Mitigation of ammonia volatilisation from urea with micronised sulfur applied to common bean.
Urea is the synthetic nitrogen (N) fertiliser most used in agriculture, despite its low use efficiency. The low use efficiency of urea is associated to the hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease, when it is applied to the soil surface, which can result in the loss of up to 70% of the applied N by volatilisation as ammonia N (N[H.sub.3]-N) (Lara Cabezas et al. 1997a). The volatilisation of N[H.sub.3]-N is the result of alkalisation near the urea granules during their hydrolysis (Raun and Johnson 1999). According to Overrein and Moe (1967), soil pH may increase from 6.5 to 8.8 in the area adjacent to urea granules. This increase in pH is inversely proportional to the reduction in the concentration of [H.sup.+], which impedes the conversion of ammonia (N[H.sub.3]) to ammonium (N[H.sub.4.sup.+]) and favours N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation (Overrein and Moe 1967). Additionally, the activity of urease, which consumes [H.sup.+] through the hydrolysis of urea, results in increased N[H.sub.3]-N availability for volatilisation (Rochette et al. 2009a), which is more evident in agricultural areas with soil conservation practices, such as no-till crop systems, where the soil surface is covered with straw to provide a favourable environment for the action of microorganisms that intensifies the N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation process.
Techniques such as the use of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide (NBPT) can inhibit the urease activity and decrease N[H.sub.3]-N losses (Cantarella et al. 2008; Sanz-Cobena et al. 2008, 2011). However, N fertilisers with NBPT are substantially more expensive than standard fertilisers (Trenkel 2010), and they do not provide nutrients other than N for the plants. Approaches to mitigate N[H.sub.3]-N losses using boric acid, copper sulfate (Faria et al. 2013), and sulfur (S) (Trenkel, 2010; Nascimento et al. 2013) have shown positive results. We hypothesised that the incorporation of micronised elemental S ([S.sup.0]) in urea granules may decrease N[H.sub.3]-N losses as a function of the acidification effect caused by the oxidation of [S.sup.0] (Stamford et al. 2002, 2004, 2015), which can neutralise alkalisation during urea hydrolysis.
Sulfur is a nutrient that is often neglected in agriculture, but the potential to create an N fertiliser that contains S and the accompanying advantage of reducing N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation may solve a problem of nutrient limitation that has affected many agricultural lands (Chien et al. 2009). The ability of soil to supply S for plants is closely related to organic matter content and mineralisation (Tiecher et al. 2013). Thus, S is often a limiting factor in tropical soils due to the low levels of organic matter and S reduction in soil stocks caused by crop uptake and loss through leaching and erosion (Kim et al. 2013), which increases the demand for this nutrient. The application of S combined with N affords agronomic advantages, and this can also be a suitable use for the excess S from oil refineries in the context of recent environmental regulations in many countries that require reductions in the amount of S in fuel (Mansouri et al. 2014).
The objectives of this work were to (1) verify whether urea+S can mitigate N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation compared with conventional N fertilisers, and (2) evaluate the efficiency of N and S sources in terms of plant nutrition, yield components, and grain yield (GY) for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in three different soil textures.
Materials and methods
Characterisation of the experimental sites
Field experiments with common bean crops grown under no-till farming were conducted at three sites with the following soil texture classes: sandy loam (coarse-textured soil), sandy clay loam (medium-textured soil), and clay (fine-textured soil) (Table 1), which were classified as Typic Hapludox, Rhodic Hapludox, and Typic Rhodudalf (Soil Survey Staff 2014) respectively. In Sao Manuel in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the experiment was conducted in a coarse-textured soil located at 22[degrees]77'S, 48[degrees]57'W, and an altitude of-770 m above sea level. At Botucatu, the experiments were conducted in medium-, and fine-textured soils. The site with the medium-textured soil was located at 22[degrees]83'S, 48[degrees]42'W, and the site with the fine-textured soil was located at 22[degrees] 84'S, 48[degrees] 42'W. Both sites were located at altitudes of -800 m, and were not irrigated.
