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Minority students in college hospitality education: a case study from Central Florida, USA.

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

The University of Central Florida (UCF) was established as the Florida Technological University by Bill 125 of 1963 to support of the Cape Kennedy Space complex. The first classes were held in 1968 at the Orlando campus, as well as at the Brevard and Daytona Beach centers. But in 1978 a wider education mandate was ratified by the State of Florida's Legislature. As part of the 10 state university system, UCF has an 11 county service area which in 2006 had a population of 3.7 million persons (Census.gov, 2008).

Hospitality in Central Florida assumed new dimensions with the opening of the Walt Disney World in 1971 and by 1984 the UCF initiated its hospitality program in the College of Business. Almost as a reflection of the importance of the vital role of hospitality to the Central Florida economy, the Rosen College of Hospitality Management commenced operation in 2004.

Florida's State University system dates from 1905 and the Buckman Act which created the existing state university system. The mandate of the state system is to support education and development in each college's catchment area. As such it is only to be expected that the ethnic composition of the population of these catchment areas be somewhat reflected in the ethnic composition of the university's student body. Minorities represent 24% of the 11 county catchment area's population. Orange County, where Orlando and the UCF main campus are located, is the largest population center with 1.043 million persons, and reports a minority population of 45% (21% Black and 24% Hispanic/Latino) (Census.gov). As of Fall 2007 the University of Central Florida remained predominantly white non-Hispanic, with 69.3% of its 48,699 enrolled students being Caucasian and 95% of its students having Florida residency status (UCFOIR, 2009). This at a time when the Hispanic/Latino and African American populations are increasing significantly, with growth rates of the former that are some of the highest in the state (Wright and Jasinski, 2006).

In 2005, the most recent year for which college disaggregated data is publicly available, it was indicated that Black and Hispanic/Latino enrollment for the Rosen College of Hospitality Management was below the average for UCF. For the purpose of this paper all non-Caucasians are referred to as minority. In 2005 UCF reported minority enrollment of 21.4%, while the Rosen College of Hospitality Management in that year reported minority enrollment of 17.1%. Other Colleges such as the College of Health and Public Administration reported minority enrollment of 27.5%.

With the growth in the minority population in the 11 county catchment area and the pivotal role of hospitality to the economy of Central Florida, why are minorities under-represented in the UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management program?

THOUGHTS FROM THE LITERATURE

Anecdotal evidence suggests that minorities, especially African Americans, have a historical bias against the hospitality industry. Such bias is reportedly shaped by the history of African enslavement (Faulkenberry et. at. 2000) and where minorities are involved in the hospitality industry, they tend to be employed in the areas of housekeeping and maintenance. This assertion is most certainly worthy of investigation if for no other reason than to develop a scientific understanding of the nature of the challenge and to develop strategies to address such inclusion. Costen, Cliath and Woods (2002) in their study of 5,549 hotel managers in 552 properties found that minorities predominated in the housekeeping department and were least evident as General Managers, and Sales and Marketing Managers. This brings to the fore the question of whether there are issues of a lack of motivation on the part of minorities or whether there are institutional and organizational barriers to minority inclusion as was suggested by Allison and Hibbler (2002) and Shinew and Hibbler (2002). Makopondo (2006) suggests that creating racial and ethnic inclusion derives from creating partnerships and among other things, the establishment of genuine partnerships between key representatives of partner agencies and organizations (p.8).

Bradford and Williams (2008) in their study of African Americans and their perception of the hospitality industry indicates that students with positive views of the industry were more aware of the opportunities in the industry (p.7). This supports the O-Force and Rosen School of Hospitality Management Report (2003) which indicated that not only were positive views evident with regard to the hospitality industry, but it also indicated that high school counselors are a major influence in shaping such positive views and by extension the decision to embark on careers in hospitality. However, based on Bradford and Williams (2008), hospitality's association, and the perception of servitude still exists, especially where there is a lack of knowledge about opportunities, and especially management opportunities available in the industry. This is set against a background of work by Faulkenberry et al (2000) which indicates the disparities associated with tourism development in South Carolina and its association with servitude.

