such as evidently, allegedly, supposedly, apparently, etc ..." (1991: 127) [her italics]. (4)

In summary, modality is neither objective (reflecting the relationship between the proposition of the utterance and the extra-linguistic reality) nor subjective (reflecting the relationship between the speaker and the proposition of the utterance), but resembles a triad consisting of a speaker with a subjective stance on the extra-linguistic reality utilizing means objectively existing in the language. As Durovic (1956: 14) asserts, modality is the essential 'predication-building' constituent since it determines the sentence type and structure. The attitude of a speaker (subjectiveness) is revealed through the application of attitudinal, persuasive and volitional modalities that take form of a statement, an order, or a question. The speaker, the key element in a modality triad, can either present understanding/knowledge or contribute assessment of the situation (as in objective modality, i.e. epistemic and deontic). Modality is also present in how the speaker expresses the truthfulness of the proposition of the utterance (as in epistemological modality, i.e. subjective modality and evidentials). On the whole, modality is considered to be a salient constituent of the utterance--the one that defines the relationship between the subject and the predication and in so doing forms the setting, the conditions within which all the other (grammatical) categories become realized.

1.2.2 Broad and Narrow Definitions of Modality

Considerable attempts have been made to help modality lose its obscurity. Its scope can possibly appear somewhat orderly if modality is looked upon in what is considered a narrow and broad sense. Palmer (1986: 2) calls attention to the fact that
   [t]he modal system of most familiar formally
   associated...with the verbal system of the language. But
   modality...does not relate semantically to the verb alone or
   primarily, but to the whole sentence. Not surprisingly, therefore,
   there are languages, in which modality is marked elsewhere than on
   the verb or within a verbal complex.

It seems that identifying verbal and other than verbal indicators (i.e. those of predication and of those of proposition) yields respectively narrow and broad definitions of modality. This is outlined in the following references that aim to offer, in basic terms, the concept of narrow and broad modality.

Modality in a narrow sense, for Erhart (1984: 117), is a context-sensitive selection of one of three gramemes--a statement, a question, and a wish. The norm is that the utterance composed of the grameme 'statement' is formally realized as a declarative; the presence of grameme 'question' is paralleled with the syntactic type of an interrogative; the grameme of 'wish' is assigned to either imperatives or exclamatives. Some semblance of a mismatch can occur consistent with the communicative intentions. Whatever the case, it is obvious that we deal with modalities operating on a predication; hence bona fide modal forms are given prominence over other language means. This can be supported by quoting Lock (1996: 193): "A narrow definition of modality encompasses only the modal auxiliaries ... and their uses, and sometimes also adverbs functioning as Modal Adjuncts, such as possibly, probably, and certainly" [his italics and caps] . Approvingly, 'narrow' modality can be equated with the modality of the predication center.

Modality in a broad sense, in Erhart's view (1984: 117), comprises 'nuances' in the formal realization of the utterance. A statement can be meant as a fact, a possibility, a subjective obligation (and/or request), an objective necessity, etc. Lock's view is alike in that (1996: 193) "[a] broad definition would encompass all expressions of interpersonal meanings that lie between it is so and it is not so or between do it and don't do it" [his italics] . The desired illocutionary force, then, can be arrived at also or primarily by means falling out of a verbal complex, i.e. modal adverbs/adjectives/nouns, and the like. The language has in possession the means not necessarily participating in forming the predication center, yet contributing to communicating the speaker's stance to the truth-value of the whole utterance or its part, i.e. communicating modal meaning (Durovic 1956: 25). Accordingly, 'broad modality' means more than modal meaning of the predication core. Its scope is expanded so as to include all possible manifestations of a subjective attitude of a speaker.

It follows that it is thus purposeful to contrast modality of the predication center (the narrow definition) with other modal meanings (the broad definition) especially with respect to the language means forming their inventory. A means that both definitions can employ is intonation. Intonation patterns are recognized as bearers of modal meaning only if they turn a single solitary lexical item into an utterance. Intonation is of a significant value and has a distinctive function if an identical structure of sentences is the case. In this way, intonation determines the modal meaning of what is being uttered. The search for a specific part of speech used for the purpose of expressing modal meaning might as well mean ultimate failure since languages lack morphologically marked means in the exclusive possession of modality; a language user is left to make the choice from the language potential (Durovic 1956: 31, 39, 61). A speaker is hence confronted with the grammatical category of mood, a vast array of lexical means (such as most of the operators, modal adjectives, modal adverbs, Huddleston 1988: 79-80), or syntactic structures (interrogatives, imperatives).

Modality is in nature subjective-objective; i.e. a speaker by means of objectively existing language means communicates his/her commitment to the truth of the utterance. The predication center is the reflection of an individual's perception and/or interpretation of the reality. The modal meaning of the core predication can be further modified to foreground the non-inherent, objective modality. As mentioned above, markers of the narrow view on modality belong into the verbal morphology since they are confined to the predication center. Those fitting the broad view, on the contrary, make a relatively heterogeneous group, and are dealt with more comprehensively in the following section.

1.2.3 The Inventory of Broadly Defined Modality

Already claimed vagueness of modality robs serious linguistic attempts to delineate its inventory of the desired exactitude. Such lax nature gives rise to speculations, many a time constructive, though. The intended modal meanings can be sent away to the addressee in a variety of ways. A narrow definition of modality thrives on a grammatical category of mood. Huddleston (1988: 80) affirms, "[m] ood involves the grammaticalisation of modality. More specifically, mood applies to a system of the verb, marked inflectionally or analytically (by auxiliaries, say)..." The devices largely associated with the broad definition of modality are syntactic constructions and lexical items by and large falling out of verbal classes: imperatives and interrogatives, negation, modal adjectives/adverbs, evaluative and modal introductory words, and hedges; a survey of how they add to the modal meaning of an utterance is presented below.

Out of syntactic structures considered to be tokens of modal meaning in a broad sense, interrogatives and imperatives, as well as negation, call interest since they have been excluded from the narrow definition of modality (Huddleston, Durovic). Before commenting on them, negation needs to be pinpointed as a field occupying a different position in the outlined direction. Interrogatives and imperatives are labeled as syntactic types, both having counterparts in terms of discourse functions, i.e. respectively questions and directives. Negation, however, is a syntactic way of showing disagreement, denial, ignorance, absence and the like; it can be present in the predication of either of the above sentence types.

Interrogatives and imperatives are considered to be the means of broadly defined modality. A declarative sentence, however, is treated differently. When the first attempts to examine the field of modality were made, a clash in views was recorded in that some linguists doubted the opinion approving of the modal nature of a declarative sentence. Such a standpoint was based on a belief that the morphological marker of modality, the indicative mood, being an unmarked member of the mood system, does not carry modal meaning. This approach was dismissed and gave way to the one advocating that modality is a salient constituent determining at once the sentence type and structure (Durovic 1956: 11). Still, there is a need to address disparity between declaratives on one side and interrogatives and imperatives on the other. The reason is that a declarative sentence carries assured factual assertions, as opposed to interrogative and imperative constructions (Huddleston 1988: 80). That is to say, declaratives express the narrowly defined modality; the other two, by their nature, are taken to be a further layer on the already modalized utterance, which is to say they belong to the scope of broadly defined modality (Durovic 1956: 28).

Negation is treated within the broader definition of modality by some authors, by others not so, despite its direct participation in the make-up of the core predication. In Encyklopedia jazykovedy (1993: 293), it is referred to as basic modality. With due deference to Encyklopedia jazykovedy, I conform to the view of Durovic (1956: 27) who argues that affirmative and negative statements cannot be paralleled in terms of equality. He explains this as follows: an affirmation reflects on a particular object of the extra-linguistic reality. A negation, conversely, is a denial of an affirmation. A speaker expresses their attitude towards the specific affirmative statement on the object of the extra-linguistic reality, not the object itself. Hence, an affirmation is, in a way, 'an intermediary' between the negation and the object of extra-linguistic reality under focus. Denying the congruence between the affirmation and the reality earns negation a place in the scope of broadly viewed modality. Some authors consider negation to be a means falling in a separate group of peripheral modality markers (cf Kasova 2006: 41).

Lexical items like modal adjectives and modal adverbs, evaluative and modal introductory words, and hedges are modality markers that do not belong into the predication center. They do not take part in forming the grammatical predicate; this, however, does not exclude their being in a relationship with the logical predicate (Durovic 1956: 30). They operate on the proposition level in that they do not alter the propositional content; they merely modify it (deny, question, or confirm it).

Huddleston's (1988: 80) list of modal adjectives and modal adverbs includes "... modal adjectives, such as possible, likely, probable, certain, sure, necessary, and modal adverbs, such as perhaps, maybe, possibly and other derivatives from the adjectives" [his italics] . In Lock's (1996: 193) view, the expressions such as possibly, probably, and certainly (modal adjuncts, as he calls them) can sometimes be attributed to modality in a narrow sense; though he does not make himself clear what 'sometimes' refers to. Lock (1996: 203) further maintains that "[m] odal Adjuncts are the second (5) system of the grammar dedicated to the expression of modality. They are usually realized by adverbs such as certainly and possibly, but may also be realized by prepositional phrases such as without doubt and in all probability" [his italics] . Irrespective of how these expressions are labeled the projected modal meaning derives from their lexical meaning (certainty, possibility, necessity, etc).

Durovic (1956) pays meticulous attention to the study on evaluative and modal introductory words. Although his study focuses on inflectional languages, it can serve as an impetus for considering such expressions to be modality bearers in English, an analytical language, too. Interestingly enough, they compare well with what is termed 'disjuncts' in English. (6) Durovic distinguishes between the two groups suggesting their different nature. (7) The fact that unites them, he claims, is that they map on the utterance that has already been ascribed modal meaning. What distinguishes them is that evaluative introductory words are indifferent to the modality of the utterance, as opposed to modal introductory words. These can be easily located on a scale with the outermost points 'yes' and 'no', and 'maybe' in between. In other words, its position is somewhere between affirmation and negation. The upshot of its combination with the modal meaning of the predication center is the ultimate modality of the utterance (Durovic 1956: 27). The expressions in question are formally identical with modal adverbs. What makes them different and what is behind his claim for such tagging is the position they take; they keep a distance from the predication center (being added to or interposed in between) and express a stance of a speaker towards the utterance.