The climate was humid mesothermal, Cwa according to the Koppen classification, with a dry season during the fall-winter and a hot rainy season during the spring-summer (Miranda et al. 2015). During this study, the temperature and rainfall were measured by meteorological stations located in Sao Manuel and Botucatu.
For the initial chemical characterisation of the experimental sites, the soil was sampled at two depths: 0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m (Table 2). Then the soil samples were air-dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve for subsequent chemical analysis. Soil pH was determined in a 0.01 mol [L.sup.-1] calcium chloride (Ca[Cl.sub.2]) suspension (1 : 2.5 soil: solution); potential acidity (H + Al) was estimated by the Shoemaker-McLean-Pratt pH buffer method; Ca, Mg, P, and K were extracted using pearl resin; cation exchange capacity (CEC) was calculated as the sum of (H + Al) + Ca + Mg + K; and soil organic matter (SOM) was determined by the chromic acid wet oxidation method according to Raij et al. (2001).
Each plot consisted of six 10 m-long rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In March 2015, common beans of the I AC Imperador cultivar were sown beneath com (Zea mays L.) straw under a no-till system with a target final population of 140000 plants [ha.sup.-1]. In addition to the side-dressing treatments, 18 kg [ha.sup.-1] N as urea, 72 kg [ha.sup.-1] P as triple superphosphate, and 72 kg [ha.sup.-1] K as potassium chloride were applied just below and to the side of the seed furrow. The fertilisers applied on the sowing were based on the soil chemical characterisation and GY expected (3500 kg [ha.sup.-1]), according to official recommendations (Raij et al. 1996).
The treatments are summarised in Table 3, and consisted of the application of different sources of N and/or S, to compare conventional N sources to urea micronised with S (urea+S), in a concentration of 13% elemental S (urea+[S.sub.A]), and with 4% elemental S and 9% S in sulfate form (urea+[S.sub.B]). Urea containing micronised S have uniform dispersion of [S.sup.0] and/ or S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] particles of diameter smaller than 40 [micro]m in the granule. Fertiliser treatments were manually applied as side-dressing in a uniform line next to the bean rows at a rate of 100 kg [ha.sup.-1] N when the plants reached the V4 growth stage (Fernandez et al. 1985).
N loss through N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation
The loss of N through N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation was evaluated using a semi-open static chamber developed by Nommik (1973), adapted by Lara Cabezas and Trivelin (1990), and calibrated by Lara Cabezas el al. (1999) to estimate actual losses under field conditions. Collection chambers were constructed from clear and flexible polyvinyl chloride tubing that measured 145.6 mm in diameter and 400 mm in height. The chambers were fitted onto rigid polyvinyl chloride bases that measured 152.8 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height and that were inserted into the soil to a depth of 30 mm. The bases were installed in the fields before the application of the N sources, which were weighed in accordance with the base areas of the collector chambers. Instead of a single base for each collector chamber as in the original method, three bases were used in each experimental unit. Because the chambers for collecting N[H.sub.3]-N inside the bases prevented rain from reaching the soil, the chambers were rotated from base to base after every rainfall event at each experimental site, thereby enabling the collection of more representative samples. Immediately after the application of the N sources, the collection chambers were installed and fitted onto the previously installed bases. Supports were fitted over the tubes, to which protective caps were attached to prevent rain from infiltrating the system while still allowing the passage of air.
Two 20-mm-thick polyurethane foam sponge discs (density of 0.028 g [cm.sup.-3]) were placed in each collection chamber. The first foam disc was placed at a height of 0.15 m above the ground to capture the N[H.sub.3]-N volatilised from the soil, and the second disc was placed at a height of 0.30 m to capture N[H.sub.3]-N from the atmosphere, thereby preventing contamination of the lower sponge. The sponges were soaked with 20 mL of glycerolphosphoric acid (5% v/v [H.sub.3]P[O.sub.4] and 4% v/v glycerol) (Nommik 1973); this amount was sufficient to saturate the sponges without causing dripping.
Sponges were placed in each collection chamber immediately after the side-dressing application of the N sources and were replaced at 1,2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, 22, 30, and 40 days after application (DAA). Therefore, the N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation data corresponded to the total N[H.sub.3]-N volatilised in the period between samplings. The three sites were always sampled during the morning on the same day.