In summary, racial disparities exist. The dissemination of information about the opportunities; the creation of alliances and partnership; and through the collaboration with, and cooperation of high school counselors, such disparities might be addressed. In an effort to facilitate minority recruiting a consideration addressed by this research project is whether the demographic and lifestyle characteristics of minority students differ significantly from Caucasian students? Based on such an assessment, is there sufficient data to support on-going minority hospitality student recruitment initiatives? Although an examination of variations in student motivations and constraints might have been merited such research might better be conducted in focus groups and it is proposed that such be conducted as a subsequent phase to this research project.

METHODOLOGY

Goeldner and Ritchie (2009) in their discussion of tourism and market segmentation state that people are different; that these differences are measurable and comprehensible; that such differences manifest themselves in market behaviour which can be objectively measured resulting in relatively homogeneous groups of people. This is the underlying belief associated with market segmentation. To determine the target market and then attempt to reach only that market (p. 553). Although market segmentation and the associated use of demographic and psychographic segmentation has widespread application (Thomas, 2007) and has been used in hospitality and tourism marketing, there is little evidence to indicate its use in hospitality education recruiting.

This research project conducted an electronic survey of the 2,300 hospitality undergraduate students of the Rosen College of Hospitality Management in the Fall 2008. The objective was to document the demographic and psychographic characteristics of the hospitality undergraduate student population and then to determine if the minority student population varied significantly from that of the Caucasian population. The 18 question survey was divided into 6 parts and was conducted September 5 to 25, 2008.

Email is an official method of UCF communication and all students have an official email contact. Three email messages were sent to the full database of Rosen College undergraduate students. The first was an introduction to the survey; the second was a follow-up which was sent one week later and the third was a reminder sent one week before the closing of the survey. All emails contained a link to the survey and under the informed consent conditions students under the age of 18 were advised to self-select out of the survey. The electronic survey was delivered using Survey Monkey. The six parts of the questionnaire were as follows:

* Part 1: Demographic characteristics

* Part 2: Information about the hospitality major selection process

* Part 3: Lifestyle characteristics--sporting interests

* Part 4: Lifestyle characteristics--activities

* Part 5: Avocation, and

* Part 6: Educational path to hospitality

A total of 443 students completed the survey, a 19.3% response rate. This was considered to be an acceptable response. The section of the paper which follows presents data on the respondents': demographic characteristics; information about the hospitality major selection process; lifestyle characteristics--sporting interests and activities; and educational path to hospitality. A comparison is made between Caucasian and non-Caucasian (minority) respondents and these data are analyzed statistically were appropriate.

FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Of the 443 respondents to the survey, 417 indicated a racial or ethnic group. Seventy eight percent were Caucasian and the remaining 22% were non-Caucasian. This was a ratio of 3.58 Caucasians to 1 minority respondent. The survey's ratio was more comparable with that of the overall UCF ratio of 3.51:1, than that of the Rosen College of Hospitality Management's ratio of 4.55 Caucasian students to 1 minority student. Several reasons have been suggested for the response rate by minorities. These include the increased presence and visibility of minority faculty and minority students feeling more comfortable in participating in the research as well as the increased activity by the Rosen Chapter of National Society of Minorities in Hospitality.

Demographic Characteristics

Gender, age, income, type and value of housing, and education level are common demographic variables (Thomas, 2007). In this paper the demographic variables used are gender, age, University program level, household income and highest level of education attained by parents.

Table 1 indicates that the overall gender ratio of females to males for respondents was 3.21 females to 1 male. While there was a ratio of 3.29 females to 1 male for the Caucasian respondents the gender ratio for minority respondents was 2.96 females to 1 male, lower than that of the total survey and that of the Caucasian respondents.

Although there was a variation on the basis of gender for the different populations, Chi square statistical test confirms that that there is no significant statistical difference between the Caucasian and minority respondents in the survey on the basis of gender ([X.sup.2] = 0.145 at 3 degrees of freedom at the 95% confidence level).