As Palmer (1986: 63) states, "[i] t is also possible for the speaker to modify his commitment still further by ... 'hedges'." The phenomenon of hedging typifies the field of pragmatics, and" ... serves an important interpersonal function in communication ... " (Tarnyikova 2000: 307). The point that is at issue here is that hedging is culture-specific and unawareness of particular do's and don'ts might cause misunderstanding, or even a communication breakdown. Utilizing hedges entails the use of the patterning that reflects shared knowledge of the local context. By the use of hedges like 'Well', 'kind of, 'just', etc. a speaker mitigates the illocutionary force of the utterance.

The presented account addresses modal markers; drawing on the fact that each utterance is modalized, it is considered what syntactic structures and lexical means can participate in communicating modal meaning. Whether or not a speaker chooses to refer to the reality by means of overtly present modal markers, it does not impose any variation whatsoever on the status of the extra-linguistic reality concerned. In utterances with modal markers we are presented with how a speaker perceives the reality rather than the reality itself, for example He is there vs. He is certainly there--the truth-value of the former is considered higher than that of the latter.

1.3 Additional Remarks and Implications

So far the attention has been paid to the nature and the scope of modality while being more observant as to the latter through supplying its overview and typology, broad and narrow definitions, and the inventory of the broadly defined modality. In the following lines, I provide concluding remarks, interpretations as well as implications for the study on modality. Firstly, the types of modal meaning are discussed; secondly, markers of modality are tackled; thirdly, salient features of modality are dealt with.

Due to the heterogeneity of the concept we may well encounter the danger of getting lost in a maze of modal meanings associated with both broad and narrow definitions of modality and/or modal meaning. The possible interpretation of the term 'modal' can be made through its juxtaposition with 'subjective-objective'. Thus, when defining modality we inevitably deal with the two words, subjective and objective, in two different readings, which might be baffling. Subjectiveness and objectiveness occur in two different situations. On one hand, we deal with subjective (speaker) and objective (language means objectively existing in the language) components of modality. On the other hand, we are concerned with a typology, within which objective (epistemic and deontic modalities) and subjective (i.e. related to the truthfulness of the proposition) types of modality are distinguished.

Modal meanings are necessarily linked with a particular set of modal markers. The meanings come in bulk; hence it is thanks to the appropriate modal markers that the addressee succeeds in identifying what a speaker intends to mean. Some utterances are overt manifestations of modal meaning; others carry modal meaning with no explicit marker present. Either way, the predication and/or utterance are marked by modality; a different degree of a speaker's commitment to the truth-value of the utterance can be spotted, though. In case there is a need to refer terminologically to the two cases (overt and covert manifestation of modality), we can adopt the terms 'modal' and 'non-modal'; non-modal implying 'no overt modal markers at surface structure' (cf Huddleston 1988: 78). Many modal meanings are marked lexically, through modal markers residing in lexicon, rather than grammatically, by means of the grammatical category of mood. This poses a question of whether modality is a matter of grammar or semantics. Durovic (1956: 9) strongly upholds the view that, in this case, grammar and semantics mingle which causes modality to become devoid of purely semantic character. Modality is thus rightfully referred to as a lexico-grammatical category.

We might be beset with problems if we try to specify features defining modality. As Palmer (1986: 4) states, "[t] he real problem with modality is that there is no clear basic feature." In the milieu of indefinite properties, the subjective and interpersonal features of an utterance are soundly recognized. It can be stated that the subjective streak interlinks modality with notions like assessment and emotionality; the bond between modality and the interpersonal nature of the communicative situation triggers the interest in the field of deixis, and approximates modality to pragmatics, as claimed below.

Each utterance carries an evaluative accent of a certain degree, which points to the direct link between modality, subjectivity and assessment. The degree of assessment varies along the lines of the subjective interpretation of the extra-linguistic reality. This is to say, both non-modal and modal utterances communicate the subjective involvement of a speaker, yet of a different degree. The assessment is frequently complemented with the elements of emotionality inasmuch as in assessing the extra-linguistic reality we reveal our feelings, our emotions, which can also be of a different degree. It is my impression that assessment and emotionality form a relationship within which emotionality must coexist with assessment, whereas assessment does not necessarily signals the presence of emotionality.

Urbanova (2003: 84) understands modality as deixis. The reasoning she provides is that such an affiliation results from "... the comparison of the expressed world (subjective expression of the reality) and the real world," and she adds, "[e] xpressing a subjective opinion is the basic aspect of modality." As deixis is conceived of as making reference through language, the possible assumption is that deictic expressions promote the interpersonal feature of an utterance. Also, a speaker's preference for a particular modal marker in the role of a deictic expression may point to a degree of likelihood, certainty, etc.

Speaking of meaning, it has to be noted that "... much of modal meaning is included in what is sometimes distinguished as pragmatics" (Palmer 1986: 3). Pragmatics is traditionally referred to as a discipline dealing with the notion of meaning with reference to a speaker and a communicative situation. What parallels pragmatics and modality is a speaker-oriented and context-oriented interpretation of meaning. Both, pragmatics and modality take for granted that meaning is a necessity guiding the interaction of interlocutors, and are aware that a failure in recognizing a speaker's communicative intention obstructs the interaction. Modal meaning, or pragmatically speaking an illocutionary force, is an interface of modality and pragmatics.

The concluding section has meant to provide additional considerations that might be relevant for the study on modality; Chapter 1 has aimed to invoke chief principles governing the interaction. The communicative intention is a decisive factor that manifests a degree of commitment to the truth value of a communicated idea. No matter what kind of modal meaning is to be transmitted, by and large it carries the information about a speaker and their attitudes and feelings, as much as creates the spirit of genuine, or less so, involvement in a communicative situation. By virtue of its markers, modality (broad and narrow) is instrumental in maintaining the interpersonal meaning. It follows that subjective and interpersonal aspects are defining features of modality adding to the emotionality of the utterance.

2. Broad Modality--The Case of Modal Adverbials

2.1 The Background of the Research

2.1.1 Target Modal Meaning

Communication comprises different communicative situations in which the information presented reflects the speaker's evaluation of the extra-linguistic reality. Ideas are by no means meant to be equal as to the validity, persuasiveness, or emotions conveyed. Speakers subconsciously interrelate what they say with how they feel about it; that is to say the evaluation of the extra-linguistic reality reveals our feelings and attitudes. The markers present in the surface structure mark the utterance as subjective and evaluative and at the same time carry certain modal meaning. In the utterance, various modal meanings can be expressed (inference, confidence, judgment, possibility, necessity, likelihood, requirement, or ability, etc.). I carried out a study to observe the expression of epistemic modality focusing on modal adverbials carrying the meaning of confidence in the truth value of the proposition.

2.1.2 Target Modality Markers

Mere sentence building is governed by a speaker's attitude to the core information. Narrowly viewed modality can be equated with the modality of the predication center, thus is expressed by means of modal verbs, each bringing a particular modal meaning, e.g. can (the meaning of possibility or permission), must (that of obligation), should (those of obligation or advisability), etc. Broadly defined modality means more than modal meaning of the predication core. Its scope is expanded so as to include all possible manifestations of a subjective attitude of a speaker; it can be expressed through interrogatives, imperatives, negation, modal adverbs, evaluative and modal introductory words, or hedges. The research focuses on modal adverbs and evaluative and modal introductory words.

Modal adverbs (cf Huddleston 1988) and evaluative and modal introductory words (cf Durovic 1956) are lexical devices functioning as markers of modality. They represent notions that in English grammar are termed emphasizers and disjuncts (cf Greenbaum et al 1990). In order to bridge the two terminological approaches, the following lines briefly describe the grammatical position and justify my decision to identify modal adverbs with emphasizers and introductory words with disjuncts.

The grammatical position (based on Greenbaum et al 1990, Quirk et al 1985) treats Adverbials (8) with respect to the grammatical function that they fulfill in a clause. Generally, four grammatical functions of adverbials are identified--adjuncts, subjuncts, disjuncts and conjuncts. Though both adjuncts and subjuncts are elements typified by being integrated into the structure of a sentence, they are of different nature. The former seem to be equal to other sentence elements, while the latter are seen to have a subordinate role, that of adding further information, explanation or idea into a passage that would be complete without it. Disjuncts and conjuncts, on the contrary, occupy a more peripheral position in the sentence. Disjuncts are superordinate to the rest of the sentence. Positionwise, they are detached from the other elements, and they provide the observation, personal comment on the content and truth value of what has been said. Conjuncts serve at once to connect two separate utterances and to express the semantic relationship obtaining between them (e.g. that of time or contingency) (Quirk et al 1985: 501-647). The lexical units presently under focus are subjuncts, strictly speaking emphasizers, and disjuncts.

Lexical units referred to as emphasizers can be attributed to subjuncts with the semantic role of modality. As Quirk et al (ibid) put it, adverbials of modality can change the truth value of a sentence, and they can do so in three ways: emphasize, approximate, or restrict, which can be respectively exemplified by 'certainly', 'probably' and 'only'. (9) Emphasizers enter the partnership with non-gradable expressions and, in a way, are similar to intensifiers in that they add to the force of its partner and even to disjuncts by commenting on the utterance. Alteration in the truth value of a sentence is a consequence of their presence, largely at a middle position.

Disjuncts are distinguished from the other adverbials by their superiority over the other sentence elements. As Quirk et al (1985) put it, it is not their form that makes them different from adjuncts or even from subjuncts, nor is it the positions in which they are placed--it is the possibility and/or impossibility to operate as the focus of a cleft sentence, to become the focus of focusing subjuncts, to come within the scope of predication or proforms, and to be elicited by question forms, i.e. the four features defining an adjunct and not applicable to disjuncts. Through making an observation on the actual content of an utterance and on its truth value, disjuncts serve as a means of communicating certainty or evaluation. Vis-a-vis their position, for most part they appear in the initial position, pointedly detached from the rest of the sentence; the middle position is not rare either (Quirk 1985: 504, 612).