The ammonium phosphate was removed by successive washings with 300 mL of a 1 mol [L.sup.-1] KC1 solution. Then, a 50-mL aliquot was steam distilled, and 10 mL of 10 mol [L.sup.-1] NaOH was added to each sample. The distillate was collected in a solution of [H.sub.3]B[O.sub.3] plus an indicator. The ammonium phosphate concentration was determined by colourimetry according to the method described by Qiu et al. (1987).
Common bean crop measurements
Fifteen diagnosis leaves were collected from each plot at the R6 growth stage for foliar analysis (Raij et al. 1996). All samples were dried in a forced-air oven at 60[degrees]C and then ground in an electric Wiley mill. Tissue N and S concentrations were extracted by digestion with [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] and a nitro-perchloric acid solution respectively. The concentrations of N and S in the extracted solutions were determined using the semi-micro Kjeldahl method and turbidimetric method respectively, following the methods described by Malavolta et al. (1997).
The common bean crop was harvested in June 2015, and the following yield components were determined using 10 randomly collected plants from each plot: number of pods per plant (PP, number of pods per 10 plants), number of grains per pod (GPP, number of grains/total number of pods), and 100-grain weight (W100, weight of samples consisting of 100 grains). The GY was determined by manually harvesting the plants in 8-m sections of two central rows. Water content was determined by oven drying the grains at 105 [+ or -] 3[degrees]C for 24 h, and yield was calculated in kg [ha.sup.-1] at a 130 g [kg.sup.-1] wet basis.
Each experimental site was set up as a randomised complete block design with four replicates. The data from each experimental site were subjected separately to analysis of variance at 5% probability, and means were compared using the Fisher's least significant difference (l.s.d.) test at 5% probability. All the statistical analyses were performed using SISVAR 5.3 (Ferreira 2011).
Regardless of soil, all sources containing urea presented N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation over 40 days following the side-dressing fertilisation. However, ~90% of the total N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation of any of the N sources occurred within a maximum of 14 DAA (Fig. 1). The ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate sources presented less or no volatilisation over 40 days compared with the other sources, resulting in N[H.sub.3]-N losses of less than 1 kg [ha.sup.-1] on average, whereas the sources containing urea had a total mean volatilisation of 11.0, 15.3, and 15.5 kg [ha.sup.-1] for the coarse-, medium-, and fine-textured soil respectively.
One day after the application of N sources in the coarse-textured soil, all sources presented an average N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation rate of 22.8% with urea+[S.sub.A], which was the larger amount of loss (Fig. 1a). For the second sample collection, all sources did not show increased accumulated N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation until the fourth sampling due to the following days of rainfall (Fig. 1a). Seven days after the side-dressing, the accumulated volatilisation curve presented an accentuated increase until the seventh sampling (14 DAA), which coincided with an absence of rainfall, and then the curve straightened, showing little to no N[H.sub.3]-N loss until the last collection (Fig. 1a).
During the first collection from the medium-textured soil, the urea showed greater volatilisation, and together the urea+S accounted for ~7% off the total amount volatilised, (Fig. 1b). Between the first and second samplings, the N sources presented some losses that were soon mitigated with 35.5 mm of rainfall (Fig. 1 b). From the second to the fourth samplings, urea+[S.sub.B] had greater N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation. Due the low rainfall between the fourth and seventh samplings, the accumulated volatilisation for the sources containing urea drastically increased until 18 DAA when 40 mm of rainfall occurred (Fig. 16). From 18 DAA until the end of the experiment, less than 250 g [ha.sup.-1] of N[H.sub.3]-N was volatilised per sampling (Fig. 16).
Urea and urea+[S.sub.A] exhibited the greatest volatilisation during the first collection in the fine-textured soil, and even with 35.5 mm of rainfall registered for the second collection, both N sources presented an increased volatilisation rate of 28.1 and 20.6% respectively (Fig. 1c). The accumulated N[H.sub.3]-N losses greatly increased from the third sampling (4 DAA), unlike in the experiments conducted in other soil types (Fig. 1c). However, with the rainfall registered at 18 DAA, the decrease in N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation was similar to that in the medium-textured soil.