The UCF Office of Institutional Research (UCFOIR), 2008 indicates that overall for UCF the gender ratio is 1.23 females to 1 male, and for UCF's undergraduate level, the ratio was 1.21 females to 1 male. This suggests that the gender ratio of the survey was comparable with that of the Rosen College. Both the gender ratio for survey respondents and that of the Rosen College indicate a higher level of female enrollment than overall for UCF. This pattern of female Caucasian predominance is in keeping with the restaurant industry (National Restaurant Association, 2009) which indicated that in 2007, 57% of first line supervisors/Managers and service workers in the restaurant industry were female and that the 30% were either Hispanic or African American.

The age pattern of the respondents seemed consistent across both racial groups. Overall the largest percentage of respondents was between the ages of 18 to 20 years old, 49% for the overall study, 49% for the Caucasian respondents and 48.9% for the minority respondents. Of interest was the 9.8% of the minority respondents who were in the 26 to 30 years of age range.

The variation on the basis of age for the different populations was again not statistically significant, ([X.sup.2] = 9.35 at 4 degrees of freedom at the 95% confidence level). There is no comparable data overall for UCF or the Rosen College to indicate whether the survey's findings are comparable with the age distribution of the institution. Further investigation might well be merited to assess whether there is indeed an "older/nontraditional" cadre of minority students who are coming into the hospitality program having either first attended community college, transferred from another major or, returned to college after a break.

Most of the respondents (71.6%) were Juniors or Seniors (see TABLE 3). This distribution did not vary significantly between Caucasian and non-Caucasian respondents ([X.sup.2] = 3.11 with 3 degrees of freedom). Overall the 2008 UCF enrollment 66% of students were either Juniors or Seniors. Although Freshman represented 12.9% of the survey respondents, this category represented 17.0% of the 2008 UCF student body.

What is evident from the data to this point is that there are similarities in demographic characteristics suggesting that overall, both Caucasian and Non-Caucasian students might be drawn from similar populations.

While it is acknowledged that students may not have accurate data on their parents' income, given that student funding opportunities do require that they report this household income, the estimates reported in this survey may not be a totally inaccurate. Another consideration is whether the respondent is reporting their parents' income along with their own or whether they are part of their own family and reporting that household income only.

The median category, 19.2% of respondents was, $70,000 to $99,000. What is evident from Table 4 is that while 62.5% of Caucasian students were from households where the total estimated household income was more than $70,000, the percentage of minority students from households with similar income was 39.6%. In addition proportionally twice as many minority students as Caucasian students came from households where the income was in the range of $20,000 to $39,000. Minority students come from households where income is lower than their Caucasian counterparts.

What this might indicate is that minority students come from two different segments with regard to household income. Additional research is indicated to determine if there are significant differences between African American students and Hispanic-Latino students' household incomes.

Approximately 25% of respondents were the first member of their family to attend college. This proportion was higher for minority students (33.3%) compared with 22.2% for Caucasian students (See Table 5). A family tradition of college education suggests a more supportive environment to the needs of student. In addition there may also be implications for student retention rates and degree completion. This, when combined with household income, might reflect increased financial stress on minority students.

Associated with being the first person in the household to attend college, is the highest level of education attained by parents. Tables 6 and 7 indicate that for both parents, the median category was a College degree, 38% of mothers and 29% of fathers. Overall 23.6% of fathers attained a graduate degree, but the data indicates that fewer minority students had parents who graduated college than their Caucasian counterparts. This has an implication for career and study habit support that can be provided by the family. Such support assists in college completion. At an even more basic level is the financial support available from the students' households.

In summary, the demographic characteristics of the survey indicate that minority and Caucasian students had similar levels of representation in the survey with regard to gender, age, and program year. Proportionally more minority students came from households with lower income, were the first persons in their families to attend college and where their parents highest level of educational attainment was below that of their Caucasian counterparts. The minority students appear to come from two income groups and merits examination to determine if such variation is between African American and Hispanic Latino student groups.

Information about the Hospitality Major Selection Process

The survey asked students to rate the level of importance of each of 14 variables with regard to their importance in their decision to major in hospitality. The Likert scale used ranged from 1 being the least important to 5 being the most. Table 8 indicates the mean weighting for each of the variables.