The discussion on target modality markers is typically associated with positive contexts, i.e. a positive predication. Negation, being a modality marker itself, is not included in the corpus analysis. Negative contexts, or negative predications, bring about a shift in meaning of the utterance. Typically, if an emphasizer accompanies a negative verb form, the achieved effect is different from what it would be like otherwise. It seems that negation rests upon a specific set of language means serving the purpose of emphasis. Celce-Murcia, Larsen-Freeman (1983: 101) maintain,
   [s] entences with a 'no determiner' in the verb phrase such as 'We
   had no rain since March' or an indefinite pronoun beginning with
   'no-' in the verb phrase such as 'I saw no one' function
   semantically as emphatic counterparts of sentences ... with NOt or
   N'T and some form of 'any' in the verb phrase [their small caps] .

Bearing in mind the complexity of the semantic change that accompanies a move from a positive to negative linguistic environment negative predications were not included into the research. Even so, negative structures are marginally commented on in respective sections.

2.1.3 Research Aims

The research aims to survey lexical modality markers and propose a tentative notional paradigm of modality adverbs and evaluative and modal introductory words. To do so, it is necessary to observe the collocational range of heads that target modality markers modify and valence patterns that they occur within. Since postulating a paradigm necessitates defining the linguistic features delineating members of a paradigm, the primary aim is to define features on both paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes (10) (cf Paradis 1994). Hence, the research attempts to identify semantic traits and positional characteristics. The goal is set to delineate a notional paradigm for (1) modal adverbials and (2) evaluative and modal introductory words: (1) the paradigm of modal adverbials is to be formed based on the shared semantic trait of confidence in the truth value of proposition, and the grammatical function of emphasizer; (2) the paradigm of evaluative and modal introductory words is to be formed based on shared semantic trait of confidence in the truth value of proposition, and the grammatical function of disjunct. For this purpose, the following structures were considered: adverbial phrase, adjectival phrase, noun phrase, prepositional phrase, and verb phrase, adverbials in dependent clauses and those used parenthetically. For each marker, a grammatical function is specified. In the end, a notional paradigm of emphasizers and disjuncts is proposed.

2.1.4 Research Corpus

The research on markers of broad modality necessitates suitable discourse. The communicative situations marked with modality occur in both spoken and written modes of interaction, though they differ in frequency and intensity of occurrence. The principle that governed the choice of the source material for research purposes was getting insight into the common standard currently in use by speakers of English. This is faithfully observable in conversation, the most natural form of communication. Conversation implies involvement of several parties; in this way more speaker styles are available, which adds to the authenticity and truth value of the data obtained. Consequently, Internet chatting, was chosen as a target discourse. Even though still perceived as a non-traditional way of establishing an interpersonal contact, computer-mediated conversation has the potential of a new linguistic medium alongside speech and writing. Crystal (2001: 238) argues for its autonomy: "It is neither 'spoken writing', nor 'written speech'," and this is a distinctive feature of the communication that takes place between people through computer. The language of synchronous chatrooms was chosen as a target source for research purposes. The research corpus was composed of chat sessions, the transcripts of which were downloaded from in April 2003. The corpus material (297 606 words) was studied to collect structures with target adverbials. The study of the corpus provided 29 lexical items:
absolutely     certainly    exactly        perfectly  seriously
actually       clearly      interestingly  possibly   simply
apparently     completely   literally      precisely  surprisingly
appropriately  definitely   naturally      purely     totally
basically      essentially  obviously      really     truly


The following section consists of seven subchapters; subchapters 1 to 5 are devoted to a particular phrase (adverbial/adjectival/noun/prepositional/verb phrase); subchapter 6 deals with adverbials introducing dependent clauses; subchapter 7 is concerned with adverbials used parenthetically. Subchapters follow the same structure; they consist of commentary and corpus findings processed in tables providing the collocational range of heads and the inventory of the target modality markers appearing in that particular sentence pattern. If useful, a remark on negative structures is added. The appendix provides text samples; the superscript included into the chat transcript is my addition to provide information respectively on the transcript of a chat session (as numbered in Appendix 2) and the number of the turn within that session.

2.2 The Research Findings

2.2.1 Adverbial Phrase


An adverbial phrase is composed of head and modifier; both functions are taken by an adverbial. The classic position that the adverbial phrase takes is within Verb Phrase; the adverb affects the lexical unit that directly follows. The study of the corpus provided adverbial phrases with 4 emphasizers (modal adverbials) and 4 disjuncts (introductory words). The range of heads they affect, based on the occurrence in the corpus material, is given in Table 1A. The effect they project can be specified through referring to the semantic roles defined for adverbials, i.e. emphasizer and disjunt, see Table 1B.

For text samples, see Appendix 1.

2.2.2 Adjectival Phrase


An adjectival phrase involves an adjective and an adverb functioning as head and modifier respectively. The phrase typically occurs within Verb Phrase; the position in the Subject phrase is also possible. The adverb, by all means, keeps the immediate company of the right-hand partner, an adjective. Being the part of Subject phrase, the adjectival phrase, understandably, functions as subject; in the Verb phrase, it is part of complement. The study of the corpus provided adjectival phrases with 13 emphasizers (modal adverbs) and 7 disjuncts (introductory words). These, together with the collocational range observed, are provided in Table 2A below.

Negative structures

The following examples exhibit the structures with a negative element being part of the predication, yet classified as evaluation providing. The adverb occurs within the Verb Phrase immediately preceding the negative element. Such a position of an adverb reveals the speaker's intention to give emphasis and call attention to the opposite of what's being said, and earns the adverb a tag of an emphasizer.

For text samples, see Appendix 1.

2.2.3 Noun Phrase


Head-and-modifier structure of a noun phrase has various realizations. In the focal noun phrase, the function of a modifier is taken by an adverb; head can be a single-word lexical unit, i.e. a noun (a pronoun or a determiner), a multiple-word expression, or a noun group with modifier-head-qualifier structure. Some structures are on a border with those classified as an adjectival phrase. In spite of that, they are included in this section since in effect the modifiers relate to the whole group rather than to the unit immediately following. The study of the corpus provided noun phrases with 11 emphasizers (modal adverbs) and 3 disjuncts (introductory words). The change of position of the emphasizers and disjuncts concerned does not bring about alteration in their grammatical function.

Negative structures

The following structures exemplify an adverb directly affecting a negative pronoun or determiner. The impact communicated is that of emphasizing or providing evaluation. The prevailing order of elements is such that a negative element follows an adverb, though not necessarily so. With a pronoun or determiner as a head, the adverb keeps its function of an emphasizer and content disjunct irrespective of its position in relation to the negative element.

For text samples, see Appendix 1.

2.2.4 Prepositional Phrase


In the studied prepositional phrase, the functions of a modifier and head are performed respectively by an adverb and a prepositional group, the latter consisting of a preposition and a noun group. The study of the corpus provided prepositional phrases with 5 emphasizers (modal adverbs) and 2 disjuncts (introductory words). The prepositional phrase typically occurs within the Verb phrase where it takes the role of a complement or an object. The position in the Subject phrase is not common, yet not non-existent. Two adverbs, 'actually' and 'basically', were spotted to occupy both positions. The change of a grammatical function resulting from the change of a position was observed in the adverb 'actually'--it functioned as focusing subjunct in the Subject phrase and as emphasizer in the Verb phrase. 'Basically' kept the function of disjunct in both positions.

2.2.5 Verb Phrase


A Verb phrase necessitates the treatment different from that given to the phrases so far, since it consists of a head and its component, not necessarily a modifier. The head is realized by a verb form (single or complex); a whole range of syntactic partners occupies the position of components--NP, AdjP, AdvP, or PP. The typical position of modal adverbials is next to the word they qualify. In Table 5A, it is considered whether they occur in mid position or other than mid position, which is to signify respectively their typical and somewhat uncommon positions; or whether they occur in end position. Those adverbials that were found in different positions are reflected on with regard to whether the alteration in position influences the function. The study of the corpus provided verb phrases with 12 emphasizers (modal adverbs) and 4 disjuncts (introductory words).

Negative structures

The corpus provided the following negative structures. In a pre-negative-element position, the function that the adverbs fulfill is that of an emphasizer and/or a disjunct. Two adverbs (actually, really) occurred in a post-negative-element position; 'actually' keeps the same function in both positions, 'really' performs the function of emphasizer vs. adjunct.

For text samples, see Appendix 1.

2.2.6 A Dependent Clause


Modifiers affect the meaning of the element in the immediate neighborhood, whether it is a single-word or multi-word item. The expressions falling into the group of emphasizers enter the partnership with non-gradable expressions. Alteration in the truth value of a sentence is a consequence of their presence, largely at a middle position. The study of the corpus provided dependent clauses with 3 emphasizers (modal adverbs) and 2 disjuncts (introductory words).

For text samples, see Appendix 1.

2.2.7 Adverbials Used Parenthetically


The parenthetic usage of an adverbial implies that it is pointedly detached from the rest of the sentence by means of a comma. Most frequently they appear in the front position, though end or mid positions are not rare either. In a dialogic mode of conversation, it is very common for them to be part of a verbless clause. The study of the corpus provided 18 disjuncts (introductory words).

Negative structures

An adverb directly proceeding 'not' seems to have the force of an emphasizer. When followed by the negative predication, being separated from it by a comma, the adverb imparts the 'No' response as if the adverb was to say 'no' and the explanation was to follow.

For text samples, see Appendix 1.

2.3 Summary of the Results

The following tables summarize the conducted research. The research made it possible to arrive at the list of lexical items capable of operating as emphasizers and disjuncts and/or modality markers. Table 8 presents the occurrence of the considered adverbials in sentence units and the performed grammatical function. Table 9 provides the inventory of adverbials for each grammatical function and a sentence unit. Table 10 gives the notional paradigms of modal adverbials and evaluative and modal introductory words. Table 11 lists adverbials functioning as both modal adverbials and introductory words.

The presented study tackles the language phenomenon that can be framed into pragmatics because any language means utilized to make a particular idea prominent communicate what is beyond semantics. Verbal behavior may be interpreted as a phenomenon of more-dimensional rather than linear nature, since it is the former that allows for assuring the plasticity of the text (on the term 'plasticity', cf Mistrik 1968: 69-70). Even though the text is constructed as if words made a chain, the ideas expressed are not of equal pragmatic importance or charge. This is what contributes to providing sentence elements with a different status and role within the utterance, and what plays a role in viewing an utterance as unique. The plasticity of the text is guaranteed when an utterance is marked with modality. The expressions referred to as modality markers penetrate the language to modify the effect of the verbal production of a speaker and to communicate their stance. The modal meaning they transmit makes available the information about the speaker in terms of their attitudes, feelings, or a degree of concern. This is easily recognizable in modality markers grammatically functioning as emphasizers and disjunts. In such utterances the meaning implied seems to be that of certainty or confidence in the truth value of the proposition.