In the coarse--and medium-textured soils, urea+[S.sub.A] resulted in the greatest N[H.sub.3]-N accumulated volatilisation 40 DAA with total N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation values of ~4.0 and 1.0 kg [ha.sup.-1] respectively, which were greater than the values after urea application (Fig. 1 a, 6). In the fine-textured soil, urea application resulted in a higher total volatilisation than with other N sources (Fig. 1c). Regarding the urea source, urea+[S.sub.B] had the lowest volatilisation rate in the three studied sites.
Concentration of N and S in common bean leaves
Regardless of the N source, N application increased leaf N concentration in comparison to the control in the coarse-textured soil, but the leaf N concentration was highest in the medium- and fine-textured soil with application of urea+[S.sub.A] followed by urea, ammonium sulfate, and urea+[S.sub.B] (Table 4).
Regarding the leaf S concentration, ammonium sulfate had the greatest impact on the coarse--and fine-textured soils (Table 1). However, in the medium-textured soil, a high leaf S concentration was found with the application of urea+[S.sub.A] (Table 4). As expected, urea and ammonium nitrate application resulted in the lowest leaf S concentration since these fertilisers do not contain S (Table 4).
Common bean yield components
In the coarse-textured soil, the PP was highest with ammonium sulfate application. There was no difference in the GPP among treatments, not even compared with the control, and both the urea+S resulted in higher W100 values than the other fertilisers (Table 5). Despite the differences in yield components, no differences in GY were observed among the N sources.
Treatment with urea in the medium-textured soil promoted the highest PP value. There was no difference in GPP and W100, even when compared with the control (Table 5). For GY, only an increase relative to the control was observed, regardless of the N source.
In fine-textured soil, the best results for PP and GPP were with ammonium nitrate application. Nevertheless, there was no difference in W100 between treatments, and the highest GY values were obtained by applying ammonium nitrate and urea+[S.sub.B] (Table 5).
Differences in N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation were observed within each experimental site, possibly in response to the interactions between straw on the soil surface, the amount of rainfall, and fertilisation. As expected, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate showed the lowest volatilisation rate since these fertilisers are highly efficient in reducing N-N[H.sub.3] losses when they are applied as side-dressing fertiliser. They promote an acidic reaction in the soil due to the presence of the anions N[O.sub.3.sup.-] and S[O.sub.4.sup.2-], which also act as accompanying anions and favour the vertical displacement of N[H.sub.4.sup.+] in the soil (Lara Cabezas et al. 1992, 19976).
In common bean crops sown beneath corn straw under a notill system, the crop residues on the soil surface create an ideal condition for the development of microorganisms that favour urease activity, which could have promoted a considerable N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation after urea application at the three experimental sites. Several studies have shown increases in N[H.sub.3]-N losses after urea application above straw on the soil surface (Cantarella 2007; Faria et al. 2013; Su et al. 2014; Otto et al. 2017), corroborating the results of this work. In addition, the straw may form a barrier that prevents urea from reaching the soil (mineral particles), thus increasing N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation (Su et al. 2014).
High volatilisation rates were observed in the three soils due to urea hydrolysis occurring with even low rainfall (1 mm or less) (Fig. 1). Thus, the low rainfall seems to result in a priming factor that initiates the hydrolysis process in the urea granules, either conventional or micronised with S, and the low rainfall may not be sufficient to incorporate the fertilisers into the soil profile, preventing N-N[H.sub.3] volatilisation. The effect of low rainfall on N-N[H.sub.3] volatilisation was shown by Cantarella et al. (2008), Nascimento et al. (2013), and Sanz-Cobena et al. (2011); N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation increased when less than 3 mm of water was added to the soil after urea application.
Decreases in N[H.sub.3]-N losses from 2 to 4 DAA probably occurred because the fertiliser granules may have been incorporated into the soil when they were dissolved, and N[H.sub.3]-N molecules may have encountered areas of soil with a low pH, resulting in the transformation into N[H.sub.4]-N molecules upon receipt of a proton. Thus, an appropriate irrigation management to avoid great losses of N[H.sub.3]-N after applying urea as side-dressing has been recommended (Wang and Alva 2000).