What is indicated is that external variables such as the enjoyment of working with people, the challenge of the hospitality industry and the perception of career opportunities were the highest rated variables. Friends, teachers and the high school counselor were among the lowest rated influencers.

The pattern for obtaining information about the UCF Rosen Hospitality Management program was similar for both Caucasian and minority respondents. This survey segment of 7 questions asked students to rate the level of importance attached to each of the information provision methods. Table 9 presents the average rating.

The information gathering methods indicated by the survey respondents are similar to the patterns so aptly documented with regard to Generation Y (Baron et al, 2007; and Cairncross and Buultjens, 2007). They are technologically savvy and value their own experiences and those of their peers over those of parents and counselors. However, there is an underlying variation that merits discussion. Caucasian students have a higher reliance on Parents and Family as sources of information, possibly because of the higher education levels and higher college graduation rates of their parents. Non-Caucasian students have higher reliance on College Advisors. This suggests that marketing efforts directed toward attracting minority students should place greater emphasis on college advisors.

Psychographic Characteristics

"Psychographic (or lifestyle) segmentation [is] based upon multivariate analyses of consumer attitudes, values, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, beliefs, and interests" (Thomas, 2007, 3). For the purpose of this assessment students were asked to indicate their sporting interests (Table 10) and their interests and activities in which they participate (Table 11). Football was the overwhelming sport of interest for both Caucasian and minority respondents. While swimming and diving ranked second for Caucasian students, this sporting activity ranked 7th for minority respondents.

Respondents were asked to identify all the interests and activities in which they enjoy participating on a regular basis. Overall the respondents indicated that their top 5 interests and activities were:

* Listening to records, tapes and C/Ds (60.6% respondents),

* Physical fitness and exercise (60.1% respondents)

* Travel within the USA (59.5% respondents)

* Foreign travel (46.2% respondents) and

* Self-improvement activities (43.6% respondents).

These were also the five activities with the largest level of involvement for both Caucasian and minority respondents. The relative importance was different for the groups. Foreign travel registered the largest amount of interest by minority students, while this category received the fifth largest number by Caucasian students. Listening to records, tapes and CDs was the largest interest for Caucasian respondents while it received the third largest level of involvement by minority students. What is evident is that overall there is little variation between the sporting and other interests between the different racial and ethnic groups of students. Additional research is merited to determine if such variation exists between African American and Hispanic Latino students when compared with Caucasian students.

Avocation

Thirty areas of special interest or engagement were identified and presented to the students in the survey. The Honor Society and Community Service were the two areas which attracted the largest number of respondents. There was little variation on the basis of ethnicity.

Journey to Hospitality

For one in three students Hospitality was not their first major (See Table 12). This ratio was higher for minority respondents. Business Administration was the primary major from which hospitality majors transferred. This was evident for both Caucasian and minority respondents, but more so for minority respondents.

CONCLUSIONS AND AREAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

The research indicates that although there are variations in the background of Caucasian and minority students, their avocation and interests are very similar. With regard to recruiting, the survey indicates that students place significant emphasis on the internet and personal experience as sources of information, irrespective of their ethnicity. While conventional newspaper advertising may have served well in the past, consideration should be given to continuing the program of promotions in high schools with counselors, conducting more campus visits and promotional tours, supported by significant internet presence. Social marketing networks might be established in support of these initiatives, given the increased use of technology by students. Parents/Families provide relatively more information for Caucasian students while Counselors/Advisors were more important for Non-Caucasian students.

The transfer of students from other majors would indicate that there might be increased awareness of the program and the opportunities available in the hospitality industry across the university but especially in the Business College.

More minority students come from households with less of a tradition of higher education than their Caucasian counterparts. Household income is also lower. Students from minority households may require additional information, counseling and financial support to create the new tradition of college education. In addition, mentorship, coaching and peer-to-peer counseling may well be the key to minority student retention and enhancing minority student graduation rates.

With regard to future research, new questions arise as to whether the demographic and psychographic characteristics of hospitality majors are similar to the majors of other colleges at the UCF. Are hospitality majors at different universities such as the University of Nevada Las Vegas, Virginia Tech, University of Massachusetts and Cornell University, similar to the college in their patterns of information gathering and journey to hospitality? More specifically related to minorities, do African American, Asian and Hispanic/Latino hospitality students at UCF have similar demographic and psychographic characteristics?