Appendix 1--Text Samples

2.1 An Adverbial Phrase

[134/53] The_Band_Fuel: Inspiration can come from absolutely anywhere.

[18/48] colobos0: ... The sound really blow me away. [18/49] Duncan_Sheik: It's actually just the vocal that's running through a Leslie...

[97/5] Ricky_Manning: ... The title basically just means, that they like me . . I guess.

[115/27] Glenn_Close: It's certainly very different from being an actor {laughs}...

[19/29] William_Gazecki: Yes, there have been a small number of reports, again, mostly 10 or 15 years ago, of people being essentially very near or in the circle.

[100/36] The_Outer_Limits: Pen: It would be MGM's choice and we would obviously only do it if we had a story that we felt worked as well in that medium as our shows work on the small screen.

[58/27] Daniel_Quinn: ... And this is really almost beyond their control ...

2.2 An Adjectival Phrase

[11/4] jack_citie: Lmao.. Chevelle.. you guys are actually good for a new band, so I won't mock you.. but.. Can I ask you who you are touring with?

[3/30] ym_Prom_Fashion: ... Try a white strappy sandle and a bright white handbag, and maybe even a white floral corsage. It will lighten up the black dress and make it look appropriately summery.

[152/88] SunsetHals: Do you ever feel like you missed out on your childhood or on being a typical kid, or were you able to live a basically normal teenage life?

[59/9] Leonard_Maltin: I don't think they've been shy in the slightest. But they are certainly aware that other, large scale movies are opening before then...

[99/23/a] Stephen_E_Brock: Let me say this about faith. A resilient belief system, or faith, is clearly powerful in helping any individual cope with adversity....

[3/38] ym_Prom_Fashion: YES!! African-American skin looks beautiful with primary colors. Red is definitely the perfect choice for you. And again, don't forget the red lipstick! :)

[161/34] ChuckNevitt: Isn't the parody genre tired? Wasn't the film you're essentially spoofing - Scream - a parody itself?

[74/32] Eartha_Kitt: Yes, I'm very glad to do this, it's very interestingly funny to me. It's something NEW in my life. It's convinced me that I should have learned technology! ...

[124/72] enter_the_zone: ... the band was largely ignored by the commercial vulture?

[108/11] John_Gray: ... The pace of life is so stressful today, women by nature tend to be more considerate of the needs of others. They are literally more aware of what's going on around them ...

[19/65] zorg_5e: If they are aliens, are they obviously way smarter than us, and ?

[1/51] YM_Prom_Beauty_and_Hair: ... and either one is perfectly appropriate for prom ...

[162/61] ASKPearlJam Ed_vacuation-guest says: What do you guys enjoy most about being in the studio together, creating quite possibly the BEST MUSIC EVER!!!!!!!?

[84/9] Rob_Brezsny: An excellent question is one that by definition is precisely appropriate for the woman that you're talking to....

[18/19] Duncan_Sheik: I think these days I've been trying to write lyrics that are just purely descriptive of certain sets of experiences that may happen to me in a given day or a given hour...

[5/52] O-TOWN_Chat - Dan: I play WAY too much XBox nowdays! It can get really addictive.

[86/6] saturn_78: ... Are you simply handed the script and embellish it with your own ideas...?

[82/17] Rob_Schneider: A lot of these animals were surprisingly easy to work with....

[28/29] LMNT-Bryan: That was truly an amazing experience...

[148/40] Dirk_Been: ... and it's well documented for its unusually high population of snakes...

[139/7] Morty_Lefkoe: ... It is virtually impossible to change your behavior permanently if you don't change your beliefs first.

Negative structures

[107/31] Events_Moderator: True. He was definitely not a warm and friendly kind of guy.

[91/23] Michael_Reaves: ... In fact, I'm really not *qualified* for any other type of job! ...

2.3 A Noun Phrase

[141/30] Nine Days: John: You can get them if you get the import "Absolutely" singles.

[31/5] Ronnie_Marmo: It was actually the summer that the Dodger's left Brooklyn....

[7/10] wilmer_valderrama: Actually, the 70's Show and bascially any sitcom has probably the best schedule in the industry.

[13/56] Chris_Pratt: I listen to country music and basically everything else, but probably mostly country music. It reminds me of working with my old man when I was growing up.

[105/43] Sean_Gibbon: ... and you should be able to find it online, certainly all the chain bookstores.

[52/11] Kelly_Goldsmith: ... But it was certainly a pain! [6/24] Daniel_Quinn: ... As such, it was clearly a novel of education or a teaching novel....

[10/10] Leigh_Nash: ... and it was definitely the band's choice as well....

[164/15] Kerr_Smith: Definately the movie, things move much slower, ...

[14/23] Barry_Pepper: ... But that's essentially the problem with the judicial system ...

[4/55] James_Patterson: ... I've had this come to me literally 1000s of times since the story....

[47/58] Darnell_M._Hunt: Well, obviously all of us who are considered citizens of this nation are ...

[135/38] space_monkey_7: How much alike are you and Jack O'Neill? Your sense of humor is obviously a match ... ?

[123/16] Eric_Levin: ... That was possibly a backlash against '70s political correctness.

[38/18] jasonsstormx: ... Under the hockey mask, is it purely makeup, another mask or what?

[108/12] PurelyPleasure: Do men and woman ever speak the same language while they are out of bed?

[149/23/a] Vanessa_Angel: It was a blast! They are really fun guys...

[156/98/a] Michael_Madsen: ... but I...I'm really kind of old fashioned...

[4/40] xfilegrl42 : Hello Mr. Patterson: This is truly an honor. I absolutely love your novels....

[139/41] Morty_Lefkoe: ... Virtually everybody who goes through all the steps of the process will eliminate the belief they are working on.... Negative structures

[58/5] Daniel_Quinn: ... The renaissance transformed Europe, but there was absolutely no plan there, no program. This was the beginning of the scientific revolution, for example...

[12/12] Andrew_Davoli: Yes, it's actually not this film.

[49/15/b] Yehuda_Berg: ... Create a robot from basically nothing,...

[149/63] Vanessa_Angel: I'm not a BAD cook. {laughs} But I'm certainly not a chef....

[17/91] Sarah_Tomczak: Kelly is speechless! Justin is definitely no loser, though. Both performers were amazing!

[165/18] SPEAKER_SoapOperaGuest: (Josh) Most people will be very cool about it, so there are really not a lot of downsides. Sometimes you can be caught on a bad day...

[58/7] Daniel_Quinn: ... But at the moment, there is simply no place for them in the system.

[30/47] Stargate_SG1-Richard: ... there are virtually no limits to what can be done. 2.4 A Prepositional Phrase

[138/10] Janusz_Kaminski: ... No delays whatsoever. We actually finished ahead of schedule.

[52/23] Kelly_Goldsmith: ... I'm actually at Brandon's apartment right now with Kim Powers.

[14/6] Barry_Pepper: ... the sons of mob families bascially are without a way to earn a living.

[31/11] Ronnie_Marmo: ... It was basically like high school, but we all got paid for being there...

[117/38] Tom_Loreto: I'm certainly in contact with all my colleagues, techniques....

[7/28/a] wilmer_valderrama: Well, I'm definitely into the process of lighting a lot....

[112/31] BlessidUnionOfSouls: Jeff: Wausau, Wisconsin was off the hook; completely, literally, off the hook.

[58/6] zpiel: Are homeless people really "beyond civilization" if they still depend on civilization's spillover for their survival?

[40/27] Chuck_Campbell: You're right on that one! I got into acting surprisingly by mistake. Negative structures

[21/42] Suzane_Northrop: Absolutely not because of the argument... 2.5 Verb Phrase

[164/21] Kerr_Smith: You know I was actually asked to do an appearance on "Another World" but I ended up not doing it because of schedule conflicts.

[72/40] Toby_Keith: We actually are doing meet and greets, a lot of them are for radio and some winners.

[165/17] SPEAKER_SoapOperaGuest: (Josh) If you really don't flaunt it, you can basically sneak through anywhere.

[19/68] William_Gazecki: Some certainly appear to be astronomical.

[71/23] Ben_FoldS: Well, that certainly is a great thing and a great compliment....

[108/9] John_Gray: {laughs} I think you're right, and in my lectures women clearly take a lot more notes.

[26/43] Ben_Gillies: I think not being able to tour for this album will definitely affect the success of it...

[150/1] Events Moderator: Hi everyone...excited to meet Fran Healy from Travis? We definitely are!!

[103/9] Tracy_Hogg: ... If you show emotion to the spitting, the child essentially observes that as attention... [145/30] Events_Moderator: I've literally grown up watching the MDA Telethon...

[99/38] Stephen_E_Brock: ... Recognize that even though teens are naturally moving away from their parent's guidance...

[20/16] Sasha: ... However, there are obviously some instances that I know work really, really well.

[31/15] Ronnie_Marmo: ... I do however, love making movies, and obviously you can make a much better living it at it... [44/25] Ron_Perlman: I was trying to stay as lean as I possibly could....

[22/10] Tom_Lenk: ... I have a great part that I love on a series that I really admire...

[55/3] Stephanie_Clement: ... I agree with him that dreams really can speak to us and that dreams can help us to understand our lives a whole lot better.

[13/81] Wesley_Jonathan: I seriously was watching Everwood the other day...

[46/38] Pam_Spurr: ... Simply enjoy the moment of those dreams...

[83/15] Don_McLean: That was the hardest thing I ever had to do. It totally frustrated me...

[44/41] Ron_Perlman: ... A lot of times, they just describe it to you, so you totally have to invent it in your mind and play against it.

[33/47] Michelle_Williams: I liked it, you know, and then you know of course, I truly missed my sisters.

[24/49] Rick_Rosenthal: ... That's not to say I have loved every actor I've ever worked with on every project. But on this one, it truly was a harmonious set.

[58/5] Daniel_Quinn: The industrial revolution has virtually taken over the world... Negative structures pre- negativeelement position

[64/7] J.C._MacKenzie: God forbid, no! I'm absolutely not. I couldn't be more different from him.... [4/22] James_Patterson: ... I actually didn't like to read in high school, and then when I was around 19, I started reading everything ...