After dissolution and incorporation into the soil, the urea is more susceptible to urease activity, and increased volatilisation consecutively occurred as observed 6-14 and 6-18 DAA in the sites with coarse-textured soil and those with medium--and fine-textured soils respectively (Fig. 1). This was also favoured by the absence of rainfall during this period. Similar periods with highest volatilisation peaks were reported by Costa et al. (2003), Pereira et al. (2009), and Tasca et al. (2011). In addition, a decreased volatilisation rate was observed after each sampling, probably due to the drying of the soil. These results agree with Otto et al. (2017) and Rochette et al. (2009b), who observed a decrease in N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation in the absence of soil moisture. From the 22 DAA, volatilisation with urea-based fertilisers reached low values and was stabilised until the end of the sampling period, supposedly due to the vertical distribution of urea in the soil profile promoted by high rainfall, which may have enabled the fertilisers to come in contact with low-pH zones in the soil, thus favouring the formation of N[H.sub.4.sup.+] (Silva et al. 1995).
It was expected that the acidification promoted by the oxidation of [S.sup.0] should be sufficient to mitigate the N[H.sub.3]-N in the urea+S. However, the rate of [S.sup.0] oxidation does not seem to correspond with the period of higher urea hydrolysis, whereas the blend of elemental S and S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] in urea+[S.sub.B] reduced the volatilisation compared with urea+[S.sub.A] and urea. It is possible that the higher content of [S.sup.0] in the urea+[S.sub.A] could be inhibiting the Thiobacillus spp. activity due to the releases of the toxic compounds at high rates as observed by Janzen and Bettany (1987).
The coarse-textured soil presented a lower volatilisation rate than the medium- and fine-textured soils, probably as a function of the low water-retention capacity, which decreased the fertiliser hydrolysation and microorganism activity; thus, reducing the N[H.sub.3]-N losses once the volatilisation decreased in the absence of soil moisture (Rochette et al. 2009b; Otto et al. 2017). Although the amount of rainfall registered in medium--and fine-textured soils was considered the same since the experiments in these soils were only 1000 m apart, the volatilisation rate in the medium-textured soil was lower than in the fine-textured soil, which reaffirms that soil texture affects N[H.sub.3]-N losses, corroborating with Zhenghu and Honglang (2000) and Fan et al. (2011).
Regarding to the concentration of N in bean leaves, the highest values were found in medium--and fine-textured soils, indicating that urea+[S.sub.A] more efficiently provides N to plants. Urea+[S.sub.A] was the urea-based source with the lowest total volatilisation rate in the respective soils (Fig. 1b, c). Despite ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate exhibiting lower total volatilisation than urea+[S.sub.A], other factors may be reducing the N availability in these sources to the plants, such as immobilisation by microorganisms and leaching (Lara Cabezas et al. 2000; Cantarella 2007; Rochette et al. 2009a). These results were not observed in the coarse-textured soil, probably due to the lower SOM and rainfall than in the other experimental sites.
The S concentration in common bean leaves was higher when ammonium sulfate was applied to the coarse--and fine-textured soils due to the highest amount of S provided by fertilisation. However, the high soil P concentration in the medium-textured soil may have favoured faster S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] leaching from urea+[S.sub.A] and ammonium sulfate, whereas the S blend (S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] and the [S.sup.0]) in urea+[S.sub.B] was responsible for providing an adequate amount of this nutrient from side-dressing until the R6 growth stage. Rajan (1978) previously observed that soils with high P concentrations favour the movement of sulfate to deeper layers, and Riley et al. (2002) observed that the application of [S.sup.0] delayed the peak of S leaching to drainage and decreased the amounts of leaching losses in comparison with ammonium sulfate. Although the P concentration in the coarse-textured soil was also high, it is possible that the low amount of rainfall was insufficient to leach most of the S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] Horowitz and Meurer (2006) reported that 22 days are necessary to increase the oxidation of [S.sup.0] in tropical soils, but the period between side-dressing and foliar diagnosis at the R6 growth stage (13 days) seems to be sufficient to initiate the oxidation of [S.sup.0] and provide this nutrient to the plants, which explains the high leaf S concentration when applying urea+[S.sub.A] and urea+[S.sub.B] in the three studied soils (Table 4).