The minority population of Central Florida and the USA is increasing and an environment of inclusion is desirable. Hospitality education is one component of inclusion in this important economic sector.

REFERENCES CITED

Allison, M. T. and Hibbler, D. K. (2002) Organizational Barriers to Inclusion: Perspectives from the Recreation Professional, Leisure Sciences vol. 26 p. 262-280.

Baron, P.; Maxwell, G., Broadbridge, A.; and Ogden S. (2007) "Careers in Hospitality Management: Generation Y's Experiences and Perceptions", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 14(2) 119-128.

Bradford, B.S. and Williams L. S. (2008) Service and Servitude: The perception of Hospitality Management among African American Students. The Consortium Journal 12(2) p. 7-24

Cairncross, G. and Buultjens, J. (2007). Generation Y and Work in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Problem? What Problem? Occasional Paper No. 9, Centre for Enterprise Development and Research, Division of Business, Southern Cross University, November 2007.

Census.gov (2008) Census of the United States of America U.S. Census Bureau Population Division, (Census.gov quick facts) downloaded June 2008 http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1253000.html

Costen, W. M.; Cliath, A. G. and Woods R. H. (2002) Where are the Racial and Ethnic Minorities in Hotel Management? Exploring the relationship between race and position in Hotels, Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism 1(2) 57-68.

Faulkenberry, L. V.; Coggeshall, J. M.; Backman, K.; Backman, S. (2000) A culture of servitude: The impact of tourism and development on South Carolina's coast, Human Organization, Society of Applied Anthropology Spring 2000.

Goeldner, C.R. and Ritchie, J.R.B. (2009) Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, 11th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

O-Force and Rosen School of Hospitality Management Report (2003) Enhancing the quality of the hospitality and tourism workforce in Central Florida, A report submitted to: Orange County Government, Orange County Florida.

Makopondo, R. O. B. (2006) Creating Racially/Ethnically Inclusive Partnerships in Natural Resource Management and Outdoor Recreation: The Challenges, Issues, and Strategies, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 24 (71) Spring 2006 pp. 7-31.

National Restaurant Association (2009) 2009 Restaurant Industry Pocket Factbook, downloaded June 2009, http://www.restaurant.org/pdfs/research/2009Factbook.pdf.

Shinew, K. J. and Hibbler D. K. (2002). African Americans' Perception of Workplace Equity: A starting point, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 20(1) 42-80

Thomas, J. (2007) Market Segmentation, Decision Analyst, Downloaded June 2009 http://www.decisionanalyst.com/Downloads/MarketSegm.pdf

UCF Office of Institutional Research (2008) University of Central Florida Facts at a Glance, downloaded June 2009, http://www.iroffice.ucf.edu/character/current.html#Head

Wright, J.D. and Jasinski, J.L. (2006) Who Will We Be in the Year 2050? Demographic Changes in Central Florida and Their Implications for Regional Transportation Planning, Metroplan Orlando Regional transportation partnership, Institute for Social and Behavioral Sciences Department of Sociology University of Central Florida

MICHAEL SCANTLEBURY

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management

Grand Valley State University

ROBERT G. SPRINGALL

Admissions

Bucknell University

SHANNA DODIMEADE

Rosen College of Hospitality Management

University of Central Florida

Address correspondence to Michael Scantlebury PhD, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management at Grand Valley State University, (616) 331-2705, Scantlem@gvsu.edu
TABLE 1 Respondents by Gender and Race

GENDER    Caucasian   %       Non-        %       Total       %
                              Caucasian           Available

Female    250         76.7    68          74.7    318         76.3
Male      76          23.3    23          25.3    99          23.7

TOTAL     326         100.0   91          100.0   417         100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 2 Respondents by Age Range and Race

AGE     Caucasian   %       Non-Caucasian   %       TOTAL   %
RANGE                                               STUDY