[77/15] Peter_Guralnick: I certainly have never heard that.

[33/64] Michelle_Williams: ... I definitely don't want to impose my beliefs on everyone...

[140/54] Mandy_Moore: ... Gosh, ... I would just tell you, you know, obviously not to give up...

[2/52] Lucy_Woodward: ... I can't comment about Rachel, because I really don't know her.

[54/19] John_Gray: ... He may simply not know how to respond or relate to this expression....

[29/31] Brandy: ... If I could use another avenue to get my music heard, I would totally not be in the business. I love doing what I do, but I don't love being in this business. post-negative-element position:

[2/66] Lucy_Woodward: ... I really am glad we got the opportunity to do this. I've never actually done this before, and I feel like we're talking on the phone, so thank you so much and keep in touch!

[93/16] Evan_Dorkin: I don't really get to do much topical material owing to my schedule. ... 2.6 A Dependent Clause

[72/42] Toby_Keith: ... it would be nice to see it happen, to get to a broader audience. But basically when it's going across any pop stations, they are still gonna know I'm a redneck! ...

[47/9] Darnell_M._Hunt: ... It is a word that has been in our language for quite some time, certainly as long as African-Americans have been understood to exist at the bottom of society, subordinated by the white race....

[140/44] Mandy_Moore: ... The crowd was definitely what kept me going, because I was quite sick that night...

[42/17] Luke_Goss: ... So if Guillermo is directing again, and that would have to be a stipulation, and obviously given that David is the writer, I would be fine with that.

[13/20] Crazyocutie: Steve, do you think that your character is really as dumb as he seems?

2.7 Adverbials Used Parenthetically

[3/44] ym_Prom_Fashion: Absolutely! Pale skin looks so beautiful when contrasted with a dark, deep color. [7/56] wilmer_valderrama: Absolutely, looking forward to hearing from the fans...

[88/25] Greg_Bear: The reverse, actually...

[1/15] YM_Prom_Beauty_and_Hair: Actually they now make waving irons...

[51/15] Dokken_Barry: Tour is going great, actually, other than illnesses....

[119/34] Melissa_George: Yes, I have, actually! {laughs} Fantastic place.

[30/76] Stargate_SG1-Richard: ... Apparently the party goes on without me, which comes as a great shock to me...

[155/142] DJ_Qualls: Not yet, apparently, someone is developing one, though.

[76/25] Jeremy_Piven: Thank you very much! You are one of 11 people that watched, apparently....

[103/21] mama76 asks: If I can get her back to sleep, do I still wake her up at the 3 hour feeding interval?

[103/22] Tracy_Hogg: Basically, yes. And remember that the EASY method is a flexible routine...

[16/32] Kevin__Welch: ... I'd love to get back out to the Southwest again. And basically, someone out there just has to express and interest, a promoter or a venue.

[60/21] Ellen_Ladowsky: {laughs} I went out on one date, where the guy just wouldn't order any food, and basically, I was eating all night long....

[109/44] Thomas_Chau: I started Cinema Confidential when I was 17. I did it one night because I was bored in high school, basically....

[128/64] almostfamous1984: Have you ever read a movie script and thought, "this is the part for me"?

[128/65] Justin_Whalin: {laughs} Certainly. Many times. But not as often as you might think.

[54/11] John_Gray: Certainly, for many people, that can be very exciting, or it can simply be hooking up in a new and different place....

[47/67] Darnell_M._Hunt: ... Clearly, other racial slurs exist that are meant to harm a number of different groups in our society...

[105/31] Sean_Gibbon: ... There's a lot of very good and talented live bands out there, and why Phish is a solid notch above them, I'm not really sure why, except that they are, clearly.

[24/100] strikerx8: Was the cast in H8 a blast to work with?

[24/101] Thomas_Ian_Nicholes: Completely. I spent many years as a child working with adults...

[3/52] ym_Prom_Fashion: Definitely! I love hearing from our readers, and knowing what they like and what they are up to! ...

[33/27/a] Michelle_Williams: Oh definitely, anything is possible....

[165/192] SPEAKER_SoapOperaGuest: (Joshua Morrow) That's kind of the thing, definitely. ...

[75/40] jmbelly: ... I heard a rumor about a possible film with the cast. [75/41] Dominic_Chianese: Essentially . . . you know as much as I do about it.

[165/306] SPEAKER_SoapOperaGuest: Yeah, exactly. [163/24/a] China_Shavers: Exactly, tuck your butt in! ...

[163/24/b] China_Shavers: ... Always point your feet, have that high arch, exactly! ...

[55/9] Stephanie_Clement: ... The driver of the car, I like to think, is the dream ego, or the dream consciousness. So naturally, you're not driving, because you're asleep! {laughs} ...

[74/5] Eartha_Kitt: ... But with the one woman show we're talking about now, naturally I would love doing it in Florida....

[34/5] Vincent_Kartheiser: Several different ways. First, what is available, naturally....

[20/18] Sasha: I've got a few, really. John Digweed, obviously. I love what Lee Durriege plays. And also I'm into what Danny Tenaglia does.

[46/29] Pam_Spurr: ... Obviously, when you had this nightmare, there was still a disturbing image that was still there that you could see in the lucid state that you could still see very clearly....

[20/17] djmetronome: Besides yourself obviously, who is your favorite DJ? [115/27] Glenn_Close: This is somebody who went to William and Mary obviously! ...

[155/82] DJ_Qualls: Really? Thank you!

[42/31/b] Luke_Goss: ... It was kind of cool, and kinda not. Really, it's all a bit silly, ...

[20/53] Sasha: ... You just have to go with the flow, really...

[82/25] Rob_Schneider: ... I could barely move after the first day of filming. Shaq's doctor fixed my back. Seriously. Dr. Shen Hsu, seriously.

[101/49] mulletsyeah: Do you enjoy doing things like this chat?

[101/50] Krystal: Oh, totally! I've done a couple of other chats like this one, and it's been nothing but *fun*!

[164/52] Kerr_Smith: ... What would you guys think of a film about the actor Montgomery Clift, would you guys go to see it? ...

[164/58] LimpBizkitSucks: totally I would be first in line!!!!

[25/7] Wayne_Dyer: ... Truly, John Donne said is best in the 16th century...

[47/41] Darnell_M._Hunt: ... It would have to be a time when our society has, truly, gotten beyond race. [47/44] Darnell_M._Hunt: Undoubtedly, racial attitudes have changed....

[42/13] Luke_Goss: ... I think that I'm more grateful for this, and it's fun, undoubtedly it's fun!

[21/13] Suzane_Northrop: Absolutely. Unequivocally. I believe that there's a higher power, if you call it God or you have another name for it... Negative structures

[114/37] mudpyro: Where did you shoot your video for dig? Was it fun?

[114/38] The_Band_Mudvayne: Spag: Los Angeles. No, absolutely not. We were excited to do the video, but the process is one that's not very easy.

[10/25] Leigh_Nash: Actually, I don't know of any plans, but I'm certainly not opposed to it. If the opportunity presents itself, I would love to do it again.

[47/65] Lecia_J._Brooks: ... And certainly, yes, not all African-Americans use the N-word....

Appendix 2

The following list presents the chat sessions as they appeared in the Archives of the Lycos website. They are ordered according to the date of issue; the period concerned is from Jan 14, 2000 to March 26, 2003. The numbers is my addition for the purposes of reference.

1/ Prom Hair and Beauty Tips--Is it the year of the updo? Check it out here--from YM magazine! (3/26/2003)

2/ Lucy Woodward--Catch a rising star! Check out what this new singer is ready for! (3/25/2003)

3/ Prom Fashion Tips--Once again, prepping for the biggest night of the year with YM magazine! (3/19/2003)

4/ James Patterson--Meet best-selling author, James Patterson! (03/20/2003)

5/ O-TOWN--Chat with the HOT band, O-TOWN (01/15/2003)

6/ Daniel Quinn--Chat with the author of THE HOLY (12/17/2002)

7/ Wilmer Valderrama--Meet Fez, off-the-wall star of That 70's Show! (11/18/2002)

8/ Laura Pausini--International singing sensation debuts first english album! (10/29/2002)

9/ Fat Joe--Rapper and Hip Hop star chat about his newest release! (10/29/2002)

10/ Leigh Nash--Meet the lead singer for Sixpence None the Richer! (10/28/2002)

11/ Chevelle--Meet Sam, Pete, and Joe, the Loeffler brothers and band, Chevelle! (10/22/2002)

12/ Andrew Davoli--Does he have the scoop about his role on the Soprano's? (10/09/2002)

13/ Hunks of The WB--Chris Pratt, Pablo Santos, Steve Howey, and Wesley Jonathan! (10/09/2002)

14/ Barry Pepper--What does this 'Knockaround Guy' have to say? Check it out! (10/08/2002)

15/ Amanda Bynes--What's up with Amanda? Follow the star of What I Like About You. (10/02/2002)

16/ Kevin Welch--Singer, songwriter and a country music classic! (09/24/2002)

17/ American Idol--Who deserved to win? Fans face off during the exciting AI finale. (09/04/2002)

18/ Duncan Sheik--On the path to enlightenment, from Phantom Moon to Daylight. (08/29/2002)

19/ William Gazecki--Explore the mystery of crop circles with an expert in the field. (08/23/2002)

20/ Sasha--What's next for the superstar DJ? Hear about his new album and more! (08/20/2002)

21/ Suzane Northrop--Get afterlife advice from an expert on psychic phenomena! (08/16/2002)

22/ Tom Lenk--"Andrew" from Buffy the Vampire Slayer reveals his "obsession." (08/12/2002)

23/ LMNT--You have the CD. Now find out how to bid on the band's pants. (07/24/2002)

24/ Halloween Resurrection--Rick Rosenthal & Thomas Nicholes battle Michael Myers! (07/15/2002)

25/ Wayne Dyer--Learn how to find the spiritual path to success and inner peace. (07/10/2002)

26/ Silverchair--Live from down under, the latest on Diorama and Daniel's recovery. (06/18/2002)

27/ Nappy Roots--Kentucky-based rappers serve up Watermelon, Chicken & Gritz. (06/05/2002)