Even with differences in the concentration of leaf nutrients (N and S), there was no correlation with the GY and no N source influenced the same production components in the three soils (Table 5). Common bean has been reported to be a crop with high potential to present a compensatory effect (Adams, 1967; Fernandez et al. 1985), which means that when a production component is low, the plant has the capacity to improve other yield components, resulting in a lower response to the applied treatments.
The blend of micronised [S.sup.0] and S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] in urea granules can reduce N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation compared with regular urea. However, the reduction in NH,-N volatilisation with micronised S is far from that reached using ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Even with greater N[H.sub.3]-N losses, the urea sources had G Y values that were similar to or higher than those with ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. Under favourable conditions for S leaching, such as high soil P levels, urea with [S.sup.0] and S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] may be a good option for providing S to common bean crops.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for an award for excellence in research to C.A.C. Crusciol and R.P. Soratto.
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Handling Editor: Chengrong Chen
Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol (ID) (A,B), Danilo Silva Almeida (ID) (A), Cleiton lose Alves (ID) (A), Rogerio Peres Soratto (ID) (A), Evelin Oliveira Krebsky (A), and Eduardo Scarpari Spolidorio (A)
(A) Sao Paulo State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Botucatu, 18610-307, Brazil.
(B) Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Caption: Fig. 1. Rainfall and accumulated ammoniacal nitrogen (N[H.sub.3]-N) volatilisation as affected by side-dressing nitrogen sources in coarse-textured soil (a) in Sao Manuel, and medium--(b) and fine-textured soils (c) in Bolucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Error bars indicate least significant differences (p [less than or equal to] 0.05).
Table 1. Physical characterisation of soils according to particle size (sand, clay, and silt) at two soil depths (0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m) from an experimental site in Sao Manuel and two experimental sites in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil Site Depth Sand (g Clay (g (m) [kg.sup.-1]) [kg.sup.-1]) Sao Manuel 0-0.20 849 118 0.20-0.40 812 158 Botucatu 0-0.20 706 249 0.20-0.40 640 316 Botucatu 0-0.20 127 721 0.20-0.40 115 732 Site Depth Silt (g Soil texture (m) [kg.sup.-1]) class Sao Manuel 0-0.20 33 Loamy sand 0.20-0.40 30 Sandy loam Botucatu 0-0.20 45 Sandy clay loam 0.20-0.40 45 Sandy clay loam Botucatu 0-0.20 153 Clay 0.20-0.40 154 Clay Table 2. Chemical characterisation at two depths (0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m) of the coarse-textured soil in Sao Manuel and the medium- and tine-textured soils in Botucatu, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil SOM, soil organic matter; [H.sup.+]A1, potential acidity; CEC, cation exchange capacity; BS, base saturation Depth PH (A) SOM (g P (mg S[O.sub.4]-S (m) [k.sup.-1]) [k.sup.-1]) (mg [k.sup.