18-20   161         49.4    45              48.9    206     49.4
21-23   129         38.1    30              32.6    159     38.1
24-25   18          5.3     4               4.3     22      5.3
26-30   13          5.3     9               9.8     22      5.3
>31     4           1.9     4               4.3     8       1.9
TOTAL   325         100.0   92              100.0   417     100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 3 University Program Year by Race

            Caucasian   %       Non-Caucasian   %

Freshman    42          12.9    12              12.9
Sophomore   49          15.0    16              17.2
Junior      113         34.7    39              41.9
Senior      122         37.4    26              28.0
TOTAL       326         100.0   93              100.0

            TOTAL   %
            STUDY

Freshman    54      12.9
Sophomore   65      15.5
Junior      152     36.3
Senior      148     35.3
TOTAL       419     100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 4 Respondents Estimated Household Income by Ethnicity

HOUSEHOLD           Caucasian   %       Non-Caucasian   %
INCOME

Less than $10,000   15          4.9     7               8.1
$10,000-$14,000     9           2.9     2               2.3
$15,000-$19,999     8           2.6     5               5.8
$20,000-$29,000     11          3.6     11              12.8
$30,000-$39,900     26          8.4     10              11.6
$40,000-$49,900     11          3.6     4               4.7
$50,000-$59,900     13          4.2     8               9.3
$60,000-$69,900     23          7.4     5               5.8
$70,000-$99,900     62          20.1    14              16.3
$100,000-$149,900   62          20.1    9               10.5
$150,000-$199,900   30          9.7     5               5.8
$200,000-$249,999   8           2.6     1               1.2
$250,000 or more    31          10.0    5               5.8
TOTAL               309         100.0   86              100.0

HOUSEHOLD           TOTAL   %
INCOME              STUDY

Less than $10,000   22      5.6
$10,000-$14,000     11      2.6
$15,000-$19,999     13      3.3
$20,000-$29,000     22      5.6
$30,000-$39,900     36      9.1
$40,000-$49,900     15      3.8
$50,000-$59,900     21      5.3
$60,000-$69,900     28      7.1
$70,000-$99,900     76      19.2
$100,000-$149,900   71      18.0
$150,000-$199,900   35      8.9
$200,000-$249,999   9       2.3
$250,000 or more    36      9.1
TOTAL               395     100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 5 First Person in Your Family to go to College

        Caucasian   %       Non-Caucasian   %

YES     72          22.2    31              33.7
NO      253         77.8    61              66.3
TOTAL   325         100.0   92              100.0

        TOTAL STUDY    %

YES     103            24.7
NO      314            75.3
TOTAL   417            100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 6 What is the highest level of formal education obtained
by your MOTHER?

                         Caucasian   %       Non-Caucasian   %

Grammar school or less   1           0.3     2               2.2
Some high school         3           0.9     8               8.8
High school graduate     51          15.6    18              19.8
Postsecondary school     17          5.2     6               6.6
  other than college
Some college             69          21.2    22              24.2
College degree           132         40.5    27              29.7
Some graduate school     6           1.8     0               0.0
Graduate degree          47          14.4    8               8.8
TOTAL                    326         100.0   91              100.0

                         TOTAL STUDY   %

Grammar school or less   3             0.7
Some high school         11            2.6
High school graduate     69            16.5
Postsecondary school     23            5.5
  other than college
Some college             91            21.8
College degree           159           38.1
Some graduate school     6             1.4
Graduate degree          55            13.2
TOTAL                    417           100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 7 What is the highest level of formal education obtained
by your FATHER?

                         Caucasian   %       Non-Caucasian   %

Grammar school or less   1           0.3     6               6.7
Some high school         7           2.2     5               5.6
High school graduate     55          17.1    15              16.9
Postsecondary school     22          6.8     2               2.2
  other than college
Some college             49          15.2    24              27.0
College degree           98          30.4    24              27.0
Some graduate school     4           1.2     2               2.2
Graduate degree          86          26.7    11              12.4
TOTAL                    322         100.0   89              100.0

                         TOTAL STUDY    %

Grammar school or less   7              1.7
Some high school         12             2.9
High school graduate     70             17.0
Postsecondary school     24             5.8
  other than college
Some college             73             17.8
College degree           122            29.7
Some graduate school     6              1.5
Graduate degree          97             23.6
TOTAL                    411            100.0

