Missouri River, the.
The Missouri is a magnificent river whose headwaters rise in southwestern Montana, and it gathers the waters of many tributaries along its course. It was an early trade route, explored by the French. In 1804-05, Lewis and Clark came to the upper Missouri ( <IR> see under MERIWETHER LEWIS </IR> ), and their observations appear in Lewis's History of the Expedition Under Captains Lewis and Clark (1814, ed. by Elliott Coues 1893). The first steamboat appeared on the river in 1819, but the fluctuations in the depth of the river made navigation difficult. <IR> JOHN G. NEIHARDT </IR> descended the Missouri from its headwaters in a light boat as preparation for writing Cycle of the West (1949). Audubon knew it, as he reports in his Journals (ed. by Elliott Coues, 2 v. 1897); J. F. McDermott edited Up the Missouri River with Audubon: The Journal of Edward Harris (1952). Henry Marie Breckenridge wrote his Journal of a Voyage Up the River Missouri in 1811 (1814). Among other books on the river are J.V. Brower's The Missouri River and Its Utmost Source (1896); Charles Larpenteur's 40 Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri (ed. by Elliott Coues, 1898); Hiram M. Chittenden's History of Early Steamboat Navigation on the Missouri River (2 v. 1903); Joseph Mills Hanson's Conquest of the Missouri (1909, reprinted 1946), an account of the exploits and explorations of Captain Grant Marsh (1832-1916); Philip Edward Chappell's History of the Missouri River (1911); C.P. Deatherage's Steamboating on the Missouri River in the 60's (1924); Pierre A. Tabeau's Narrative of Loisel's Expedition to the Upper Missouri (tr. from the French by Rose Abel Wright, 1939); Stanley Vestal's The Missouri (1945); and Bernard De Voto's <IR> ACROSS THE WIDE MISSOURI </IR> (Pulitzer Prize, 1947) and his Course of Empire (1952).