-1]) Coarse-textured soil 0-0.20 5.1 12 25 6 0.20-0.40 4.9 9 13 6 Medium-textured soil 0-0.20 4.5 21 26 7 0.20-0.40 4.3 16 13 8 Fine-textured soil 0-0.20 4.5 21 11 35 0.20-0.40 4.5 18 6 38 Depth [H.sup.+] A1 [K.sup.+] [Ca.sup.2+] (m) ([cmol.sub.c] ([cmol.sub.c] ([cmol.sub.c] [k.sup.-1]) [k.sup.-1]) [k.sup.-1]) Coarse-textured soil 0-0.20 2.1 0.08 1.8 0.20-0.40 2.1 0.06 1.5 Medium-textured soil 0-0.20 4.1 0.08 1.9 0.20-0.40 4.7 0.09 1.7 Fine-textured soil 0-0.20 5.7 0.06 1.9 0.20-0.40 5.0 0.12 2.3 Depth [Mg.sup.2+] CEC BS (m) ([cmol.sub.c] ([cmol.sub.c] (%) [k.sup.-1]) [k.sup.-1]) Coarse-textured soil 0-0.20 0.5 4.5 53 0.20-0.40 0.3 4.0 47 Medium-textured soil 0-0.20 0.8 7.0 41 0.20-0.40 0.8 7.3 35 Fine-textured soil 0-0.20 0.9 8.8 35 0.20-0.40 0.7 8.1 39 (A) Soil pH measured in calcium chloride solution. Table 3. Concentrations of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S), fertilisation rate, and application rate of each nutrient by treatment Nutrient Fertilisation Application concentration rate (kg rate of each (%) [ha.sup.-1]) nutrient (kg [ha.sup.-1]) Treatment N S N S Control -- -- -- -- -- Urea 45 -- 222.2 100 -- Ammonium 34 -- 294.1 100 -- nitrate Ammonium 20 24 500 100 120 sulfate Urea+[S.sub.A] 40 13 (A) 250 100 32.5 ([dagger]) Urea+[S.sub.B] 37 13 (B) 270.2 100 35.1 ([dagger]) (A) 13% elemental S. (B) 4% elemental S and 9% S in sulfate form. Table 4. Effect of the side-dressing N source on N and S concentrations (g [kg.sup.-1]) in common bean leaves in coarse-, medium-, and fine-textured soils Values in the columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p [less than or equal to] 0.05 according to the l.s.d. test Treatment N S N S N S Coarse- Medium- Fine- textured soil textured soil textured soil Control 30.0b 1.8d 30.4d 1.5c 31.7d 11.7c Urea 40.4a 2.0c 38.1b 1.6c 43.0b 1.9c Ammonium nitrate 40.7a 2.0c 35.6c 1.4c 41.3c 1.9c Ammonium sulfate 41.4a 3.6a 38.4b 1.9b 43.0b 3.2a Urea+[S.sub.A] 41.1a 2.8b 39.9a 1.9b 45.1a 2.7b Urea+[S.sub.B] 41.3a 2.9b 38.4b 2.2a 43.0b 2.9b Table 5. Effect of the side-dressing N source on the number of pods per plant (PP), number of grains per pod (GPP), 100-grain weight (W100), and grain yield (GY) of common bean in coarse-, medium-, and fine-textured soils Values in the columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p [less than or equal to] 0.05 according to the l.s.d. test Treatment PP GPP W100 GY (kg (g) [ha.sup.-1]) Coarse-textured soil Control 11.2c 4.2a 27.0d 1881b Urea 14.7b 4.2a 27.7cd 2631a Ammonium nitrate 15.0b 4.0a 29.0ab 2612a Ammonium sulfate 17.7a 4.2a 28.2bc 3039a Urea+[S.sub.A] 16.0b 4.2a 29.2a 2749a Urea+[S.sub.B] 16.0b 4.0a 29.2a 2736a Treatment PP GPP W100 GY (kg (g) [ha.sup.-1]) Medium-textured soil Control 11.2d 5.0a 29.0a 2431b Urea 17.2a 4.5a 28.7a 3132a Ammonium nitrate 16.2abc 4.7a 29.7a 3060a Ammonium sulfate 15.2bc 5.0a 29.2a 3076a Urea+[S.sub.A] 15.0c 5.0a 28.7a 3095a Urea+[S.sub.B] 16.5ab 4.5a 28.7a 2971a Treatment PP GPP W100 GY (kg (g) [ha.sup.-1]) Fine-textured soil Control 13.0c 4.0c 28.5a 2180c Urea 20.0ab 4.7b 28.7a 3938ab Ammonium nitrate 20.5a 5.2a 28.0a 4132a Ammonium sulfate 19.0b 5.0ab 28.5a 3799ab Urea+[S.sub.A] 19.0b 5.0ab 27.7a 3579b Urea+[S.sub.B] 20.0ab 5.0ab 28.7a 3974a
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|Author:||Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa; Almeida, Danilo Silva; Alves, Cleiton lose; Soratto, Rogerio Peres|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2019|
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