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 8 Relative importance of each of the following in influencing
your decision to major in hospitality (AVG Rating)

                                       Caucasian   Non-        TOTAL
                                                   Caucasian   STUDY

Parents                                2.59        2.23        2.51
Relatives (other than your parents)    1.93        1.93        1.93
Other family members or family         2.04        1.88        2.01
  friends
High school counselor                  1.39        1.53        1.42
High school teacher                    1.62        1.66        1.63
Previous experience working in the     3.42        3.10        3.35
  industry
High school friends                    1.79        1.77        1.78
College/University counselor           2.05        2.21        2.09
Perception of career opportunities     4.06        4.20        4.10
Enjoy working with people              4.43        4.41        4.42
Enjoy the challenge of the             4.16        4.33        4.20
  hospitality industry
Quality of the Rosen faculty and       3.90        3.91        3.90
  facilities
Friendliness of Rosen faculty,         3.56        3.63        3.58
  staff, & students
Other                                  2.92        2.79        2.90

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 9 How did you obtain information about this program
(AVG Rating)

                                      Caucasian   Non-        TOTAL
                                                  Caucasian   STUDY

Internet/Website                      3.5         3.2         3.4
Friends                               2.2         2.3         2.3
College advisor                       2.3         2.6         2.3
Newspaper or Magazine                 1.5         1.6         1.5
  Article/Advertisement
Brochure from the Rosen College       2.7         2.8         2.7
Parents/Family                        2.2         1.7         2.1
Rosen College campus visit            3.1         3.1         3.1
Talking with current Rosen College    2.7         2.5         2.6
  students or graduates
Other                                 1.9         2.2         1.9

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 10 Sporting Interests by Ethnicity

Sporting        Caucasian   %      Non-        %      TOTAL %
Interests                          Caucasian

Baseball        54          20.6   14          17.1   68        19.8
Basketball      58          22.1   22          26.8   80        23.3
Cheerleading/   63          24.0   26          31.7   89        25.9
  dance team
Crew/rowing     8           3.1    5           6.1    13        3.8
Cross country   14          5.3    5           6.1    19        5.5
Equestrian      19          7.3    2           2.4    21        6.1
Field Hockey    2           0.8    0           0.0    2         0.6
Football        125         47.7   27          32.9   152       44.2
Golf            42          16.0   11          13.4   53        15.4
Gymnastics      36          13.7   16          19.5   52        15.1
Ice Hockey      27          10.3   2           2.4    29        8.4
Lacrosse        12          4.6    1           1.2    13        3.8
Soccer          63          24.0   27          32.9   90        26.2
Softball        39          14.9   8           9.8    47        13.7
Swimming/       68          26.0   21          25.6   89        25.9
  Diving
Tennis          62          23.7   20          24.4   82        23.8
Track and       24          9.2    15          18.3   39        11.3
  Field
Volley Ball     62          23.7   23          28.0   85        24.7
Wrestling       5           1.9    1           1.2    6         1.7
Other           60          22.9   26          31.7   86        25.0
  Athletics
TOTAL           262                82                 344

(Source: Authors' Fieldwork 2008)

TABLE 11 Area of Interest and Ethnicity

AVOCATION                                      Caucasion     %

Honor Society                                     181      64.0%
Community service                                 173      61.1%
Homecoming, formal, or annual prom                110      38.9%
Club sports and intramurals                       108      38.2%
Hospitality Association                           104      36.7%
Religious                                         79       27.9%
Student government                                76       26.9%
Drama/theater                                     76       26.9%
Cultural exchange or study abroad                 56       19.8%
Foreign language club                             53       18.7%
Outdoor recreation                                59       20.8%
Chorus/choir                                      56       19.8%
Eta Sigma Delta Intl. Hospitality                 50       17.7%
  Mgmt.Honor Society
Golden Knights Wine Society                       50       17.7%
Band (including marching band and orchestra)      50       17.7%
Yearbook                                          44       15.5%
Business r entrepreneurship                       43       15.2%
Professional Convention Management                29       10.2%
  Assocition (PCMA
Student Cruise Industry Association               32       11.3%
School newspaper or magazine                      31       11.0%
Math or science clubs                             27       9.5%
Future theme park leaders association             31       11.0%
Visual art and design                             23       8.1%
Hospitality Sales and Management                  22       7.8%
  Association (HSMAI)
Debate                                            21       7.4%
National Society of Minorities in                  5       1.8%
  Hospitality (NSMH)
National Association of Catering Executives       10       3.5%
School radio or television station                13       4.6%
Club Managers Association of America              14       4.9%
TOTAL                                              1626