28/ LMNT--Bryan, Mike, Jonas, and Ikaika, have the word on their debut CD. (05/29/2002)

29/ Brandy--Staying true to the music & passion that made her new album possible. (05/23/2002)

30/ Stargate SG-1-Explore season 6 with Richard D. Anderson & Amanda Tapping. (05/22/2002)

31/ Ronnie Marmo--A big screen bad boy from Brooklyn reveals his idea of fun. (05/17/2002)

32/ Course of Nature--Hear the inspiration for the SUPERKALA hit Caught in the Sun. (05/15/2002)

33/ Michelle Williams--A Destiny's Child "Survivor" goes back to her gospel roots. (05/15/2002)

34/ Vincent Kartheiser--"Connor" tells us what it's like joining the Angel cast. (05/13/2002)

35/ Mushroomhead--The masked rockers check in before joining the Ozzfest tour. (05/09/2002)

36/ Flaw--The band chats about their major label debut Through the Eyes. (5/01/2002)

37/ Prom Fashion 2-More prom do's and don'ts from YM magazine! (4/30/2002)

38/ Kane Hodder--Cutting remarks from the legendary horror icon "Jason Voorhees" ! (4/24/2002)

39/ Prom Fashion Tips--Prepping for the biggest night of the year with YM magazine. (4/24/2002)

40/ Chuck Campbell--Starring in Jason X and living to tell the story. (4/22/2002)

41/ Tara Reid--Is she a party girl? What about doing nude scenes? Tara tells all. (4/3/2002)

42/ Luke Goss--"Nomak" from Blade II tells us what it's like to get "re-vamped." (3/28/2002)

43/ Guillermo del Toro--The master of gothic horror talks about directing Blade II. (3/27/2002)

44/ Ron Perlman--From starring in Beauty and the Beast to Blade II. Is Hellboy next? (3/22/2002)

45/ Brad Wright--Will Michael Shanks return to Stargate SG-1? Brad has the answer. (2/28/2002)

46/ Pam Spurr--The key to unlocking the meaning behind your craziest dreams. (2/27/2002)

47/ Boston Public--See what the experts had to say about a controversial episode of BP. (2/25/2002)

48/ Craig Hamilton-Parker--Is there an afterlife? Will your ATM card still work? (2/13/2002)

49/ Kabbalah--What is Kabbalah & why do Madonna, JayZ, and Deepak Chopra follow it? (2/5/2002)

50/ Nickel Creek--A special acoustic session with Sara, Cris, and Sean. (1/29/2002)

51/ Dokken--Hard rock heroes reveal what really happens on the tour bus. (1/28/2002)

52/ Kelly Goldsmith--She survived Africa, but will she take on Playboy? (1/23/2002)

53/ Stephanie Romanov--Angel's "Lilah Morgan" on love, vampires, lingerie shopping. (1/23/2002)

54/ John Gray--The "Men are from Mars" author has tips for the workplace. (1/8/2002)

55/ Dream Analyst--Stephanie talks about nightmares and other odd dreams. (12/20/2001)

56/ Francesco Galasso--Party like a star! YM presents a hairstylist to the stars! (12/19/2001)

57/ Dream Analyst--What do your dreams mean? You will be shocked. Come Find out! (11/30/2001)

58/ Daniel Quinn--The author of "Ishmael" has new theories on human evolution. (11/21/2001)

59/ Leonard Maltin--Famous movie critic talks about Harry Potter, LOTR, and more. (11/21/2001)

60/ Ellen Ladowsky--The co-host of the new dating show Rendez-View speaks out. (11/19/2001)

61/ Todd Newton--Former Coming Attractions host has a new gig called Hot Ticket. (11/15/2001)

62/ David Lascher--Actor from Sabrina, The Teenage Witch talks about the show. (11/15/2001)

63/ Jennifer Blanc--"Kendra" from TV's Dark Angel tells us stories from the set. (11/13/2001)

64/ J.C. MacKenzie--"Normal" from TV's Dark Angel talks about the 2nd season. (11/12/2001)

65/ Greg Proops--Comedian from Whose Line Is It Anyway? makes us laugh. (10/31/2001)

66/ Peter Straub--The master horror storyteller talks about his new book Black House. (10/25/2001)

67/ Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes--Lisa talks about life in TLC and her first solo CD, Supernova. (10/17/2001)

68/ Nicholas Evans--The best selling author chats about The Horse Whisperer. (10/2/2001)

69/ Carnie Wilson--Carnie chats about her new book and dealing with obesity. (9/26/2001)

70/ Tyrone Edmond--Male super model talks about life in front of the camera. (9/20/2001)

71/ Ben Folds--Ben chats about his new solo CD, Rockin' the Suburbs. (9/18/2001)

72/ Toby Keith--Toby chats about his new CD, Pull My Chain. (9/4/2001)

73/ Cathryn Michon--Chats about her best-selling book, The Grrl Genius Guide to Life. (8/27/2001)

74/ Eartha Kitt--Chat with the International star of theater, music and film. (8/21/2001)

75/ Dominic Chianese--Actor from The Sopranos chats about the show and his debut CD, Hits (8/27/2001)

76/ Jeremy Piven--Actor from Rush Hour II chats about his several TV and movie roles. (8/9/2001)

77/ Peter Guralnick--Acclaimed Elvis biographer celebrates Elvis: Live in Las Vegas. (7/19/2001)

78/ Warren Cuccurullo--Duran Duran guitarist tells about Zappa, Missing Persons. (7/16/2001)

79/ Michael DeLorenzo--Star of Resurrection Boulevard & New York Undercover. (6/20/2001)

80/ The Saturn Awards--Live from the award ceremony honoring science fiction, fantasy, and horror! Celebrity

chatters include Julie Benz (Angel), Michelle Trachtenberg (Buffy the Vampire Slayer), Jennifer Blanc (Dark Angel), Bryan Singer (X-Men), and many more! (6/12/2001)

81/ Colleen Haskell--The Survivor castaway chats about her film debut in The Animal. (6/12/2001)

82/ Rob Schneider--Former SNL funnyman chats up his latest movie, The Animal. (5/31/2001)

83/ Don McLean--Singer-songwriter of "American Pie" fame. (5/29/2001)

84/ Rob Brezsny--Author of The Televisionary Oracle on meeting women the PC way. (5/24/2001)

85/ Shawn McCarthy--Author of e-business guide, The Art of .COMbat. (5/24/2001)

86/ R.A. Salvatore--Author of Star Wars[R] : New Jedi Order series, Vector Prime. (5/23/2001)

87/ Terry Brooks--Author of the The Phantom Menace book. (5/23/2001)

88/ Greg Bear--Author of the novel Star Wars: Rogue Planet. (5/23/2001)

89/ Sherrie Austin--The country star chats about her new CD, Followin a Feelin'. (5/22/2001)

90/ Corbin Bernsen--Actor from L.A. Law and Major League. (5/21/2001)

91/ Michael Reaves--Author of the Star Wars novel, Darth Maul: Shadow Hunter. (5/15/2001)

92/ Dean Haglund--Member of the conspiracy-tracking trio, The Lone Gunmen. (5/10/2001)

93/ Evan Dorkin--Creator of Milk & Cheese, and writer for Space Ghost: Coast to Coast. (5/9/2001)

94/ Kel Gleason--Meet Kel from Survivor II! (5/4/2001)

95/ Angel Sheridan--A drag queen diva celebrates her fabulous new CD, Dancing Queens. (5/3/2001)

96/ Gigi Eldgley--Actress in the Sci-Fi series Farscape. (5/3/2001)

97/ Ricky Manning--Writer/Producer for the Sci-Fi series Farscape. (5/1/2001)

98/ Anthony Simcoe--Actor in the Sci-Fi series Farscape. (5/1/2001)

99/ School Crisis--Stephen E. Brock, author of Preparing for Crises in the Schools. (4/27/2001)

100/ The Outer Limits--Pen Densham and Mark Stern, executive producers of the award-winning anthology series. (4/25/2001)

101/ Krystal--The pop diva chimes in to chat about her new CD. (4/24/2001)

102/ Peter Lohmeyer--The actor talks about his role in Hacerse el Sueco. (4/17/2001)

103/ Tracy Hogg--Author of Secrets of the Baby Whisperer. (4/16/2001)

104/ Michael Shermer--Author of Why People Believe Weird Things. (4/13/2001)

105/ Sean Gibbon--Author of Run Like an Antelope: On the Road with Phish. (4/3/2001)

106/ The Pierces--Epic Record's hot musical duet. (4/3/2001)

107/ Reality TV--Andy Dehnart has the latest news and gossip. (3/29/2001)

108/ John Gray--Author of Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus. (3/27/2001)

109/ Movie Madness--Thomas Chau has movie news and gossip. (3/22/2001)

110/ Robert Rodriguez--The filmmaker chats about his new movie, Spy Kids. (3/22/2001)

111/ Reality TV--Andy Dehnart has the latest news and gossip. (3/21/2001)

112/ Blessid Union of Souls--The band celebrates its new release, The Singles. (3/14/2001)

113/ The Pierces--Epic Record's hot musical duet (3/7/2001)

114/ Mudvayne--Musical "shock therapists" discuss debut release L.D. 50 (3/2/2001)

115/ Glenn Close--Award-winning actress, live from Mardis Gras (2/23/2001)

116/ Anne Rice--Author of best-selling "Vampire Chronicles" series (2/23/2001)

117/ Tom Loreto--Chief Investigator & Special Agent on crime (2/8/2001)

118/ Rob Harris--Go behind the scenes of the movie Hannibal (2/6/2001)

119/ Melissa George--Australian actress from The Limey and Sugar & Spice (1/25/2001)

120/ Alexandra Holden--Actress from Drop Dead Gorgeous and Sugar & Spice (1/25/2001)

121/ Rachel Blanchard--Actress from Road Trip and Sugar & Spice (1/22/2001)

122/ Alabama--Country music's original superstar band (1/15/2001)

123/ Eric Levin--Celebrate the '70s!--Tacky trivia with People magazine editor Eric Levin (1/8/2001)

124/ Leigh Nash--Lead singer of Grammy-nominated Sixpence None The Richer (12/19/2000)

125/ Sin City--Three authors discuss lust, gluttony, and greed (12/19/2000)

126/ Christina Aguilera--Grammy Award winning recording artist (12/12/2000)

127/ SexWars--Jennifer Cole & JD Roth, hosts of the hot new quiz show (12/6/2000)

128/ Justin Whalin--TV's Jimmy Olsen, star of movie Dungeon & Dragons (12/4/2000)

129/ Darva Conger--Bride from FOX's Who Wants to Marry a Millionaire (11/28/2000)

130/ Thora Birch--Star of American Beauty and Dungeons & Dragons (11/28/2000)

131/ Model Search--Chat with winner Lycos Model Search 2000 contest (11/27/2000)

132/ Valeria Mazza--Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue covergirl (11/27/2000)

133/ 3 Doors Down--The band chats about their new release The Better Life (11/20/2000)

134/ Fuel--Chats up their hit CD "Something Like Human." (10/26/2000)

135/ Richard Dean Anderson--Producer/Star of Showtime's "Stargate SG-1" (10/23/2000)

136/ Stan Lee--Comic book mastermind behind Spiderman, X-Men and more (10/23/2000)

137/ Michael Rapaport--Chats about his new movie "Bamboozled" (10/17/2000)

138/ Janusz Kaminski--Academy Award winner Director of "Lost Souls" (10/16/2000)

139/ Morty Lefkoe--Author of "Re-create Your Life" (10/9/2000)

140/ Mandy Moore--Chats about her newest album "Walk Me Home" (10/5/2000)

141/ Nine Days--Chats about their new CD "The Madding Crowd" (9/27/2000)

142/ Ruff Endz--Chats about their new CD "Love Crimes" (9/26/2000)

143/ Good Charlotte--Chats about their new CD (9/25/2000)

144/ Incubus--The band chatted about their new CD "When Incubus Attacks" (8/29/2000)

145/ Ed McMahon--Muscular Dystrophy Association Telethon 2000 (8/29/2000)

146/ Traci Bingham--Actress, model--Lifeguard "Jordan Tate" from TV's Baywatch (8/16/2000)

147/ Anna Faris--Star of "Scary Movie" (8/14/2000)

148/ Dirk Been--Contestant/castaway from TV's Survivorseries (8/10/2000)

149/ Vanessa Angel--Britsh-born actress, star of TV's Weird Science (8/3/2000)

150/ Travis--British rock band (7/18/2000)

151/ Mary Mary--Chat about their gospel CD, THANKFUL (7/12/2000)

152/ Susan Ward--Star of the movie THE IN-CROWD (7/12/2000)

153/ Lori Heuring--Star of the movie THE IN-CROWD (7/10/2000)

154/ Matthew Settle--Star of the movie THE IN-CROWD (7/10/2000)

155/ DJ Qualls--Star of movie ROAD TRIP (6/29/2000)

156/ Michael Madsen--Actor in RESERVOIR DOGS (6/21/2000)

157/ Blink 182-Punk Revival Band (6/16/2000)

158/ John Gray--Author of "Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus" (6/13/2000)

159/ Kyle MacLachlan--Agent Cooper of Twin Peaksfame, star of Hamlet (6/1/2000)

160/ The Bacon Brothers--Actor Kevin Bacon and his brother Michael (5/25/2000)

161/ Jon Abrahams--Chats about his new role in SCARY MOVIE (5/24/2000)

162/ Pearl Jam--Popular rock band (5/15/2000)

163/ China Jesusita Shavers--Actress on Sabrina the Teenage Witch (1/26/2000)

164/ Kerr Smith--Actor who plays Jack in Dawson's Creek (1/19/2000)

165/ Soap Opera Celebration--Various stars from daytime soaps (1/14/2000)


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(1) In the subsequent discussion I will subscribe to the use of the term 'utterance' rather than 'sentence' in accord with Lyons' (1995: 243) claim: "The only access that one has to sentence meaning, which ... is a theoretical construct, is via utterance meaning; and sentence meaning has no role that is assigned to it in the linguist's model of the production and interpretation of utterances."

(2) extrinsic and intrinsic respectively, cf. Greenbaum et al, 1990: 60

(3) The examples of epistemic versus deontic uses are: He may be ill.--He may have another apple. He must be a friend of hers.--He must be in bed before 8 o'clock. (Huddleston, 1988: 78)

(4) The examples of subjective modality are: He/She may come. I hope he comes. The examples of evidentials are: Allegedly, the Polish football team defeated the Bulgarian. (Siewierska, 1991: 126)

(5) The possible inference is that what he means by the first is a set of modal auxiliaries.

(6) for term 'disjunt', cf Greenbaum et al, 1990

(7) The examples he gave can be translated in the following way: Unfortunately, I did not manage it. I'm really sorry I did not manage it. (evaluative introductory words are in italics); Pavel must be back. (the modal introductory word is in italics).

(8) Adverbial is considered to be a grammatical function of adverb.

(9) 'She has certainly been enthusiastic about her work', 'She has probably been enthusiastic about her work', 'She has been enthusiastic only about her work' (ibid, 485)

(10) Paradis' study (1994) on the lexical forms quite, rather, fairly and pretty in contemporary spoken British English served as an impetus for considering a notional paradigm of modal adverbs. She postulates that these lexical items (quite, rather, fairly, pretty) form a notional paradigm of compromiser within the category of degree modifiers. She defines them as "cognitive synonyms that occupy the middle of an abstract intensity scale, approximating a mean degree of another word" (1994: 157) and adds that they form a paradigm on account of common features from both paradigmatic and syntagmatic points of view. In her words, "[t] hey are all polysemous and polyfunctional words, whose meanings are determined by a crucial semantic trait 'to a moderate degree' on paradigmatic axis, and by a semantic-syntactic, selection-licensing mechanism on the syntagmatic axis" (1994: 157).

Alena Kacmarova

Katedra anglickeho jazyka a literatury, Institut anglistiky a amerikanistiky

Filozoficka fakulta Presovskej univerzity

ul 17. novembra 1

080 78 Presov
Table 1A The range of heads that the target modality markers modify
in Adverbial Phrase

Corpus Findings

GrF    ADVERB Mod    ADVERB Head
E      ABSOLUTELY    anywhere
E      ACTUALLY      just, pretty, quite, really, very
D      BASICALLY     just
E      CERTAINLY     very
D      ESSENTIALLY   very
D      OBVIOUSLY     only
E      REALLY        almost, badly, beautifully, incredibly, just,
                     mostly, only, out there, pretty, probably,
                     quite, too, very, well

Table 1B The inventory of the target modality markers that appeared in
Adverbial Phrase

EMPHASIZERS   absolutely, actually, certainly, really

DISJUNCTS     basically, essentially, obviously

Table 2A The range of heads that the target modality markers modify in
Adjectival Phrase

Corpus Findings

GrF   ADVERB (Modifier)   ADJECTIVE (Head)

E     ACTUALLY            good, funn(ier), solo

D     APPROPRIATELY       summery

D     BASICALLY           adult, male dominated, nonexistent,
                          normal , overcoming, post-apocalyptic,

E     CERTAINLY           aware, reluctant, (more) rewarding

E     CLEARLY             powerful

E     DEFINITELY          aware, clos(er), different, embarrassment
                          free, flattering, full, (the) hard(est),
                          helpful, high, my favorite, perfect,
                          psyched, true, (the most) unpredictable,
                          (the) worst

D     ESSENTIALLY         spoofing

D     INTERESTINGLY       funny

E     LITERALLY           (more) aware

D     OBVIOUSLY           fantastic, impossible, (way) smart(er)

E     PERFECTLY           appropriate, good, innocent

E     POSSIBLY            (the) best

E     PRECISELY           appropriate

E     PURELY              aesthetic, descriptive

E     REALLY              able, addictive, affordable, afraid,
                          amazing, awesome, bad, bizarre, blind,
                          bright, careful, cheesy, classic, cool,
                          cracked up, crazy, creepy, Cuban, curly,
                          cute, damaging, dangerous, dark, diverse,
                          down-to-earth, dramatic, enjoyable,
                          exciting, fabulous, familiar, frizzy,
                          frustrated, fulfilling, funky, giant,
                          gigantic, gimmicky, glad, good-looking,
                          great, hard, honored, horrible,
                          impressed, inexpensive, influenced,
                          inspired, interested, intimidating,
                          irritating, laid-back, lightweight,
                          little, mean, moved, nervous, oily,
                          opinionated, overtired, pale, partial to,
                          particular, personal, popular, positive,
                          proud, quirky, respectful, rough, scary,
                          serious, sexy, skinny, solid, sorry,
                          sparkly, special, stalwart, still,
                          strange, stupid, supportive, surprised,
                          surprising , terrific, thankful, thick,
                          thin, tired, tough, ugly, uncomfortable,
                          unique, weird, wet, wild, wonderful,

E     SIMPLY              curious, handed, magnetic

D     SURPRISINGLY        easy

E     TRULY               amazing, crazy, extraordinary, fortunate

D     UNUSUALLY           high, thick

E     VIRTUALLY           impossible

Table 2B The inventory of the target modality markers that appeared in
Adjectival Phrase

Emphasizers   actually, certainly, clearly, definitely, literally,
              perfectly, possibly, precisely, really, truly,
              unusually, virtually

Disjuncts     appropriately, arguably, basically , obviously,
              surprisingly, unusually, essentially

Table 3A The range of heads that the target modality markers modify in
Noun Phrase

Corpus Findings

GrF   ADVERB         NOUN                   NOUN GROUP

      * the adverb   Subject phrase         Subject phrase
      is postponed   Verb phrase            Verb phrase
                     elliptical structures  elliptical structures

Legend to Table 3A

GrF   Modifier       Head                   Mod + head + qual

                     --                     --
E     ABSOLUTELY     singles                --
                     Kiss, lily             --

                     --                     --
E     ACTUALLY       something, me          a Brad Wright question,
                                            the summer, an episode
                                            of, an ancient myth, a
                                            character, a PBS
                                            special, a picture of
                                            C.P, kind of cool, 95%,
                                            an oxymoron, 60
                                            percent, one of Junkie
                                            XL's tracks

                     --                     any sitcom

D     BASICALLY      misinformation         everything else, a lot
                                            of the singles, a
                                            Reckoner reunion, a
                                            three-day process, my
                                            every waking hour, my
                                            top three, her school

                     --                     --

E     CERTAINLY      --                     all the chain
                                            bookstores, a pain