AVOCATION                                      Non-Caucasion     %

Honor Society                                            45    54.9%
Community service                                        53    64.6%
Homecoming, formal, or annual prom                       37    45.1%
Club sports and intramurals                              31    37.8%
Hospitality Association                                  27    32.9%
Religious                                                22    26.8%
Student government                                       21    25.6%
Drama/theater                                            18    22.0%
Cultural exchange or study abroad                        27    32.9%
Foreign language club                                    26    31.7%
Outdoor recreation                                       17    20.7%
Chorus/choir                                             16    19.5%
Eta Sigma Delta Intl. Hospitality                        20    24.4%
  Mgmt.Honor Society
Golden Knights Wine Society                              16    19.5%
Band (including marching band and orchestra)             15    18.3%
Yearbook                                                 13    15.9%
Business r entrepreneurship                              12    14.6%
Professional Convention Management                       18    22.0%
  Assocition (PCMA
Student Cruise Industry Association                      10    12.2%
School newspaper or magazine                             10    12.2%
Math or science clubs                                    13    15.9%
Future theme park leaders association                     9    11.0%
Visual art and design                                    13    15.9%
Hospitality Sales and Management                         11    13.4%
  Association (HSMAI)
Debate                                                    7    8.5%
National Society of Minorities in                        20    24.4%
  Hospitality (NSMH)
National Association of Catering Executives              11    13.4%
School radio or television station                        7    8.5%
Club Managers Association of America                      2    2.4%
TOTAL                                                   547

AVOCATION                                      TOTAL      %

Honor Society                                    226    61.9%
Community service                                226    61.9%
Homecoming, formal, or annual prom               147    40.3%
Club sports and intramurals                      139    38.1%
Hospitality Association                          131    35.9%
Religious                                        101    27.7%
Student government                                97    26.6%
Drama/theater                                     94    25.8%
Cultural exchange or study abroad                 83    22.7%
Foreign language club                             79    21.6%
Outdoor recreation                                76    20.8%
Chorus/choir                                      72    19.7%
Eta Sigma Delta Intl. Hospitality                 70    19.2%
  Mgmt.Honor Society
Golden Knights Wine Society                       66    18.1%
Band (including marching band and orchestra)      65    17.8%
Yearbook                                          57    15.6%
Business r entrepreneurship                       55    15.1%
Professional Convention Management                47    12.9%
  Assocition (PCMA
Student Cruise Industry Association               42    11.5%
School newspaper or magazine                      41    11.2%
Math or science clubs                             40    11.0%
Future theme park leaders association             40    11.0%
Visual art and design                             36    9.9%
Hospitality Sales and Management                  33    9.0%
  Association (HSMAI)
Debate                                            28    7.7%
National Society of Minorities in                 25    6.8%
  Hospitality (NSMH)
National Association of Catering Executives       21    5.8%
School radio or television station                20    5.5%
Club Managers Association of America              16    4.4%
TOTAL                                           2173

(Source: Authors Fieldwork, 2008)

TABLE 12 Was hospitality your first major?

        Caucasian   %      Non-Caucasian   %

YES     197         67.0   52              60.5
NO      97          33.0   34              39.5
TOTAL   294                86

        TOTAL STUDY   %

YES     249           65.5
NO      131           34.5
TOTAL   380

(Source: Authors Fieldwork 2008)
COPYRIGHT 2012 Historically and Predominantly Black Colleges and Universities Consortium of Hospitality Educators
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
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Author:Scantlebury, Michael; Springall, Robert G.; Dodimeade, Shanna
Publication:Consortium Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management
Date:Feb 1, 2012
Words:5928
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