                     --                     --

E     CLEARLY        --                     a novel of education,
                                            the brains

                     --                     --

                     --                     --

E     DEFINITELY     Harrison Ford,         the band's choice, an
                     Madonna, life          oddity, a follower, a
                                            dream come true, the
                                            peak of, a bonus, the
                                            intention, a labor of
                                            love, a gift, a new
                                            look at

                     --                     the movie

                     --                     --

D     ESSENTIALLY    --                     the problem

                     --                     --

                     --                     --

E     LITERALLY      --                     1000s of times

                     --                     --

                     --                     all of us

D     OBVIOUSLY      --                     a match

                     --                     --

                     --                     --

E     POSSIBLY       --                     a backlash against

                     --                     --

                     --                     --

E     PURELY         makeup                 a boggle mind issue,
                                            Carl's decision, my

                     pleasure               --

                     --                     --

E     REALLY         fun, Meg Ryan, David   fun guys/night/
                                            character to play/show,
                                            a celebrity, a
                                            gentleman, a challenge,
                                            a doll, an outgrowth,
                                            kind of a cipher, the
                                            jokester, a blessing,
                                            one of the crew, a
                                            revival, activities,
                                            my inspiration, kind of
                                            your own gig, a family

                     fun, anything *        kind of old fashioned,
                                            kind of your own gig

E     TRULY          --                     --

                     --                     an honor, a dream come
                                            true, an
                                            understatement, one of
                                            my, three years
                     --                     --

E     VIRTUALLY      everybody              --

                     --                     --

Table 3B The inventory of the target modality markers that appeared in
Noun Phrase

Emphasizers    absolutely, actually, basically, certainly, clearly,
               definitely, literally, possibly, purely, really, truly,

Disjuncts      essentially , obviously

Table 4A The range of heads the target modality markers modify in a
Prepositional Phrase

Corpus Findings


      * the adverb   Subject phrase
      is postponed   Verb phrase;
                     [degrees] elliptical structures (i.e suppressed
                     verb phrases)

Legend to Table 4A

GrF   Modifier       Head (preposition + noun group)

E     ACTUALLY       in the works of, from Brooklyn, at Brandon's
                     apartment, at the E! Studios, during the
                     season, on (the Board)

D     BASICALLY      without a way
                     like high school, without effort, about choice

E     CERTAINLY      --
                     in contact

E     DEFINITELY     --
                     into the process of

E     LITERALLY      --
                     off the hook

E     REALLY         --
                     beyond civilization, about the human
                     experience, into aerobics/exercise, into a lot
                     of classic artists, into orange, for me, on
                     good terms, out in the middle of nowhere, on
                     the road to, into S. O'Conner's new CD, into
                     Macy Gray, for all ages

                     by mistake

Table 4B The inventory of the target modality markers that appeared
in Prepositional Phrase

EMPHASIZERS    actually, certainly, definitely, literally, really

DISJUNCTS      basically, surprisingly

Table 5A The range of heads that the target modality markers modify in
a Verb Phrase

Corpus Findings

GrF        ADVERB        VERB
                         mid position
                         other than mid position
                         end position

Legend to Table 5A

GrF        ADVERB        VERB

E          ACTUALLY      ask, be, be born, call, came, can, come
                         off, consider, could, decide, did, do
                         (emph.), do research, draw, end up, enjoy,
                         film, get along, get on the river, get
                         ready, get, get to, go through, have (to),
                         help, hit, involve, keep, know, last,
                         learn, like, live, look (at/for/forward
                         to/like), love, make, make up, mark, met,
                         need, pack up, play, pull pranks on,
                         punch, put, race, record, send, start,
                         thank, think, throw up, take, turn down,
                         walk, want, watch, wear, work, write

E                        be, do, say

--                       --

D          BASICALLY     can sneak through, claim, give, go, have
                         to be, have to do, obey, pick up, pimp
                         out, sit down writing, want to



E          CERTAINLY     accept, agree, appear, attempt, attend,
                         be, buy, could use, does (aux.), express,
                         give, have to, help, hope, lend, made so
                         do sth, sound, think, touch, will

E str-er                 Be

E          CLEARLY       Take

E          DEFINITELY    affect, appreciate, be a part of, be going
                         to have/try, be part, be willing, can do/
                         leave/make, celebrate, change, come, come
                         back, consider, enjoy, feel like doing
                         sth, give, happen, have, have influence/
                         respect, have to be/do/love, help, know,
                         like, look forward to, mail, make, make a
                         change, need to find, open, perform, plan
                         to do sth, promise, remember, see,
                         suggest, take, talk, test, think, try,
                         want, want to, watch, work, would
                         (ellipt.), would do/like to/love to/say

E str-er                 are (ellipt.), bite, did (pro-form),
                         effect, pursue, set up, would, would have
                         to say

--                       --

D          ESSENTIALLY   Observe


E          LITERALLY     become, grow, plug, sop



D          NATURALLY     Move



D          OBVIOUSLY     be, could be, have, meet

D                        be, can make

--                       --

E          POSSIBLY      --

                         can (elliptical), could (elliptical),


E          REALLY        admire, appreciate, be (are/is/was), be
                         glad, be tired, believe, blow, can clear
                         up, capture, care, catch, change, cherish,
                         consider, could be, create, dare, delve
                         into, depend, deserve, dig, do (emph.
                         aux.), do (aux.), do, doubt, drag, enjoy,
                         explore, fascinate, feel, feel about, feel
                         comfortable with, feel like, focus,
                         follow, get, get close, get threats, get
                         to know, go on, going to be, gonna be,
                         hate, have, have to, help, hope, inspire,
                         interest, know, learn, like, like to, look
                         forward to, lose, love, make, matter,
                         mean, miff, miss, motivate, need (to),
                         pay, play, please, represent, respect,
                         ride, shake up, shoot, show, start,
                         stretch, study, suck, take, teach, think,
                         try, upset, wanna, want, want to, work,

E str-er                 be (is/are), can speak/eat, did, did
                         start, does apply, is like, would love to

--                       --

--                       --

E          SERIOUSLY     Watch

--                       --

E          SIMPLY        enjoy, fold, hook up, keep on, make,
                         postpone, reflect, slip



--                       --

E          TOTALLY       have to invent

--                       --

--                       --

E          TRULY         admire, appreciate, be, believe, could
                         see, deserve, enjoy, hope, inspire, like,
                         love, miss, prove, wish

E str-er                 be, do (emphatic auxiliary)

--                       --

E          VIRTUALLY     take over



Table 5B The inventory of the target modality markers that appeared in
Verb Phrase

EMPHASIZERS    actually, certainly, clearly, definitely, literally,
               possibly, really, seriously, simply, totally, truly,

DISJUNCTS      basically, essentially, naturally, obviously

Table 6A The range of heads the target modality markers modify in a
dependent clause

Corpus Findings

                    PRE-SUBORDINA   POST-SUBORDINA


Table 6B The inventory of the target modality markers that appeared
in a dependent clause

EMPHASIZERS    certainly, definitely, really

DISJUNCTS      basically , obviously

Table 7A The range of heads that the target modality markers used
parenthetically modify

Corpus Findings

Gr f   adverb          verbless   clause
                       clause     front    mid   end

D      TRULY

Table 7B The inventory of the target modality markers used

Disjunc     absolutely, actually, apparently, arguably, basically,
            certainly, clearly, completely, definitely, essentially,
            exactly, interestingly (enough), naturally, obviously,
            really, seriously, surprisingly, totally, truly,
            undoubtedly, unequivocally

Table 8 The occurrence of the target modality markers in sentence

Adverb                             Phrases
                Ptic   DC
                Use          adv   adj   NP    VP    PP

absolutely      E            E           E
actually                     E     E     E     E     E
apparently      D
appropriately                      D
basically       D      D     D     D     D     D     D
certainly       E      E     E     E     E     E     E
clearly         D                  E     E     E
completely      D
definitely      D      E           E     E     E     E
essentially     D            D     D     D     D
exactly         D
interestingly                      D
literally                          E     E     E     E
naturally       D                              D

adverb                       Phrases
                Ptic   DC
                Use          adv   adj   NP    VP    PP

obviously       D      D     D     D     D     D
perfectly                          E
possibly                           E     E     E
precisely                          E
purely                             E     E
really          E      E     E     E     E     E     E
seriously       D                              E
simply                             E           E
surprisingly                       D                 D
totally         D                              E
truly           D                  E     E     E
undoubtedly     D
unequivocally   D
unusually                          D
virtually                          E     E     E




Ptic Use--adverbs used parenthetically

DC--an element within a dependent clause

phrases--adv = adverbial phrase, adj = adjectival phrase, NP =
         noun phrase, VP = verb phrase, PP = prepositional phrase

Table 9 The inventory of the target modality markers for each
grammatical function and a valence pattern

AdvP           Emphasizers   actually, certainly, really
               Disjuncts     basically, essentially, obviously

Adj P          Emphasizers   actually, certainly, clearly,
               Disjuncts     definitely, literally, perfectly,
                             possibly, precisely, really, truly
                             appropriately, arguably, basically ,
                             obviously, surprisingly, unusually,

NP             Emphasizers   absolutely, actually, certainly,
               Disjuncts     clearly, definitely, literally,
                             possibly, purely, really, truly,
                             virtually essentially , obviously

PP             Emphasizers   actually, certainly, definitely,
               Disjuncts     literally, really basically,

VP             Emphasizers   actually, certainly, clearly,
               Disjuncts     definitely, literally, possibly,
                             really, seriously, simply, totally,
                             virtually basically, essentially,
                             naturally, obviously

Dep Clause     Emphasizers   certainly, definitely, really
               Disjuncts     basically, obviously

parent. used   Emphasizers   --
               Disjuncts     absolutely, actually, apparently,
                             basically, certainly, clearly,
                             completely, definitely, essentially,
                             exactly, naturally, obviously, really,
                             seriously, totally, truly, undoubtedly,

Table 10 Notional paradigms of modal adverbs and introductory words

Modal adverbs            Evaluative and modal introductory words

LITERALLY                CLEARLY         TOTALLY
PURELY                   EXACTLY         UNUSUALLY

Table 11 Adverbs functioning as both modal adverbs and
introductory words

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Author:Kacmarova, Alena
Publication:SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jun 1, 2011
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